Elva I Cortés-Gutiérrez

Mexican Institute of Social Security, Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico

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Publications (89)100.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. The hormone leptin, which is produced in the adipose tissue, may influence tumorigenesis directly via its receptor (Ob-R). Thus, a role for Ob-R in endometrial carcinogenesis has been proposed. However, most studies neither included samples of the entire histological progression of endometrial carcinoma nor examined Ob-R jointly with the estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR, respectively). The obesity and their changes during endometrial carcinogenesis are well documented. Material and Methods. To determine the fluctuations of Ob-R, ER, and PR during the histological progression of endometrial carcinoma, we assessed their expression via immunohistochemistry (ICH) in six histological types of endometrium (proliferative, secretory, nonatypical and atypical hyperplasia, and endometrioid and nonendometrioid endometrial carcinoma), in which we performed histopathological and digital scoring for the quantification of receptors. Results. We found that Ob-R expression was positively correlated with that of ER and PR, as well as a significant difference in Ob-R expression among proliferative normal endometrium, hyperplasias, and carcinomas, according to their relative digitally scored Ob-R expression (high to low). In addition, we observed that Ob-R expression in the secretory endometrium was more similar to that of carcinomas than to its proliferative counterpart. Conclusion. These results indicate that Ob-R expression fluctuates during endometrial carcinogenesis in correlation with ER and PR, suggesting that Ob-R expression in vivo is highly dependent on estrogen and progesterone activities in the endometrium and on its ER and PR status, as suggested previously by in vitro studies.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2016 · Archives of Medical Science
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a hospital-based, unmatched case-control study to investigate the association between progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and digital analysis of cell proliferation by silver stained nucleolus organizer region associated proteins (AgNORs). We measured cell proliferation levels in the cervical epithelial cells of 10 women with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL), eight with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HG-SIL), 11 with cervical cancer (CC) and eight with no cervical lesions (controls) using the AgNORs technique. Cell proliferation was measured by digital image analysis (DIA). DIA revealed increased total areas of AgNORs in HG-SIL and CC compared to LG-SIL and control patients. AgNORs with a kidney or cluster shape exhibited greater areas than those with a spherical or long shape. We propose a cut-off of 118 pixels to differentiate benign (control and LG-SIL) from malignant (HG-SIL and CC) lesions. DIA of AgNORs is a simple and inexpensive method for studying proliferation. The increased total area of AgNORs in malignant lesions provides information regarding cell behavior and may be related to cervical carcinogenesis; however, further validation studies are required to establish its usefulness in cytological analysis.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Biotechnic & Histochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Objetivos: Evaluar la percepción materna del peso del hijo (PMPH) y la percepción del peso de niños no emparentados. Diseño: Transversal. Emplazamiento: Departamento de Enfermería Materno Infantil en 6 Unidades de Medicina Familiar. Participantes: 486 diadas (madre e hijo menor de un año). Mediciones principales: Se aplicó la pregunta: «Creo que mi niño/a está», e imágenes de acuerdo al sexo del hijo. Se midieron peso y talla a los lactantes. Resultados: El 20,5% de madres de hijos con sobrepeso (SP) percibieron de forma adecuada esta situación y ninguna de las madres de hijos con obesidad (OB) ( =0,14±0,03, Z=5,36, p = 0,001). Por imágenes, el 63,3% de las madres de hijos con SP y el 33,3% de madres de hijos con OB percibieron está situación ( = 0,01 ± 0,02, Z = 0,73, p = 0,46). La mayoría de las madres seleccionaron la imagen de un niño con SP como la imagen de un niño sano ( = -0,04 ± 0,01, Z=-2,65, p=0,008), la imagen de un niño menor de un año ( =-0,01±0,02, Z=-0,86, p=0,38) y la imagen que le gustaría para su hijo ( = 0,0004 ± 0,01, Z = 0,02, p = 0,98). Conclusión: Las madres no perciben el SP-OB de su hijo.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Atención Primaria
