[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand the dynamic viral evolution observed during failure on raltegravir-containing regimens, we studied the genotypic and phenotypic patterns of resistance to raltegravir and the residual replication capacity (rRC) of HIV-1 variants selected in vivo.
Clonal genotypic analyses were performed on sequential HIV-1 integrase sequences amplified from 11 failing patients and sampled every 4-24 weeks for up to 64 weeks. Fully replicating recombinant viruses were generated using modified vectors in which selected viral integrase genes amplified from patients' plasma were cloned. rRC was measured by a novel multiple cycle competition assay. Resistance to raltegravir and the rRC of resistant HIV-1 variants selected in vivo were evaluated in purified CD4+ T cells.
In all of the patients but one, failure was associated with selection of mutations in positions 143, 148 or 155. Unlike mutations at position 143 (Y143S/K/R), identified alone or in combination with others, mutations at position 148 and 155 were always found in combination. A wide range of resistance levels to raltegravir [from 10- to 770-fold change in 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) compared with baseline] was observed using recombinant viral clones. Finally, rRC was not significantly altered in highly resistant variants.
Two patterns of viral evolution were observed in the resistant viral populations, driving the variants towards a fast (most of them with G140S + Q148H mutations) or progressive increase in resistance to raltegravir. These results may have implications either for the evaluation of genotypic results, or for the correct clinical use of the compound.
Preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyomaviruses KI (KIPyV) and WU (WUPyV) were described recently in children with acute respiratory disease. The pathogenic potential of these human viruses has not been determined completely, but a correlation between immunosuppression and virus reactivation has been suggested. In the present study, the association between KI/WUPyV infection and immunosuppression was investigated using sequential nasopharyngeal aspirates from asymptomatic adult hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. In parallel, an investigation on the WU/KIPyV prevalence in children with acute respiratory disease was also carried out. Two of the 126 samples obtained from the 31 hematopoietic transplant recipients were positive for KIPyV (1 sample, 0.79%) and WUPyV (1 sample, 0.79%). Both samples were obtained 15 days after allogeneic transplantation and virus persistence was not observed in subsequent samples. In symptomatic children, 7 of the 486 nasopharyngeal aspirates were positive for WUPyV (1.4%) and 1 for KIPyV (0.2%). Single polyomavirus infection was detected in four patients, whereas the remaining patients were co-infected with respiratory syncityal virus (three patients) or adenovirus (one patient). The results suggest that WU/KIPyVs have a limited circulation in Italy and a low pathogenic potential in young children. Brief and asymptomatic infection can occur in hematopoietic transplant recipients.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Journal of Medical Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : Evaluate HIV-1 subtype B integrase gene evolution in patients failing raltegravir (RAL)-based savage regimens by clonal analysis of the replicating viral quasispecies.
: Seven triple class failure HIV-1 (subtype B)-infected patients, followed at San Raffaele Hospital and enrolled in the RAL Expanded Access Program (MK0518-023), were evaluated. Patients were followed up for 24-48 weeks and due to the absence of other active drugs, RAL was maintained in their regimens even if resistance mutations were detected.
: Immunologic and virologic parameters were recorded every 4 weeks, and amplification and clonal analysis of viral populations were performed at baseline and every 4-12 weeks in all patients.
: Resistance to RAL appeared initially associated with selection of single variants (Y143R, Q148R N155H) in the majority of patients; however, in three patients, complex patterns of viral mutations were observed. The clonal analysis of viral quasispecies allowed to describe the evolution of each viral population and the progressive accumulation of RAL resistance-associated mutations and polymorphisms associated with therapy failure.
