Malek G Massad

University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (120)378.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Studies reporting on penetrating thoracic trauma in the pediatric population have been limited by small numbers and implied differences with the adult population. Our objectives were to report on a large cohort of pediatric patients presenting with penetrating thoracic trauma and to determine age-related impacts on management and outcome through comparison with an adult cohort. A Level I trauma center registry was queried between 2006 and 2012. All patients presenting with penetrating thoracic trauma were identified. