[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report that TG101348, a selective small-molecule inhibitor of JAK2 with an in vitro IC50 of approximately 3 nM, shows therapeutic efficacy in a murine model of myeloproliferative disease induced by the JAK2V617F mutation. In treated animals, there was a statistically significant reduction in hematocrit and leukocyte count, a dose-dependent reduction/elimination of extramedullary hematopoiesis, and, at least in some instances, evidence for attenuation of myelofibrosis. There were no apparent toxicities and no effect on T cell number. In vivo responses were correlated with surrogate endpoints, including reduction/elimination of JAK2V617F disease burden assessed by quantitative genomic PCR, suppression of endogenous erythroid colony formation, and in vivo inhibition of JAK-STAT signal transduction as assessed by flow cytometric measurement of phosphorylated Stat5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite their known transforming properties, the effects of leukemogenic FLT3-ITD mutations on hematopoietic stem and multipotent progenitor cells and on hematopoietic differentiation are not well understood. We report a mouse model harboring an ITD in the murine Flt3 locus that develops myeloproliferative disease resembling CMML and further identified FLT3-ITD mutations in a subset of human CMML. These findings correlated with an increase in number, cell cycling, and survival of multipotent stem and progenitor cells in an ITD dose-dependent manner in animals that exhibited alterations within their myeloid progenitor compartments and a block in normal B cell development. This model provides insights into the consequences of constitutive signaling by an oncogenic tyrosine kinase on hematopoietic progenitor quiescence, function, and cell fate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand the role of FoxO family members in hematopoiesis, we conditionally deleted FoxO1, FoxO3, and FoxO4 in the adult hematopoietic system. FoxO-deficient mice exhibited myeloid lineage expansion, lymphoid developmental abnormalities, and a marked decrease of the lineage-negative Sca-1+, c-Kit+ (LSK) compartment that contains the short- and long-term hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) populations. FoxO-deficient bone marrow had defective long-term repopulating activity that correlated with increased cell cycling and apoptosis of HSC. Notably, there was a marked context-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in FoxO-deficient HSC compared with wild-type HSC that correlated with changes in expression of genes that regulate ROS. Furthermore, in vivo treatment with the antioxidative agent N-acetyl-L-cysteine resulted in reversion of the FoxO-deficient HSC phenotype. Thus, FoxO proteins play essential roles in the response to physiologic oxidative stress and thereby mediate quiescence and enhanced survival in the HSC compartment, a function that is required for its long-term regenerative potential.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HOX genes have emerged as critical effectors of leukemogenesis, but the mechanisms that regulate their expression in leukemia are not well understood. Recent data suggest that the caudal homeobox transcription factors CDX1, CDX2, and CDX4, developmental regulators of HOX gene expression, may contribute to HOX gene dysregulation in leukemia. We report here that CDX4 is expressed normally in early hematopoietic progenitors and is expressed aberrantly in approximately 25% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples. Cdx4 regulates Hox gene expression in the adult murine hematopoietic system and dysregulates Hox genes that are implicated in leukemogenesis. Furthermore, bone marrow progenitors that are retrovirally engineered to express Cdx4 serially replate in methylcellulose cultures, grow in liquid culture, and generate a partially penetrant, long-latency AML in bone marrow transplant recipients. Coexpression of the Hox cofactor Meis1a accelerates the Cdx4 AML phenotype and renders it fully penetrant. Structure-function analysis demonstrates that leukemic transformation requires intact Cdx4 transactivation and DNA-binding domains but not the putative Pbx cofactor interaction motif. Together, these data indicate that Cdx4 regulates Hox gene expression in adult hematopoiesis and may serve as an upstream regulator of Hox gene expression in the induction of acute leukemia. Inasmuch as many human leukemias show dysregulated expression of a spectrum of HOX family members, these collective findings also suggest a central role for CDX4 expression in the genesis of acute leukemia.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2006 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The JAK2V617F allele has recently been identified in patients with polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytosis (ET), and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MF). Subsequent analysis has shown that constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway is an important pathogenetic event in these patients, and that enzymatic inhibition of JAK2V617F may be of therapeutic benefit in this context. However, a significant proportion of patients with ET or MF are JAK2V617F-negative. We hypothesized that activation of the JAK-STAT pathway might also occur as a consequence of activating mutations in certain hematopoietic-specific cytokine receptors, including the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR), the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL), or the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor (GCSFR).
DNA sequence analysis of the exons encoding the transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains of EPOR, MPL, and GCSFR, and comparison with germline DNA derived from buccal swabs, identified a somatic activating mutation in the transmembrane domain of MPL (W515L) in 9% (4/45) of JAKV617F-negative MF. Expression of MPLW515L in 32D, UT7, or Ba/F3 cells conferred cytokine-independent growth and thrombopoietin hypersensitivity, and resulted in constitutive phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, AKT, and ERK. Furthermore, a small molecule JAK kinase inhibitor inhibited MPLW515L-mediated proliferation and JAK-STAT signaling in vitro. In a murine bone marrow transplant assay, expression of MPLW515L, but not wild-type MPL, resulted in a fully penetrant myeloproliferative disorder characterized by marked thrombocytosis (Plt count 1.9-4.0 x 10(12)/L), marked splenomegaly due to extramedullary hematopoiesis, and increased reticulin fibrosis.
Activation of JAK-STAT signaling via MPLW515L is an important pathogenetic event in patients with JAK2V617F-negative MF. The bone marrow transplant model of MPLW515L-mediated myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) exhibits certain features of human MF, including extramedullary hematopoiesis, splenomegaly, and megakaryocytic proliferation. Further analysis of positive and negative regulators of the JAK-STAT pathway is warranted in JAK2V617F-negative MPD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AMN107 is a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor developed, in the first instance, as a potent inhibitor of breakpoint cluster region-abelson (BCR-ABL). We tested its effectiveness against fusion tyrosine kinases TEL-platelet-derived growth factor receptorbeta (TEL-PDGFRbeta) and FIP1-like-1 (FIP1L1)-PDGFRalpha, which cause chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and hypereosinophilic syndrome, respectively. In vitro, AMN107 inhibited proliferation of Ba/F3 cells transformed by both TEL-PDGFRbeta and FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha with IC50 (inhibitory concentration 50%) values less than 25 nM and inhibited phosphorylation of the fusion kinases and their downstream signaling targets. The imatinib mesylate-resistant mutant TEL-PDGFRbeta T681I was sensitive to AMN107, whereas the analogous mutation in FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha, T674I, was resistant. In an in vivo bone marrow transplantation assay, AMN107 effectively treated myeloproliferative disease induced by TEL-PDGFRbeta and FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha, significantly increasing survival and disease latency and reducing disease severity as assessed by histopathology and flow cytometry. In summary, AMN107 can inhibit myeloid proliferation driven by TEL-PDGFRbeta and FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha and may be a useful drug for treatment of patients with myeloproliferative disease who harbor these kinase fusions.