Nick Craddock

Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom

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Publications (261)2345.66 Total impact

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    Barbara Franke · Jason L Stein · Stephan Ripke · Verneri Anttila · Derrek P Hibar · Kimm J E van Hulzen · Alejandro Arias-Vasquez · Jordan W Smoller · Thomas E Nichols · Michael C Neale · [...] · Paul Nyquist · Louis N Vinke · Cornelia M van Duijn · Xue Luting · Bernard Mazoyer · Joshua C Bis · Vilmundur Gudnason · Sudha Seshadri · M Arfan Ikram · Gunter Schumann ·

    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Nature Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Background The relative contribution of demographic, lifestyle and medication factors to the association between affective disorders and cardiometabolic diseases is poorly understood.AimsTo assess the relationship between cardiometabolic disease and features of depresion and bipolar disorder within a large population sample.Method Cross-sectional study of 145 991 UK Biobank participants: multivariate analyses of associations between features of depression or bipolar disorder and five cardiometabolic outcomes, adjusting for confounding factors.ResultsThere were significant associations between mood disorder features and 'any cardiovascular disease' (depression odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% CI 1.12-1.19; bipolar OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.14-1.43) and with hypertension (depression OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.13-1.18; bipolar OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.12-1.42). Individuals with features of mood disorder taking psychotropic medication were significantly more likely than controls not on psychotropics to report myocardial infarction (depression OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.24-1.73; bipolar OR = 2.23, 95% CI 1.53-3.57) and stroke (depression OR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.10-2.80; bipolar OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.39-3.85).Conclusions Associations between features of depression or bipolar disorder and cardiovascular disease outcomes were statistically independent of demographic, lifestyle and medication confounders. Psychotropic medication may also be a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease in individuals without a clear history of mood disorder.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · The British Journal of Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Lithium is the mainstay prophylactic treatment for bipolar disorder (BD), but treatment response varies considerably across individuals. Patients who respond well to lithium treatment might represent a relatively homogeneous subtype of this genetically and phenotypically diverse disorder. Here, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify (i) specific genetic variations influencing lithium response and (ii) genetic variants associated with risk for lithium-responsive BD. Patients with BD and controls were recruited from Sweden and the United Kingdom. GWAS were performed on 2698 patients with subjectively defined (self-reported) lithium response and 1176 patients with objectively defined (clinically documented) lithium response. We next conducted GWAS comparing lithium responders with healthy controls (1639 subjective responders and 8899 controls; 323 objective responders and 6684 controls). Meta-analyses of Swedish and UK results revealed no significant associations with lithium response within the bipolar subjects. However, when comparing lithium-responsive patients with controls, two imputed markers attained genome-wide significant associations, among which one was validated in confirmatory genotyping (rs116323614, P=2.74 × 10−8). It is an intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on chromosome 2q31.2 in the gene SEC14 and spectrin domains 1 (SESTD1), which encodes a protein involved in regulation of phospholipids. Phospholipids have been strongly implicated as lithium treatment targets. Furthermore, we estimated the proportion of variance for lithium-responsive BD explained by common variants (‘SNP heritability’) as 0.25 and 0.29 using two definitions of lithium response. Our results revealed a genetic variant in SESTD1 associated with risk for lithium-responsive BD, suggesting that the understanding of BD etiology could be furthered by focusing on this subtype of BD.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Molecular Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: The contribution of rare and low-frequency variants to human traits is largely unexplored. Here we describe insights from sequencing whole genomes (low read depth, 7×) or exomes (high read depth, 80×) of nearly 10,000 individuals from population-based and disease collections. In extensively phenotyped cohorts we characterize over 24 million novel sequence variants, generate a highly accurate imputation reference panel and identify novel alleles associated with levels of triglycerides (APOB), adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLR and RGAG1) from single-marker and rare variant aggregation tests. We describe population structure and functional annotation of rare and low-frequency variants, use the data to estimate the benefits of sequencing for association studies, and summarize lessons from disease-specific collections. Finally, we make available an extensive resource, including individual-level genetic and phenotypic data and web-based tools to facilitate the exploration of association results.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: The contribution of rare and low-frequency variants to human traits is largely unexplored. Here we describe insights from sequencing whole genomes (low read depth, 7×) or exomes (high read depth, 80×) of nearly 10,000 individuals from population-based and disease collections. In extensively phenotyped cohorts we characterize over 24 million novel sequence variants, generate a highly accurate imputation reference panel and identify novel alleles associated with levels of triglycerides (APOB), adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLR and RGAG1) from single-marker and rare variant aggregation tests. We describe population structure and functional annotation of rare and low-frequency variants, use the data to estimate the benefits of sequencing for association studies, and summarize lessons from disease-specific collections. Finally, we make available an extensive resource, including individual-level genetic and phenotypic data and web-based tools to facilitate the exploration of association results.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Nature
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    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Nature Communications
  • Rachel Upthegrove · Ian Jones · Nick Craddock

