Robert D. Fry

Thomas Jefferson University, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (90)310.54 Total impact

  • Robert D. Fry · James W. Fleshman · Ira J. Kodner
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    ABSTRACT: The role of radiation therapy as adjuvant treatment for rectal cancer remains unclear. It has been established mat radiation does have a biological effect upon rectal cancer. It must also be acknowledged that the survival benefits from adjuvant radiation are small, requiring a large number of patients to demonstrate significance in randomized studies. Preoperative radiation in moderate doses (45 Gy) appears to be associated with little morbidity, and surgery with colorectal anastomoses can be safely performed following this type of radiation. Postoperative radiation is associated with a somewhat increased incidence of complications attributable to the radiation. More information is needed to determine the optimal patient selection, timing, and dose of adjuvant radiation in the treatment of rectal carcinoma.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Seminars in Colon [amp ] Rectal Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Adhesions can result in serious clinical complications and make ileostomy closure, which is relatively simple procedure into a complicated and prolonged one. The use of sodium hyaluronate and carboxymethyl cellulose membrane (Seprafilm) was proven to significantly reduce the postoperative adhesions at the site of application. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and severity of adhesions around a loop ileostomy and to analyze the length of time and morbidity for mobilization at the time of ileostomy closure with and without the use of Seprafilm. Twenty-nine surgeons from 15 institutions participated in this multicenter prospective randomized study. 191 patients with loop ileostomy construction were randomly assigned to either receive Seprafilm under the midline incision and around the stoma (Group I), only under the midline incision (Group II), or not to receive Seprafilm (Group III). At ileostomy closure, adhesions were quantified and graded; operative morbidity was also measured. All 3 groups were comparable relative to gender, mean age and number of patients with prior operations (26, 25 and 19, respectively). Group II patients were significantly more likely to have pre-existing adhesions than Group III patients (30.6% vs. 14.1%, p = 0.025). At stoma mobilization, significantly more patients in Group III than in Group I had adhesions around the stoma (95.2% vs. 82.3%, p = 0.021). Mean operative times were 27, 25, and 28 minutes, respectively (p = 0.38), with significant differences among sites. There was no significant difference in the number of patients needing myotomy or enterotomy (29, 27 and 24 patients, respectively), nor in the number of postoperative complications (7, 9 and 7 patients, respectively). When consistently applied, Seprafilm significantly decreased adhesion formation around the stoma but not operative times without any increase in the need for myotomy or enterotomy. These findings were not seen in the overall study population possibly due to the large number of surgeons using a variety of application techniques.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Techniques in Coloproctology

  • No preview · Article · May 2005 · Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
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    Howard M Ross · Najjia Mahmoud · Robert D Fry

    Full-text · Article · Mar 2005 · Current Problems in Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Microsatellite instability (MSI) and expression of cell cycle-related markers may predict a favorable outcome in colorectal cancer patients. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular profiles of patients with rectal cancers treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (5-Fluorouracil and CPT-11), radiotherapy and surgery that correlate with response to therapy. Fifty-seven patients with rectal cancer were treated with the same preoperative chemotherapy regimen, radiotherapy (45 to 54 Gy) followed by surgery. The microsatellite status, the expression of the mismatch repair proteins MLH1 and MSH2 and p21WAF1/C1PI, p27, bcl-2, topoisomerase II (topo II) and Ki-67 were assessed in the pretreatment biopsies. The response to adjuvant therapy was categorized in the resected specimens as complete response (CR, no microscopic residual tumor present) and partial response (PR, tumor present). p21WAF1/C1PI, expression characterized the CR with 12 out of 30 tumors (40%) positive for this marker. None of the patients whose tumors did not express p21WAFI/C1PI (10 patients) was a CR (p=0.011). Overall, the tumors with CR also showed higher expression of bcl-2, Ki-67, topo II and p27. However, p53 was more frequently expressed in the PR tumors. Tumors with high microsatellite instability showed CR (3/5, 60%) more often than PR, whereas tumors with stable microsatellites showed PR (26/36, 80%) more often than CR (p=0.099). We conclude that a molecular profile characterized by high microsatellite instability with loss of mismatch repair protein expression and p21WAF1/C1PI is predictive of an improved response to neoadjuvant treatment with 5-FU, CPT-11 and radiation therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2004 · Anticancer research
  • B Sklow · T Read · E Birnbaum · R Fry · J Fleshman
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this retrospective, case-matched controlled study was to determine the benefit of laparoscopic-assisted colectomy (LC) for the elderly (>75 years of age) and the young (<75 years of age) compared to an open colectomy (OC) control group. A retrospective review of 39 patients older than 75 years of age and 38 patients younger than 75 years of age who underwent LC for colorectal cancer between 1991 and 1999 was performed. LC patients were matched with an open control group for procedure, age, gender, year of procedure, and surgeon. Procedures included right and left colectomy, anterior resection of the rectosigmoid, and abdominoperineal resection. Measured intraoperative variables included anesthesia time, operative time, and estimated blood loss. Postoperative parameters consisted of duration of intravenous or epidural narcotic usage, return of bowel function (RBF), length of stay, and independence at discharge. These variables were compared in the entire group of 154 patients. Mean ages were 81.4 and 81.8 years for LC and OC age >75 and 62.9 and 62.7 for LC and OC age <75. Mean anesthesia time and operative time were significantly longer (p < 0.05) for LC compared to OC (46.8 vs 39.3 and 159.3 vs 111.7 min, respectively) for age >75 and for age <75 (47.1 vs 40.3 and 182.8 vs 135.5 min, respectively). LC achieved faster recovery in both age groups: RBF (3.9 vs 4.9 days for age >75; 6.7 vs 7.7 days for age <75) (p < 0.05). Narcotic usage was shorter for the LC group age <75 (3.3 vs 4.4 days; p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in independence at discharge between LC and OC in either age group. Faster recovery was seen with left LC in age >75 and right LC in age <75 compared to OC. The advantages of LC over OC are the same for the elderly and the young. There may be a selective benefit of laparoscopic left colectomy in the elderly and laparoscopic right colectomy in the young.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Surgical Endoscopy
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    ABSTRACT: An interval of six to eight weeks between completion of preoperative chemoradiation therapy and surgical resection of advanced rectal cancer has been described. Our purpose was to determine whether a longer time interval between completion of therapy and resection increases tumor downstaging and affects perioperative morbidity. Forty patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum underwent preoperative chemoradiation on a prospective trial with irinotecan (50 mg/m2), 5-fluorouracil (225 mg/m2), and concomitant external-beam radiation (45-54 Gy) followed by complete surgical resection of the tumor with total mesorectal excision. The time interval between completion of chemoradiation and surgical resection ranged from 28 to 97 days. The patients were divided into two groups with 33 eligible patients: Group A (4-week to 8-week time interval; 28-56 days) and Group B (10-week to 14-week interval; 67-97 days). Tumor downstaging was compared between these two groups. The number of patients downstaged by at least one T stage, those downstaged by at least one N stage, those with pathologic complete responses, and those with only residual microscopic tumor foci were compared. Postoperative length of stay, estimated blood loss, perioperative morbidity, and sphincter-sparing procedures were also compared. Chi-squared tests and Student's t-test were calculated. Group A had 19 patients, and Group B had 14 patients. Patient demographics were comparable. Mean age was 52 years, and 70 percent of patients were male. There were no deaths. There were no statistical differences in perioperative morbidity, with three anastomotic leaks in Group A. Tumors were downstaged in 58 percent of patients in Group A and 43 percent of those in Group B (P = 0.61). Nodal downstaging occurred in 78 percent of Group A and 67 percent of Group B (P = 0.9). The pathologic complete response rate was 21 percent in Group A and 14 percent in Group B (P = 0.97), and a residual microfocus of tumor was found in 33 percent of patients in Group A and 42 percent of those in Group B (P = 0.90). These differences were not statistically significant. Perioperative morbidity is not affected by longer intervals. A longer interval between completion of neoadjuvant chemoradiation and surgical resection may not increase the tumor response rate of advanced rectal cancer in this cohort.