: The complex patterns of resistance mutations observed, including novel variants evolved under continuous RAL pressure, suggesting that they are the result of the equilibrium between drug resistance and enzyme function. Despite the efficacy of this compound, our data discourage its use in a functional monotherapy and maintaining RAL even in presence of RAL resistance-associated mutations may lead to the progressive formation of viral reservoirs with multiple integrase inhibitor-resistant variants that may limit the future efficacy of other integrase inhibitors due to cross-resistance.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · AIDS (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The characteristics of intra-host human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) env evolution were evaluated in untreated HIV-1-infected subjects with different patterns of disease progression, including 2 normal progressor [NP], and 5 Long term non-progressor [LTNP] patients. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of the C2-C5 env gene sequences of the replicating HIV-1 was performed in sequential samples collected over a 3-5 year period; overall, 301 HIV-1 genomic RNA sequences were amplified from plasma samples, cloned, sequenced and analyzed. Firstly, the evolutionary rate was calculated separately in the 3 codon positions. In all LTNPs, the 3rd codon mutation rate was equal or even lower than that observed at the 1st and 2nd positions (p = 0.016), thus suggesting strong ongoing positive selection. A Bayesian approach and a maximum-likelihood (ML) method were used to estimate the rate of virus evolution within each subject and to detect positively selected sites respectively. A great number of N-linked glycosylation sites under positive selection were identified in both NP and LTNP subjects. Viral sequences from 4 of the 5 LTNPs showed extensive positive selective pressure on the CD4-binding site (CD4bs). In addition, localized pressure in the area of the IgG-b12 epitope, a broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibody targeting the CD4bs, was documented in one LTNP subject, using a graphic colour grade 3-dimensional visualization. Overall, the data shown here documenting high selective pressure on the HIV-1 CD4bs of a group of LTNP subjects offers important insights for planning novel strategies for the immune control of HIV-1 infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prospective 2-year analysis including 322 infant patients with acute respiratory disease (ARD) hospitalized in a pediatric department in northern Italy was carried out to evaluate the role as respiratory pathogens or co-pathogens of recently identified viruses. The presence of respiratory syncitial virus (RSV), human Metapneumoviruses (hMPVs), human Bocaviruses (hBoVs), and human Coronaviruses (hCoVs) was assayed by molecular detection and clinical symptoms evaluated. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from 150 of the 322 infants (46.6%) tested positive for at least one pathogen. Ninety samples (28.0%) tested positive for RSV RNA (61.5% genotype A and 38.5% genotype B), 46 (14.3%) for hMPV RNA (71.7% subtype A and 28.3% subtype B), 28 (8.7%) for hCoV RNA (39.3% hCoV-OC43, 35.7% hCoV-NL63, 21.4% hCoV-HKU1, and 3.6% hCoV-229E), and 7 (2.2%) for hBoV DNA (of the 6 typed, 50% subtype 1 and 50% subtype 2); 21/150 samples revealed the presence of 2 or more viruses. Co-infection rates were higher for hMPVs, hCoVs, and hBoV (38.3%, 46.4%, and 57.1%,) and lower for RSV (23.3%). RSV was associated with the presence of complications (P < 0.001) and hypoxia (P < 0.015). When the presence of RSV alone and the RSV-hMPV co-infections were considered, RSV mono-infected patients resulted to have longer hospitalization and higher hypoxia (P < 0.001). The data highlight that (i) RSV has a central role as a respiratory pathogen of infants, (ii) the wide circulation of recently identified viruses does not reduce the clinical and epidemiological importance of RSV, and that (iii) recently identified agents (hMPVs, hBoVs, and hCoVs) act as primary pathogens or co-pathogens.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Journal of Medical Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From October 2004 through October 2006 a study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) infection in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Sequential nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) were collected independently from respiratory symptoms and evaluated for hMPV-RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis. Results indicate epidemiological and molecular differences between the 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 periods and that hMPV seems not to symptomatically affect HSCT patients or cause late respiratory sequelae. In addition, data collected suggest a hospital origin of hMPV infection in most HSCT patients during the 2004-2005 period.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sequential nasopharyngeal aspirates from patients without respiratory symptoms undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
(HSCT) were tested for genomic RNA of human metapneumovirus (hMPV). Persistent hMPV infection was documented in most of them
and confirmed by virus isolation. hMPV infection etiology was also evaluated during the same period in samples from pediatric
patients with acute respiratory diseases (ARDs). Sequence analysis of hMPV in HSCT recipients documented infection by hMPV
genotype A and strong interhost similarity; this pattern differs from that observed in pediatric patients with ARDs. The data
indicate that HSCT recipients may frequently develop symptomless hMPV infection
Preview · Article · Sep 2006 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases