- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sensory perception emerges from the confluence of sensory inputs that encode the composition of external environment and top-down feedback that conveys information from higher brain centers. In olfaction, sensory input activity is initially processed in the olfactory bulb (OB), serving as the first central relay before being transferred to the olfactory cortex. In addition, the OB receives dense connectivity from feedback projections, so the OB has the capacity to implement a wide array of sensory neuronal computation. However, little is known about the impact and the regulation of this cortical feedback. Here, we describe a novel mechanism to gate glutamatergic feedback selectively from the anterior olfactory cortex (AOC) to the OB. Combining in vitro and in vivo electrophysiological recordings, optogenetics, and fiber-photometry-based calcium imaging applied to wild-type and conditional transgenic mice, we explore the functional consequences of circuit-specific GABA type-B receptor (GABABR) manipulation. We found that activation of presynaptic GABABRs specifically depresses synaptic transmission from the AOC to OB inhibitory interneurons, but spares direct excitation to principal neurons. As a consequence, feedforward inhibition of spontaneous and odor-evoked activity of principal neurons is diminished. Wealso show that tunable cortico-bulbar feedback is critical for generating beta, but not gamma, OB oscillations. Together, these results show that GABABRs on cortico-bulbar afferents gate excitatory transmission in a target-specific manner and thus shape how the OB integrates sensory inputs and top-down information.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For a long time, the mammalian brain has been perceived to be a static organ. However, the discovery of adult neurogenesis in most mammalian species, including humans, monkeys, and rodents, has disrupted this view. As this continuous regeneration has an effect on established behavioral patterns, it holds promising therapeutic potential. However, before harnessing this potential regenerative power, we must understand what effects new neurons have on existing brain circuits. Ongoing research contributes to several important steps toward bridging the gap between adult-born neurons, circuits, and behavior. The study of adult neurogenesis in different neurogenic regions from a systems neuroscience perspective will pave the way to understanding how it supports adaptive behavior and why its dysfunction correlates with some human brain disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The production of new neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) through adulthood is a major mechanism of structural and functional plasticity underlying learning-induced circuit remodeling. The recruitment of adult-born OB neurons depends not only on sensory input but also on the context in which the olfactory stimulus is received. Among the multiple steps of adult neurogenesis, the integration and survival of adult-born neurons are both strongly influenced by olfactory learning. Conversely, optogenetic stimulation of adult-born neurons has been shown to specifically improve olfactory learning and long-term memory. However, the nature of the circuit and the synaptic mechanisms underlying this reciprocal influence are not yet known. Here, we showed that olfactory learning increases the spine density in a region-restricted manner along the dendritic tree of adult-born granule cells (GCs). Anatomical and electrophysiological analysis of adult-born GCs showed that olfactory learning promotes a remodeling of both excitatory and inhibitory inputs selectively in the deep dendritic domain. Circuit mapping revealed that the malleable dendritic portion of adult-born neurons receives excitatory inputs mostly from the regions of the olfactory cortex that project back to the OB. Finally, selective optogenetic stimulation of olfactory cortical projections to the OB showed that learning strengthens these inputs onto adult-born GCs. We conclude that learning promotes input-specific synaptic plasticity in adult-born neurons, which reinforces the top-down influence from the olfactory cortex to early stages of olfactory information processing.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hunger arouses sensory perception, eventually leading to an increase in food intake, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We found that cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors promote food intake in fasted mice by increasing odor detection. CB1 receptors were abundantly expressed on axon terminals of centrifugal cortical glutamatergic neurons that project to inhibitory granule cells of the main olfactory bulb (MOB). Local pharmacological and genetic manipulations revealed that endocannabinoids and exogenous cannabinoids increased odor detection and food intake in fasted mice by decreasing excitatory drive from olfactory cortex areas to the MOB. Consistently, cannabinoid agonists dampened in vivo optogenetically stimulated excitatory transmission in the same circuit. Our data indicate that cortical feedback projections to the MOB crucially regulate food intake via CB1 receptor signaling, linking the feeling of hunger to stronger odor processing. Thus, CB1 receptor-dependent control of cortical feedback projections in olfactory circuits couples internal states to perception and behavior.