    No preview · Article · May 2003 · Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this trial was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and impact on quality of life of the Acticon trade mark artificial bowel sphincter for fecal incontinence. A multicenter, prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted under a common protocol. Patients were evaluated with anal physiology, endoanal ultrasonography, a fecal incontinence scoring system, fecal incontinence quality of life assessment, and overall health evaluation. Patients with a fecal incontinence score of 88 or greater (scale, 1-120) were considered candidates for the study. Implanted patients underwent identical reevaluation at 6 and 12 months postimplant. One hundred twelve of 115 patients (86 females) enrolled were implanted. Mean age was 49 (range, 18-81) years. A total of 384 device-related or potentially device-related adverse events were reported in 99 enrolled patients. Of these events, 246 required no intervention or only noninvasive intervention. Seventy-three revisional operations were required in 51 (46 percent) of the 112 implanted patients. Infection rate necessitating surgical revision was 25 percent. Forty-one patients (37 percent) have had their devices completely explanted, of which 7 have had successful reimplantations. In patients with a functioning neosphincter, improvement in quality of life and anal continence was documented. Mean matched fecal incontinence scores in 63 patients at 6 months follow-up was improved from 105 preimplant to 51 postimplant. In 55 patients at 12 months follow-up, mean matched fecal incontinence scores were 105 preimplant 48 postimplant. A successful outcome was achieved in 85 percent of patients with a functioning device. Intention to treat success rate was 53 percent. Although morbidity and the need for revisional surgery are high, the artificial bowel sphincter can improve anal incontinence and quality of life in patients with severe fecal incontinence.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
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    ABSTRACT: There is wide variability in reported locoregional recurrence rates after curative resection of adenocarcinoma of the intraperitoneal colon, and there is no universally accepted surgical technique regarding length of the resected specimen or extent of lymphadenectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the disease-free survival, locoregional failure, and perioperative morbidity of patients undergoing curative resection of colon adenocarcinoma. The records of 316 consecutive patients undergoing curative resection for primary adenocarcinoma of the intraperitoneal colon between 1990 and 1995 were reviewed. Locoregional recurrence was defined as disease at the anastomosis or in the adjacent mesentery, peritoneum, retroperitoneum, or carcinomatosis. The product-limit method (Kaplan-Meier) was used to analyze survival and tumor recurrence. The study population comprised 167 men and 149 women, mean age 70+/-12 years (range 22 to 95 years). Median followup was 63+/-25 months. Five-year disease-free survival was 84% overall. Disease-free survival paralleled tumor stage: stage I, 99% (n = 73); stage II, 87% (n = 151); stage III, 72% (n = 92). The predominant pattern of tumor recurrence was distant failure only. Overall locoregional recurrence (locoregional and locoregional plus distant) at 5 years was 4%. Locoregional recurrence paralleled tumor stage: stage I, 0%; stage II, 2%; stage III, 10%. Of the 12 patients who suffered locoregional recurrence, 9 (75%) had T4 primary tumors, N2 nodal disease, or both. Major and minor complications occurred in 93 patients (29%) including: anastomotic leak or intraabdominal abscess (n = 4, 1%); hemorrhage (n = 8, 3%); cardiac complications (n= 17, 5%); pulmonary embolism (n=4, 10%); death (n=2, 1%). Multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards) revealed that the only independent predictor of disease-free survival and locoregional control was tumor stage. Longterm survival and locoregional control can be achieved for patients with colon cancer, with low morbidity. In the absence of adjacent organ invasion and N2 nodal disease, locoregional recurrence should be a rare event. Just as for rectal cancer, the technical aspects of colectomy for colon cancer deserve renewed attention.