    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science
  • Sarah Knott · Liz Forty · Nick Craddock · Rhys H. Thomas
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    ABSTRACT: It is well recognized that mood disorders and epilepsy commonly co-occur. Despite this, our knowledge regarding the relationship between epilepsy and bipolar disorder is limited. Several shared features between the two disorders, such as their episodic nature and potential to run a chronic course, and the efficacy of some antiepileptic medications in the prophylaxis of both disorders, are often cited as evidence of possible shared underlying pathophysiology. The present paper aims to review the bidirectional associations between epilepsy and bipolar disorder, with a focus on epidemiological links, evidence for shared etiology, and the impact of these disorders on both the individual and wider society. Better recognition and understanding of these two complex disorders, along with an integrated clinical approach, are crucial for improved evaluation and management of comorbid epilepsy and mood disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Epilepsy & Behavior
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol misuse (AM) is more common in bipolar disorder (BD) than within the general population but the mechanisms of this association are unclear. We hypothesized that certain affective temperaments (including hyperthymic, cyclothymic, anxious, depressive and/or irritability) might represent 'fundamental states' contributing to risk of both AM and BD and we aimed to assess whether extremes of these five affective temperaments were associated with BD and concomitant AM status. Our sample comprised 1420 individuals with BD who were recruited into a clinical-genetic study conducted by the Bipolar Disorder Research Network. Phenotypic assessments, including evaluation for AM and the 32-item TEMPS-A questionnaire, were conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the effect of TEMPS-A scores on the likelihood of concomitant AM, with adjustment for confounders. Mean scores for four affective temperaments (hyperthymic, cyclothymic, depressive and irritable) were higher in cases (BD+AMs) than controls (BD only) (p<0.001). Hyperthymic and irritable temperaments in particular significantly increased the odds of concomitant AM within the BD sample after adjustment for potential confounders. The definition of AM was not directly based on formal diagnostic classification systems. A retrospective, cross-sectional design was used. Our findings may not generalize to other countries and cultures. Higher scores on measures of hyperthymic and irritable temperament may contribute to the association between AM and BD. Assessing affective temperaments early in the course of BD may help to predict the development of an AM problem in vulnerable individuals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: PsyCymru was initially established as a proof of concept to investigate the feasibility of linking a prospectively ascertained, well-characterised (linked clinical cohort) of people with psychosis in Wales, UK with large amounts of anonymised routinely collected health record data. We are now additionally linking genetic data. PsyCymru aims to create a research platform and infrastructure for psychosis research in Wales by the establishment of two cohorts. The first is a well characterised clinically-assessed cohort of 490 individuals aged 16 and over, including genetic data. Consented individuals underwent a structured interview using a series of well-validated questionnaires and gave blood for the purpose of DNA extraction for sequencing and candidate gene identification. This data was linked to routinely collected health and social datasets with identity encryption used to protect privacy. The second is a much larger (12,097 individuals) but less well characterised population-based e-cohort of prevalent psychosis cases created using a previously validated algorithm applied to anonymised routine data. Both cohorts can be tracked prospectively and retrospectively using anonymised routinely collected electronic health and administrative data in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) databank. This unique platform pools data together from multiple sources; linking clinical, psychological, biological, genetic and health care factors to address a wide variety of research questions. This resource will continue to expand over the coming years in size, breadth and depth of data, with continued recruitment and additional measures planned. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Schizophrenia Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background North American studies show bipolar disorder is associated with elevated rates of problem gambling; however, little is known about rates in the different presentations of bipolar illness.AimsTo determine the prevalence and distribution of problem gambling in people with bipolar disorder in the UK.Method The Problem Gambling Severity Index was used to measure gambling problems in 635 participants with bipolar disorder.ResultsModerate to severe gambling problems were four times higher in people with bipolar disorder than in the general population, and were associated with type 2 disorder (OR = 1.74, P = 0.036), history of suicidal ideation or attempt (OR = 3.44, P = 0.02) and rapid cycling (OR = 2.63, P = 0.008).Conclusions Approximately 1 in 10 patients with bipolar disorder may be at moderate to severe risk of problem gambling, possibly associated with suicidal behaviour and a rapid cycling course. Elevated rates of gambling problems in type 2 disorder highlight the probable significance of modest but unstable mood disturbance in the development and maintenance of such problems. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science
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    ABSTRACT: The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. We thus define TCTEX1D2 as an integral component of the evolutionarily conserved retrograde IFT machinery. In complex with several IFT dynein light chains, it is required for correct vertebrate skeletal formation but may be functionally redundant under certain conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Nature Communications