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mammals, olfactory bulb granule cells (GCs) are generated throughout life in the subventricular zone. GABAergic inputs onto newborn neurons likely regulate their maturation, but the details of this process remain still elusive. Here, we investigated the differentiation, synaptic integration, and survival of adult-born GCs when their afferent GABAergic inputs are challenged by conditional gene targeting. Migrating GC precursors were targeted with Cre-eGFP-expressing lentiviral vectors in mice with a floxed gene encoding the GABA(A) receptor α2-subunit (i.e., Gabra2). Ablation of the α2-subunit did not affect GC survival but dramatically delayed their maturation. We found a reduction in postsynaptic α2-subunit and gephyrin clusters accompanied by a decrease in the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic postsynaptic currents beginning ∼14 d post-injection (dpi). In addition, mutant cells exhibited altered dendritic branching and spine density. Spine loss appeared with mislocation of glutamatergic synapses on dendritic shafts and a reduction of spontaneous glutamatergic postsynaptic currents, underscoring the relevance of afferent GABAergic transmission for a proper synaptic integration of newborn GCs. To test the role of GABAergic signaling during much early stages of GC maturation, we used a genetic strategy to selectively inactivate Gabra2 in precursor cells of the subventricular zone. In these mice, labeling of newborn GCs with eGFP lentiviruses revealed similar morphological alterations as seen on delayed Gabra2 inactivation in migrating neuroblasts, with reduced dendritic branching and spine density at 7 dpi. Collectively, these results emphasize the critical role of GABAergic synaptic signaling for structural maturation of adult-born GCs and formation of glutamatergic synapses.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuronal precursors are continuously integrated into the adult olfactory bulb (OB). The vast majority of these precursor cells originates from the subventricular zone and migrates along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) en route to the OB. This process, called postnatal neurogenesis, results from intricate pathways depending both on cell-autonomous factors and extrinsic regulation provided by the local environment. Using electroporation in postnatal mice to label neuronal precursors with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and to reduce the expression levels of doublecortin (DCX) with short-hairpin (Sh) RNA, we investigated the consequences of impairing migration on the fate of postnatal-formed neurons. First, we showed that electroporation of Dcx ShRNA plasmid efficiently knocks down the expression of DCX and disrupts cells migration along the RMS. Second, we found misplaced anomalous migrating cells that displayed defects in polarity and directionality. Third, patch-clamp recordings performed at 5-7 days post-electroporation (dpe) revealed increased density of voltage-dependent Na(+) channels and enhanced responsiveness to GABA(A) receptor agonist. At later time points (i.e., 12 and 30 dpe), most of the Dcx ShRNA(+) cells developed in the core of the OB and displayed aberrant dendritic length and branching. Additional analysis revealed the formation of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic inputs on the mispositioned neurons. Finally, quantifying fate determination by numbering the proportion of GFP(+)/calretinin(+) newborn neurons revealed that Dcx ShRNA(+) cells acquire mature phenotype despite their immature location. We conclude that altering the pace of migration at early stages of postnatal neurogenesis profoundly modifies the tightly orchestrated steps of neuronal maturation, and unveils the influence of microenvironment on controlling neuronal development in the postnatal forebrain.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In adult mammals, thousands of new neurons integrate in the olfactory bulb (OB) each day. This process of adult neurogenesis has received a great deal of scientific attention aimed at understanding how mature neural networks withstand neuronal replacement, and medical interest to explore the promise that these cells may be manipulated for brain repair therapies. In the present review, we focus on the mechanisms and consequences of the functional integration of newborn interneurons in the OB network. We first describe the steps of synaptic integration and functional maturation of adult-born interneurons in the OB. We then examine the physiological control of cell maturation and survival. Finally, we explore the potential impact of adult neurogenesis on the function of the OB.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The olfactory bulb (OB) receives and integrates newborn interneurons throughout life. This process is important for the proper functioning of the OB circuit and consequently, for the sense of smell. Although we know how these new interneurons are produced, the way in which they integrate into the pre-existing ongoing circuits remains poorly documented. Bearing in mind that glutamatergic inputs onto local OB interneurons are crucial for adjusting the level of bulbar inhibition, it is important to characterize when and how these inputs from excitatory synapses develop on newborn OB interneurons. We studied early synaptic events that lead to the formation and maturation of the first glutamatergic synapses on adult-born granule cells (GCs), the most abundant subtype of OB interneuron. Patch-clamp recordings and electron microscopy (EM) analysis were performed on adult-born interneurons shortly after their arrival in the adult OB circuits. We found that both the ratio of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), and the number of functional release sites at proximal inputs reached a maximum during the critical period for the sensory-dependent survival of newborn cells, well before the completion of dendritic arborization. EM analysis showed an accompanying change in postsynaptic density shape during the same period of time. Interestingly, the latter morphological changes disappeared in more mature newly-formed neurons, when the NMDAR to AMPAR ratio had decreased and functional presynaptic terminals expressed only single release sites. Together, these findings show that the first glutamatergic inputs to adult-generated OB interneurons undergo a unique sequence of maturation stages.
Dataset: Additional file 5[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supplementary Figure 5: Axon terminals make contacts with both adult-born and pre-existing GCs. A large axon terminal (Ax: red) makes two synapses with a GFP-positive dendrite (GC at 7 days post-injection: green) and a GFP-negative dendrite (a presumptive pre-existing GC: blue). Arrows point to the postsynaptic density. Note that the synapse onto the GFP-positive profile has a complex morphology and shows clear perforation. Scale bar = 50 nm.
Dataset: Additional file 1[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supplementary Figure 1: Classification of developing adult-generated granule cells (GCs). (A) Relationship between length of apical dendrite and maximal Na+ current evoked by a depolarizing step pulse. Adult-born GCs were classified according to Na+ current amplitude, with white, gray and black circles representing classes 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Apical dendrites elongated during maturation. (B) Inverse correlation between the input membrane resistance (Rin) and maximum Na+ current amplitude evoked by a depolarizing step pulse. (C) Plots of maximum Na+ current amplitude evoked by a depolarizing voltage step versus days post-injection (dpi) of virus. (D) Records from various newborn GCs after viral injection. Note the absence of clear boundaries among classes.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein essential for multiple aspects of neuronal mRNA metabolism. Its absence leads to the fragile X syndrome, the most prevalent genetic form of mental retardation. The anatomical landmark of the disease, also present in the Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mice, is the hyperabundance of immature-looking lengthened dendritic spines. We used the well known continuous production of adult-born granule cells (GCs) in the mouse olfactory bulb (OB) to analyze the consequences of Fmrp loss on the differentiation of GCs. Morphological analysis of GCs in the Fmr1 KO mice showed an increase in spine density without a change in spine length. We developed an RNA interference strategy to cell-autonomously mutate Fmr1 in a wild-type OB network. Mutated GCs displayed an increase in spine density and spine length. Detailed analysis of the spines through immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and electrophysiology surprisingly showed that, despite these abnormalities, spines receive normal glutamatergic synapses, and thus that mutated adult-born neurons are synaptically integrated into the OB circuitry. Time-course analysis of the spine defects showed that Fmrp cell-autonomously downregulates the level and rate of spine production and limits their overgrowth. Finally, we report that Fmrp does not regulate dendritogenesis in standard conditions but is necessary for activity-dependent dendritic remodeling. Overall, our study of Fmrp in the context of adult neurogenesis has enabled us to carry out a precise dissection of the role of Fmrp in neuronal differentiation and underscores its pleiotropic involvement in both spinogenesis and dendritogenesis.
Dataset: Additional file 3[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supplementary Figure 3: Developmental change of 3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-mediated outward currents at depolarized membrane potentials. (A) Typical traces. After AMPAR-mediated and N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated currents were recorded at the holding potential of +40 mV, 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX) was applied to obtain NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Traces were derived from the subtraction of NMDAR-mediated EPSCs from AMPAR-mediated and NMDAR-mediated currents. Scale bar = 1 ms and 1 pA. (B) The amplitude of AMPAR-mediated EPSCs was much higher in class 5 than in class 3 cells (class 3: 1.43 ± 0.43; class 4: 1.52 ± 0.34; class 5: 7.69 ± 3.15) (class 3 versus class 5, *P < 0.05) (class 3: six slices, six mice; class 4: eight slices, eight mice; class 5: four slices, four mice).
Dataset: Additional file 2[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supplementary Figure 2: Proximal synaptic responses evoked by minimal stimulation. Gradually increasing stimulus intensity abruptly evoked events in an all-or-none manner. Open and closed circles indicate response success and failure, respectively. Unitary response amplitude was confirmed to be constant by a small increase in the stimulus intensity.
Dataset: Additional file 4[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supplementary Figure 4: Ca2+-permeable AMPARs in class 3 GCs. (A) (Black) AMPAR-mediated EPSCs at the holding potential of -70 mV (red). This trace shows predicted data, obtained by inversion of the trace shown in black and multiplication by four-sevenths. (B) (Green) AMPAR-mediated and NMDAR-mediated EPSCs at the holding potential of +40 mV. (Pink) NMDAR-mediated EPSCs at the same holding potential. This current was recorded in the presence of NBQX. (Blue) AMPAR-mediated current at the holding potential of +40 mV. This experimental trace was generated by subtracting the NMDAR-mediated component from both receptor-mediated currents (Green minus pink). (C) Comparison between the predicted and experimental traces. (A-C) Scale bar = 1 ms and 2 pA. (D) The maximum amplitude of the trace obtained from dividing experimental values by predicted values. If AMPAR-mediated EPSCs in class 3 GCs are mediated by Ca2+-impermeable AMPARs, this ratio would be equal to 1 (dashed line), given the linear current-voltage relationship of Ca2+-impermeable AMPAR. The experimental values obtained were significantly lower than the predicted values (class 3: six slices; *P < 0.05).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New olfactory bulb granule cells (GCs) are GABAergic interneurons continuously arising from neuronal progenitors and integrating into preexisting bulbar circuits. They receive both GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic inputs from olfactory bulb intrinsic neurons and centrifugal afferents. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamic of newborn GC synaptogenesis in adult mouse olfactory bulb. First, we established that GABAergic synapses onto mature GC dendrites contain the GABA(A) receptor alpha2 subunit along with the postsynaptic scaffolding protein gephyrin. Next, we characterized morphologically and electrophysiologically the development of GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs onto newborn GCs labeled with eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) using lentiviral vectors. Already when reaching the GC layer (GCL), at 3 d post-vector injection (dpi), newborn GCs exhibited tiny voltage-dependent sodium currents and received functional GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses, recognized immunohistochemically by apposition of specific presynaptic and postsynaptic markers. Thereafter, GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic contacts increased differentially in the GCL, and at 7 dpi, PSD-95 clusters outnumbered gephyrin clusters. Thus, the weight of GABAergic input was predominant at early stages of GC maturation, but not later. Newborn GC dendrites first reached the external plexiform layer at 4 dpi, where they received functional GABAergic contacts at 5 dpi. Reciprocal synapses initially were formed on GC dendritic shafts, where they might contribute to spine formation. Their presence was confirmed ultrastructurally at 7 dpi. Together, our findings unravel rapid synaptic integration of newborn GCs in adult mouse olfactory bulb, with GABAergic and glutamatergic influences being established proximally before formation of output synapses by apical GC dendrites onto mitral/tufted cells.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the functional consequences of adult neurogenesis in the mouse olfactory bulb, we investigated plasticity at glutamatergic synapses onto GABAergic interneurons. We found that one subset of excitatory synapses onto adult-born granule cells showed long-term potentiation shortly after their arrival in the bulb. This property faded as the newborn neurons matured. These results indicate that recently generated adult-born olfactory interneurons undergo different experience-dependent synaptic modifications compared with their pre-existing mature neighbors and provide a possible substrate for adult neurogenesis-dependent olfactory learning.
Conference Paper: A Smell of Olfactory Bulb Interneurons Diversity