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2002 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of surgeon specialty on disease-free survival and local control in patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Patients underwent curative treatment with neoadjuvant external beam radiotherapy and proctectomy by colorectal surgeons and noncolorectal surgeons. The records of 384 consecutive patients treated by colorectal surgeons (n = 251) and noncolorectal surgeons (n = 133) from 1977 to 1995 were reviewed independently by physicians in the Division of Radiation Oncology. Local recurrence was defined as pelvic recurrence occurring in the presence or absence of distant metastatic disease. The study population comprised 213 males, mean age 64 (range, 19-97) years. Preoperative radiotherapy was delivered as 4,500 cGy in 25 fractions six to eight weeks before surgery (n = 293) or 2,000 cGy in 5 fractions immediately before surgery (n = 91). Concurrent preoperative chemotherapy was given to 14 patients, postoperative chemotherapy to 55. Overall actuarial disease-free survival and local control rates were 74 and 90 percent, respectively, at five years. Actuarial disease-free survival and local control rates at five years were 77 and 93 percent for colorectal surgeons vs. 68 and 84 percent for noncolorectal surgeons (P < or = 0.005 for both, Tarone-Ware). Multivariate analysis revealed that pathologic stage and background of the surgeon were the only independent predictors of disease-free survival (both P < or = 0.006, Cox proportional hazards) and that pathologic stage, background of the surgeon, and proximal location of the tumor were independent predictors of local control (all P < or = 0.02, Cox proportional hazards). Radiation dose and use of chemotherapy were not significant factors. Sphincter preservation was more common by colorectal surgeons (131/251, 52 percent) than noncolorectal surgeons (40/133, 30 percent; P = 0.00004, Fisher's exact test, two-tailed). Good outcome for patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum who undergo neoadjuvant external beam radiotherapy and proctectomy is associated with subspecialty training in colon and rectal surgery.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2002 · Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant genetic predisposition syndrome that accounts for 2-7% of all colorectal cancers. Diagnosis of HNPCC is based on family history (defined by Amsterdam or Bethesda Criteria), which often includes a history of multiple synchronous or metachronous cancers. The majority of HNPCC results from germ-line mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes hMSH2 and hMLH1 with rare alterations in hMSH6 and hPMS2 in atypical families. Both HNPCC and sporadic MMR-deficient tumors invariably display high microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Two types of HNPCC families can be distinguished: type I (Lynch I) with tumors exclusively located in the colon; and type II (Lynch II) with tumors found in the endometrium, stomach, ovary, and upper urinary tract in addition to the colon. A proposed association of breast cancer with type II HNPCC is controversial. To address this important clinical question, we examined MSI in a series of 27 female patients who presented with synchronous or metachronous breast plus colorectal cancer. Although MSI-H was found in 5 of 27 (18.5%) of the colon cancers, in all cases the matched breast cancer was microsatellite stable. We also examined the breast tumors from three women who were carriers of MMR gene mutations from HNPCC families. None of these three breast tumors displayed MSI nor was the expression of MMR proteins altered in these tumors. We conclude that breast cancer largely arises sporadically in HNPCC patients and is rarely associated with the HNPCC syndrome.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2002 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: It is often stated that patients with colorectal carcinoid tumors have an increased risk of developing other malignancies. However, this risk has not been conclusively documented. A comprehensive evaluation is needed to more thoroughly assess the risk of second cancers in patients with colorectal carcinoids. A search of the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result database from 1973 to 1996 revealed 2,086 patients with colorectal carcinoids. This subset of patients was examined for occurrence of second cancers. The observed incidence of cancer for each site was compared with the expected incidence based on the gender-adjusted and age-adjusted cancer rates in the remaining Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result file. A Poisson distribution probability was used to determine the significance of these comparisons. Patients with colorectal carcinoids had an increased rate of cancer in the colon and rectum (P < 0.001), small bowel (P < 0.001), esophagus/stomach (P = 0.02), lung/bronchus (P < 0.001), urinary tract (P = 0.005), and prostate (P < 0.001), when compared with a control population. Most of the gastrointestinal tract cancers were synchronous cancers, whereas lesions outside the gastrointestinal tract were most commonly metachronous tumors. A significantly increased risk of synchronous colorectal, small-bowel, gastric, and esophageal cancers and metachronous lung, prostate, and urinary tract neoplasms is clearly demonstrated. After the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoid tumors, patients should undergo appropriate screening and surveillance for cancer at these sites.