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    ABSTRACT: The concentrations of recognized or suspected genotoxic and carcinogenic agents found in the air of large cities in developed and, in particular, developing countries have raised concerns about the potential for chronic health effects in the populations exposed to them. The biomonitoring of environmental genotoxicity requires the selection of representative organisms as “sentinels,” as well as the development of suitable and sensitive assays, such as those aimed at assessing DNA damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage levels in erythrocytes from Columba livia living in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico, compared with control animals via comet assay, and to confirm the results via Micronuclei test (MN) and DNA breakage detection–Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (DBD–FISH). Our results showed a significant increase in DNA migration in animals from the area assayed compared with that observed in control animals sampled in non-contaminated areas. These results were confirmed by MN test and DBD–FISH. In conclusion, these observations confirm that the examination of erythrocytes from Columba livia via alkaline comet assay provides a sensitive and reliable end point for the detection of environmental genotoxicants.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a hospital-based, unmatched case-control study to investigate the association between progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and digital analysis of cell proliferation by silver stained nucleolus organizer region associated proteins (AgNORs). We measured cell proliferation levels in the cervical epithelial cells of 10 women with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL), eight with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HG-SIL), 11 with cervical cancer (CC) and eight with no cervical lesions (controls) using the AgNORs technique. Cell proliferation was measured by digital image analysis (DIA). DIA revealed increased total areas of AgNORs in HG-SIL and CC compared to LG-SIL and control patients. AgNORs with a kidney or cluster shape exhibited greater areas than those with a spherical or long shape. We propose a cut-off of 118 pixels to differentiate benign (control and LG-SIL) from malignant (HG-SIL and CC) lesions. DIA of AgNORs is a simple and inexpensive method for studying proliferation. The increased total area of AgNORs in malignant lesions provides information regarding cell behavior and may be related to cervical carcinogenesis; however, further validation studies are required to establish its usefulness in cytological analysis.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Biotechnic and Histochemistry
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    Full-text · Dataset · Oct 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Linear Array® (LA) genotyping test is one of the most used methodologies for Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping, in that it is able to detect 37 HPV genotypes and co-infections in the same sample. However, the assay is limited to a restricted number of HPV, and sequence variations in the detection region of the HPV probes could give false negatives results. Recently, 454 Next-Generation sequencing (NGS) technology has been efficiently used also for HPV genotyping; this methodology is based on massive sequencing of HPV fragments and is expected to be highly specific and sensitive. In this work, we studied HPV prevalence in cervixes of women in Western Mexico by LA and confirmed the genotypes found by NGS. Methods: Two hundred thirty three cervical samples from women Without cervical lesions (WCL, n = 48), with Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN I, n = 98), or with Cervical cancer (CC, n = 87) were recruited, DNA was extracted, and HPV positivity was determined by PCR amplification using PGMY09/11 primers. All HPV- positive samples were genotyped individually by LA. Additionally, pools of amplicons from the PGMY-PCR products were sequenced using 454 NGS technology. Results obtained by NGS were compared with those of LA for each group of samples. Results: We identified 35 HPV genotypes, among which 30 were identified by both technologies; in addition, the HPV genotypes 32, 44, 74, 102 and 114 were detected by NGS. These latter genotypes, to our knowledge, have not been previously reported in Mexican population. Furthermore, we found that LA did not detect, in some diagnosis groups, certain HPV genotypes included in the test, such as 6, 11, 16, 26, 35, 51, 58, 68, 73, and 89, which indicates possible variations at the species level. Conclusions: There are HPV genotypes in Mexican population that cannot be detected by LA, which is, at present, the most complete commercial genotyping test. More studies are necessary to determine the impact of HPV-44, 74, 102 and 114 on the risk of developing CC. A greater number of samples must be analyzed by NGS for the most accurate determination of Mexican HPV variants.