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Bipolar Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is strongly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and various other diseases. Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple risk loci robustly associated with body mass index (BMI). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a genetic risk score (GRS) combining multiple BMI risk loci might have utility in prediction of obesity in patients with MDD. Linear and logistic regression models were conducted to predict BMI and obesity, respectively, in three independent large case-control studies of major depression (Radiant, GSK-Munich, PsyCoLaus). The analyses were first performed in the whole sample and then separately in depressed cases and controls. An unweighted GRS was calculated by summation of the number of risk alleles. A weighted GRS was calculated as the sum of risk alleles at each locus multiplied by their effect sizes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare the discriminatory ability of predictors of obesity. In the discovery phase, a total of 2,521 participants (1,895 depressed patients and 626 controls) were included from the Radiant study. Both unweighted and weighted GRS were highly associated with BMI (P <0.001) but explained only a modest amount of variance. Adding 'traditional' risk factors to GRS significantly improved the predictive ability with the area under the curve (AUC) in the ROC analysis, increasing from 0.58 to 0.66 (95% CI, 0.62-0.68; χ(2) = 27.68; P <0.0001). Although there was no formal evidence of interaction between depression status and GRS, there was further improvement in AUC in the ROC analysis when depression status was added to the model (AUC = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.68-0.73; χ(2) = 28.64; P <0.0001). We further found that the GRS accounted for more variance of BMI in depressed patients than in healthy controls. Again, GRS discriminated obesity better in depressed patients compared to healthy controls. We later replicated these analyses in two independent samples (GSK-Munich and PsyCoLaus) and found similar results. A GRS proved to be a highly significant predictor of obesity in people with MDD but accounted for only modest amount of variance. Nevertheless, as more risk loci are identified, combining a GRS approach with information on non-genetic risk factors could become a useful strategy in identifying MDD patients at higher risk of developing obesity.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · BMC Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Normal thyroid function is essential for health, but its genetic architecture remains poorly understood. Here, for the heritable thyroid traits thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), we analyse whole-genome sequence data from the UK10K project (N=2,287). Using additional whole-genome sequence and deeply imputed data sets, we report meta-analysis results for common variants (MAF≥1%) associated with TSH and FT4 (N=16,335). For TSH, we identify a novel variant in SYN2 (MAF=23.5%, P=6.15 × 10−9) and a new independent variant in PDE8B (MAF=10.4%, P=5.94 × 10−14). For FT4, we report a low-frequency variant near B4GALT6/SLC25A52 (MAF=3.2%, P=1.27 × 10−9) tagging a rare TTR variant (MAF=0.4%, P=2.14 × 10−11). All common variants explain ≥20% of the variance in TSH and FT4. Analysis of rare variants (MAF<1%) using sequence kernel association testing reveals a novel association with FT4 in NRG1. Our results demonstrate that increased coverage in whole-genome sequence association studies identifies novel variants associated with thyroid function.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Defining the molecular genomic basis of the likelihood of developing depressive disorder is a considerable challenge. We previously associated rare, exonic deletion copy number variants (CNV) with recurrent depressive disorder (RDD). Sex chromosome abnormalities also have been observed to co-occur with RDD. In this reanalysis of our RDD dataset (N = 3106 cases; 459 screened control samples and 2699 population control samples), we further investigated the role of larger CNVs and chromosomal abnormalities in RDD and performed association analyses with clinical data derived from this dataset. We found an enrichment of Turner's syndrome among cases of depression compared with the frequency observed in a large population sample (N = 34,910) of live-born infants collected in Denmark (two-sided p = .023, odds ratio = 7.76 [95% confidence interval = 1.79-33.6]), a case of diploid/triploid mosaicism, and several cases of uniparental isodisomy. In contrast to our previous analysis, large deletion CNVs were no more frequent in cases than control samples, although deletion CNVs in cases contained more genes than control samples (two-sided p = .0002). After statistical correction for multiple comparisons, our data do not support a substantial role for CNVs in RDD, although (as has been observed in similar samples) occasional cases may harbor large variants with etiological significance. Genetic pleiotropy and sample heterogeneity suggest that very large sample sizes are required to study conclusively the role of genetic variation in mood disorders. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Biological psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Background There has been increasing interest in the association between childhood trauma and psychosis. Proposals for potential mechanisms involved include affective dysregulation and cognitive appraisals of threat. Aims To establish if, within bipolar disorder, childhood events show a significant association with psychosis, and in particular with symptoms driven by dysregulation of mood or with a persecutory content. Method Data on lifetime-ever presence of psychotic symptoms were determined by detailed structured interview with case-note review (n = 2019). Childhood events were recorded using a self-report questionnaire and case-note information. Results There was no relationship between childhood events, or childhood abuse, and psychosis per se. Childhood events were not associated with an increased risk of persecutory or other delusions. Significant associations were found between childhood abuse and auditory hallucinations, strongest between sexual abuse and mood congruent or abusive voices. These relationships remain significant even after controlling for lifetime-ever cannabis misuse. Conclusions Within affective disorder, the relationship between childhood events and psychosis appears to be relatively symptom-specific. It is possible that the pathways leading to psychotic symptoms differ, with delusions and non-hallucinatory symptoms being influenced less by childhood or early environmental experience. Royal College of Psychiatrists.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science
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    ABSTRACT: Background Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. Aims To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Method Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Results We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Conclusions Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Darier disease is an autosomal dominant skin disorder caused by mutations in the ATPase, Ca++ transporting, cardiac muscle, slow twitch 2 (ATP2A2) gene and previously reported to cosegregate with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in occasional pedigrees. It is, however, unknown whether these associations exist also in the general population, and the objective of this study was to examine this question. Methods We compared a national sample of individuals with Darier disease and their first-degree relatives with matched unexposed individuals from the general population and their first-degree relatives, respectively. To examine risks for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regressions. Results Individuals with Darier disease had a 4.3 times higher risk of being diagnosed with bipolar disorder (95% CI: 2.6–7.3) and a 2.3 times higher risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia (95% CI: 1.1–5.2) than matched individuals from the general population. Relatives of individuals with Darier disease had a 1.6 times higher risk of having bipolar disorder (95% CI: 1.1–2.5) than relatives of matched individuals from the general population, but no increased risk of schizophrenia (risk ratio = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4–1.8). Conclusions The association between Darier disease and bipolar disorder is manifest also in the population, and our data suggest that genetic variability within the ATP2A2 gene that causes Darier disease also confers susceptibility for bipolar disorder. The Darier-causing mutations merit additional attention in molecular genetic research on bipolar disorder.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Bipolar Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Clinical, genetic and neuroimaging studies indicated strong evidence against traditional diagnostic separation of bipolar disorder from schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate hypomanic symptoms and influence on general functioning among psychotic patients. Subjects and methods: Patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders were assessed between June and September 2010. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), Hypomania Check List-32 (HCL-32), Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ) and General Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAS) were applied to all 93 patients. Answers of self-rating scales were confirmed with hospital records. Results: Mean age was 35.7 ± 9.5 years, mean age of onset was 20.3 ± 5.3 years and duration of illness was 15.4 ± 9.2 years. 30.1% of the patients, had a history of mood stabilizer treatment taken at least one month while one five of the patients had different psychiatric diagnosis other than current diagnosis. 26.9% of the patients with psychotic disorders had positive scores on both MDQ and HCL-32 but there were no significant difference between patients in terms of general functioning (p = 0.82). Conclusions: As reported in this study, there is no simple, clear-cut between schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Psychiatria Danubina

Publication Stats

20k Citations
2,345.66 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005-2015
    • Cardiff University
      • • MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics & Genomics
      • • Department of Psychological Medicine and Neurology
      • • School of Medicine
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 1999-2015
    • University of South Wales
      Понтиприте, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • University of Oslo
      • Division of Mental Health and Addiction
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
  • 2012
    • Royal College of Psychiatrists
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      • Department of Psychiatry
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2009-2011
    • University of Bristol
      • School of Experimental Psychology
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
    • Mrc Harwell
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1993-2011
    • University of Wales
      • College of Medicine
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
    • Mandeville Regional Hospital
      Мандевиль, Manchester, Jamaica
  • 1998-2009
    • University of Birmingham
      • School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001
    • St. James's Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 1995
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Psychiatry
      San Luis, Missouri, United States