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the survival rate, local failure, and perioperative morbidity in patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum undergoing curative proctectomy who were felt to have transmural disease on preoperative assessment. Eighty-nine percent of these patients were treated with preoperative external beam radiotherapy. The records of 191 consecutive patients undergoing abdominal surgical procedures for primary treatment of rectal cancer were reviewed. The product-limit method (Kaplan-Meier) was used to analyze survival rate and tumor recurrence. One patient was excluded from survival analysis because of incomplete record of tumor stage. The study population comprised 109 males and 81 females, median age 64 (range, 33-91) years. Curative resection was performed in 152 of these 190 patients (80 percent), including low anterior resection with coloproctostomy or coloanal anastomosis (n = 103), abdominoperineal resection (n = 44), Hartmann's procedure (n = 4), and pelvic exenteration (n = 1). Mean follow-up of patients undergoing curative resection was 96 +/- 48 months. Palliative procedures were performed in 38 of 190 patients (20 percent). Perioperative mortality was 0.5 percent (1/190). Complications occurred in 64 patients (34 percent). The anastomotic leak rate was 4 percent (5/128). Disease-free five-year survival rate by pathologic stage was as follows: Stage I, 90 percent; Stage II, 85 percent; Stage III, 54 percent; Stage IV, 0 percent; and no residual tumor, 90 percent. Of the 152 patients treated with curative resection, disease-free survival rate was 80 percent at five years. Preoperative external beam radiation was administered to 135 of these 152 patients (89 percent). Tumor recurred in 32 of 152 patients (21 percent) treated with curative resection. The predominant pattern of recurrence was distant failure only. Kaplan-Meier overall local recurrence (local and local plus distant) at five years was 6.6 percent. The local recurrence rate paralleled tumor stage: Stage I, 0 percent; Stage II, 6 percent; Stage III, 20 percent; and no residual tumor, 0 percent. Preoperative external beam radiotherapy and attention to mesorectal dissection can achieve low local recurrence and excellent long-term survival rate in patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Moreover, these goals can be obtained with low morbidity and mortality.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Diseases of the Colon & Rectum

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2001 · Diseases of the Colon & Rectum

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2001 · Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
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    ABSTRACT: Endocavitary radiation (RT) provides a conservative alternative to proctectomy. Although most suitable for small, mobile lesions, patients with less favorable tumors are often referred if they are poor surgical candidates. Knowing the extent to which radiation can control such tumors can be an important factor in making clinical decisions. One hundred ninety-nine patients, who received endocavitary RT with or without external beam RT (EBRT) during 1981 through 1995, were followed for disease status for a median of 70 months, including deaths from intercurrent causes. In the early years of the study, 21 patients were treated with endocavitary RT alone, the remainder of the patients received pelvic EBRT (usually 45 Gy in 25 fractions) 5-7 weeks before endocavitary RT. Overall, 141 patients (71%) had local control with RT alone. Salvage surgery rendered an additional 20 patients disease free, for an ultimate local control rate of 81%. On multivariate analysis for local control (excluding surgical salvage), the most significant factors were mobility to palpation, use of EBRT, and whether pretreatment debulking of all macroscopic disease had been done (generally a piecemeal, nontransmural procedure). Of 77 cases staged by transrectal ultrasonography, the local control rate with RT alone was 100% for uT1 lesions, 85% (90% with no evidence of disease after salvage) for freely mobile uT2 lesions, and 56% (67% with no evidence of disease after salvage) for uT3 lesions and uT2 lesions that were not freely mobile. Patients with small mobile tumors that are either uT1 or have only a scar after debulking achieve excellent local control with endocavitary RT. About 15% of mobile uT2 tumors fail RT; therefore, careful follow-up is critical. Small uT3 tumors are appropriate for this treatment only if substantial contraindications to proctectomy are present.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2001 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics
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    ABSTRACT: As a sole modality, preoperative radiation for rectal carcinoma achieves a local control comparable to that of postoperative radiation plus chemotherapy. Although the addition of chemotherapy to preoperative treatment improves the pathologic complete response rate, there is also a substantial increase in acute and perioperative morbidity. Identification of subsets of patients who are at low or high risk for recurrence can help to optimize treatment. During the period 1977-95, 384 patients received preoperative radiation therapy for localized adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Ages ranged from 19 to 97 years (mean 64.4), and there were 171 females. Preoperative treatment consisted of conventionally fractionated radiation to 3600-5040 cGy (median 4500 cGy) 6-8 weeks before surgery in 293 cases or low doses of <3000 cGy (median 2000 cGy) immediately before surgery in 91 cases. Concurrent preoperative chemotherapy was given to only 14 cases in this study period. Postoperative chemotherapy was delivered to 55 cases. Overall 93 patients have experienced recurrence (including 36 local failures). Local failures were scored if they occurred at any time, not just as first site of failure. For the group as a whole, the actuarial (Kaplan-Meier) freedom from relapse (FFR) and local control (LC) were 74% and 90% respectively at 5 years. Univariate analysis of clinical characteristics demonstrated a significant (p < 0.05) adverse effect on both LC and FFR for the following four clinical factors: (1) location <5 cm from the verge, (2) circumferential lesion, (3) near obstruction, (4) tethered or fixed tumor. Size, grade, age, gender, ultrasound stage, CEA, radiation dose, and the use of chemotherapy were not associated with outcome. Background of the surgeon was significantly associated with outcome, colorectal specialists achieving better results than nonspecialist surgeons. We assigned a clinical score of 0 to 2 on the basis of how many of the above four adverse clinical factors were present: 0 for none, 1 for one or two, 2 for three or four. This sorted outcome highly significantly (p < or = 0.002, Tarone Ware), with 5-year LC/FFR of 98%/85% (score 0), 90%/72% (score 1), and 74%/58% (score 2). The scoring system sorts the data for both subgroups of surgeons; however, there are substantial differences in LC on the basis of the surgeon's experience. For colorectal specialists (251 cases), the 5-year LC is 100%, 94%, and 78% for scores of 0, 1, and 2, respectively (p = 0.004). For the more mixed group of nonspecialist surgeons (133 cases), LC is 98%, 80%, and 65% for scores of 0, 1, and 2 (p = 0.008). In multivariate analysis, the clinical score and surgeon's background retained independent predictive value, even when pathologic stage was included. For many patients with rectal cancer, adjuvant treatment can be administered in a well-tolerated sequential fashion-moderate doses of preoperative radiation followed by surgery followed by postoperative chemotherapy to address the risk of occult metastatic disease. A clinical scoring system has been presented here that would suggest that the local control is excellent for lesions with a score of 0 or (if the surgeon is experienced) 1, and therefore sequential treatment could be considered. Cases with a clinical score of 2 should be strongly considered for protocols evaluating more aggressive preoperative treatment, such as combined modality preoperative treatment.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2001 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2001 · Gastroenterology

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2000 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics
  • J Rakinic · R Fry
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    ABSTRACT: Although the need for adjuvant therapy in high-risk rectal cancer is widely accepted, controversies continue regarding timing, mode, and agents employed. The current recommended practice and its scientific basis are reviewed. Studies of induction therapy are discussed. Evidence of efficacy of new anticancer agents and modes of drug delivery are presented.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2000 · Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America

Publication Stats

3k Citations
310.54 Total Impact Points


  • 1996-2006
    • Thomas Jefferson University
      • • Division of Colorectal Surgery
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Surgery
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia PA
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1999-2003
    • Jefferson College
      Хиллсборо, Missouri, United States
  • 2002
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1999-2002
    • Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals
      • Department of Surgery
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 1984-2002
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Medicine
      Saint Louis, MO, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Missouri - St. Louis
      Saint Louis, Michigan, United States
  • 1990-1993
    • Barnes Jewish Hospital
      San Luis, Missouri, United States