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Virology Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluation of DNA integrity is an important test, possessing greater diagnostic and prognostic significance for couples requiring assisted reproduction. In this study, we evaluate the levels of DNA damage in infertile patients with varicocele with respect to fertile males by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test. The presence of DNA breaks in spermatozoa was confirmed by DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). In this study, the frequency of sperm cells with fragmented DNA was studied in a group of 20 infertile patients with varicocele and compared with 20 fertile males. The spermatozoa were processed to classify different levels of DNA fragmentation using the Halosperm(®) kit, an improved SCD test, and DBD-FISH. Patients with varicocele showed 25.54 ± 28.17 % of spermatozoa with fragmented DNA, significantly higher than those of the group of fertile subjects (11.54 ± 3.88 %). The proportion of degraded cells in total sperm cells with fragmented DNA was sixfold higher in the case of patients with varicocele. The presence of DNA breaks in spermatozoa was confirmed by DBD-FISH. 5-bp Classical satellite-2 regions showed greater sensitivity to damage or "breakage" than alphoid satellite regions. Our finding preliminary demonstrated an increase of DNA fragmentation associated to severe sperm damage, in infertile patients with varicocele with respect to fertile males. 5-bp Classical satellite-2 regions showed greater sensitivity to damage or "breakage" than alphoid satellite regions.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Archives of Gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: The localisation and quantification of constitutive alkali-labile sites (ALSs) were investigated using a protocol of DNA breakage detection plus fluorescence in situ hybridisation (DBD-FISH) and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or comet assay), in spermatozoa of infertile and fertile men. Semen samples from 10 normozoospermic patients undergoing infertility treatment and 10 fertile men were included in this study. ALSs were localised and quantified by DBD-FISH. The region most sensitive to alkali treatment in human spermatozoa was located in the basal region of the head. ALSs were more frequent in spermatozoa of infertile men than in those of fertile men. These results were confirmed by SCGE comet assays. In conclusion, the most intense localisation of hybridisation signals in human spermatozoa, representing the highest density of constitutive ALSs, was not randomly distributed and was predominantly located in the base of the head. Moreover, infertile men presented with an increase in ALS frequency. Further studies are necessary to determine the association between ALS, sperm chromatin organisation and infertility.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Andrologia
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    ABSTRACT: DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) is a procedure to detect and quantify DNA breaks in single cells, either in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. This methodology combines microgel embedding of cells and DNA unwinding procedures with the power of FISH coupled to digital image analysis. Cells trapped within an agarose matrix are lysed and immersed in an alkaline unwinding solution that produces single-stranded DNA motifs beginning at the ends of internal DNA strand breaks. After neutralization, the microgel is dehydrated and the cells are incubated with fluorescently labeled DNA probes. The amount of hybridized probe at a target sequence correlates with the amount of single-stranded DNA generated during the unwinding step, which is in turn proportional to the degree of local DNA breakage. A general view of the technique is provided, emphasizing its versatility for evaluating the association between DNA damage and progressive stages of cervical neoplasia.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Methods in Molecular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Sperm DNA damage is associated with fertilization failure, impaired pre-and post- embryo implantation and poor pregnancy outcome. A series of methodologies to assess DNA damage in spermatozoa have been developed but most are unable to differentiate between single-stranded DNA breaks (SSBs) and double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) on the same sperm cell. The two-dimensional Two-Tailed Comet assay (TT-comet) protocol highlighted in this review overcomes this limitation and emphasizes the importance in accounting for difference in sperm protamine composition at a species-specific level for the appropriate preparation of the assay. The TT-comet is a modification of the original comet assay that uses a two dimensional electrophoresis to allow for the simultaneous evaluation of relatively high numbers of DSBs and SSBs in mammalian spermatozoa. Here we have compiled a retrospective overview of how the TT-comet assay has been used to investigate the structure and function of sperm DNA across a diverse range of mammalian species (eutheria, metatheria and prototheria). When conducted as part of the TT-comet assay, we discuss how (a) the alkaline comet single assay has been used to help understand the constitutive and transient changes in DNA structure associated with chromatin packing, (b) the capacity of the TT-comet to differentiate between the presence of SSBs and DSBs (c) and the possible implications of SSBs or DSBs for the assessment of infertility.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Frontiers in Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to generate a dose–response curve using the DNA breakage detection–fluorescent in situ hybridization (DBD–FISH) test as a biomarker of initial genetic effects induced by high doses of X-rays. A dose–response curve was obtained by measuring the ex vivo responses to increasing doses (0–50 Gy) of X-rays in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of ten healthy donors. The overall dose–response curve was constructed using integrated density (ID; area × fluorescence intensity) as a measure of genetic damage induced by irradiation. The correlation coefficient was high (r = 0.934, b 0 = 10.408, and b 1 = 0.094). One-way ANOVA with the Student–Newman–Keuls test for multiple comparisons showed significant differences among the average ln ID values according to dose. Our results suggest the usefulness of the DBD–FISH technique for measuring intrinsic individual cellular radio sensitivity ex vivo.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Biophysik
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is a degenerative chronic disease that is classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a global pandemic, belonging to the group of chronic diseases which are the leading cause of mortality and represent more 60% of all deaths in the world. As a preventive measure have recently emerged predictive risk calculators allowing healthy individuals to prevent the onset of chronic degenerative diseases such as DM2. Objective. To know the risk of DM2 (RDM2) in people without the diagnosis of the disease by using the online calculator of the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Material and Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional design was carried out. This study was conducted on 186 people (122 women and 64 men) whose four grandparents were born in Northeast Mexico. The mean age was 36.92 ± 11.15 years. To obtain the RDM2, the ADA online calculator was used and this calculator gives a score with three risk categories: Without risk (score 0), low risk (score 1-4), and high risk (score ≥5). Measurements of height and weight plus a certificate of personal data were conducted. For data analysis a descriptive statistics was used. Results. The distribution of the three categorical RDM2 of 186 people for no risk, low risk and high risk was 8.1 (15) 66.1% (123) and 25.8% (48), respectively. Conclusions. These are the first results from a Mexican population. Therefore it will be important to conduct a national map of RDM2. The following is recommended: In persons at high risk (score ≥5) through education programs provide guidance on the importance of controlling his/her RDM2 using this online calculator. The nurses implement timely interventions by using this online calculator.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is a degenerative chronic disease that is classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a global pandemic, belonging to the group of chronic diseases which are the leading cause of mortality and represent more 60% of all deaths in the world. As a preventive measure have recently emerged predictive risk calculators allowing healthy individuals to prevent the onset of chronic degenerative diseases such as DM2. Objective. To know the risk of DM2 (RDM2) in people without the diagnosis of the disease by using the online calculator of the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Material and Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional design was carried out. This study was conducted on 186 people (122 women and 64 men) whose four grandparents were born in Northeast Mexico. The mean age was 36.92 ± 11.15 years. To obtain the RDM2, the ADA online calculator was used and this calculator gives a score with three risk categories: Without risk (score 0), low risk (score 1-4), and high risk (score ≥5). Measurements of height and weight plus a certificate of personal data were conducted. For data analysis a descriptive statistics was used. Results. The distribution of the three categorical RDM2 of 186 people for no risk, low risk and high risk was 8.1 (15) 66.1% (123) and 25.8% (48), respectively. Conclusions. These are the first results from a Mexican population. Therefore it will be important to conduct a national map of RDM2. The following is recommended: In persons at high risk (score ≥5) through education programs provide guidance on the importance of controlling his/her RDM2 using this online calculator. The nurses implement timely interventions by using this online calculator.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
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    Elva I. Cortes-Gutierrez · Martha I. Davila-Rodriguez · Ricardo M. Cerda-Flores
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the third most common cancer in women worldwide and the most common cancer among Mexican and Latin American women. Risk factors that have been associated with the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia suggest that Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types 16, 18, 31, and 33 entail a high risk of developing a malignancy of this type. The accumulation of genetic alterations allows the growth of neoplastic cells; chromosomal instability is an event that occurs in the precancerous stages. The candidate cancer risk biomarkers include cytogenetic endpoints, such as chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, micronuclei, and the outcomes of comet assay and DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization. The patterns identified in these cytogenetic studies indicate that chromosomal instability is a transient and chromosomally unstable intermediate in the development of cervical lesions. In this context, the mechanisms that may underlie the progressive increase in genetic instability in these patients seem to be related directly to HPV infection. The studies discussed in this paper show that chromosomal instability may serve as a biomarker by predicting the progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Nevertheless, these results should be validated in larger, prospective studies.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Cytology and Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Chromosomal abnormalities are present in 2-4 % of all newborns, and they cause 20 % of deaths in the first year of life. The estimated prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities is one for each 500-1000 newborns. These abnormalities can be numerical or structural, and they can affect autosomal or sexual chromosomes. They affect from 1 to 3 % of general population, and from 6 to 7 % of individuals with congenital anomalies. Descriptive study, which included all the registries of cytogenetic analysis (of adults and newborns) made in a genetic laboratory in a period of 14 years. The prevalence of polymorphisms and chromosomal abnormalities in the patients from the Hospital de Ginecoobstetricia 23, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Monterrey, Nuevo León) was assessed. Of 4006 cytogenetic studies, 253 (6.3 %) did not show in vitro growth, 2667 (66.5 %) were normal, and 1175 (29.3 %) were abnormal. Of these, 614 (52.2 %) had polymorphisms, and 561 (47.7 %) structural or numerical chromosomal abnormalities. In regards to these chromosomopathies (561), trisomy 21 was observed in 429 (36.5 %); Turner's syndrome, in 84 (7.1 %); trisomy 18, in 57 (4.8 %); and trisomy 13, in 32 (2.7 %). With G-band technique, we found 93 % of in vitro cell growth. Of these studies, 55 % was performed due to non-numerical abnormalities; 14.4 %, due to structural abnormalities; and the rest, due to polymorphisms.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Revista medica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
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    ABSTRACT: The aetiological relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer (CC) is widely accepted. Our goal was to determine the prevalence of HPV types in Mexican women attending at the Mexican Institute for Social Security from different areas of Mexico. DNAs from 2,956 cervical samples were subjected to HPV genotyping: 1,020 samples with normal cytology, 931 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL), 481 with high grade HGSIL and 524 CC. Overall HPV prevalence was 67.1%. A total of 40 HPV types were found; HPV16 was detected in 39.4% of the HPV-positive samples followed by HPV18 at 7.5%, HPV31 at 7.1%, HPV59 at 4.9%, and HPV58 at 3.2%. HPV16 presented the highest prevalence both in women with altered or normal cytology and HPV 18 presented a minor prevalence as reported worldwide. The prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated for the HPV types. The analysis of PR showed that HPV16 presents the highest association with CC, HPV 31, -33, -45, -52 and -58 also demonstrating a high association. The most prevalent HPV types in cervical cancer samples were -16, -18, -31, but it is important to note that we obtained a minor prevalence of HPV18 as reported worldwide, and that HPV58 and -52 also were genotypes with an important prevalence in CC samples. Determination of HPV genotypes is very important in order to evaluate the impact of vaccine introduction and future cervical cancer prevention strategies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of constitutive alkali-labile sites (ALS) has been investigated using a protocol of DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization and comet assay in spermatozoa of donkey (Equus asinus) and stallion (Equus caballus). These results were compared with those obtained using a similar experimental approach using somatic cells. The relative abundance of ALS was of the order of four times more in spermatozoa than in somatic cells. Alkali-labile sites showed a tendency to cluster localized at the equatorial-distal regions of the sperm. The amount of hybridized signal in the ALS in the sperm of donkey (Equus asinus) was 1.3 times greater than in stallion (Equus caballus), and the length of the comet tail obtained in donkey sperm was 1.6 times longer than that observed in stallion (P < 0.05); however, these differences were not appreciated in somatic cells. In conclusion, ALS localization in sperm is not a randomized event and a different pattern of ALS distribution occurs for each species. These results suggest that ALS represents a species-specific issue related to chromatin organization in sperm and somatic cells in mammalian species, and they might diverge even with very short phylogenetic distances.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Theriogenology
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL), 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL), and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences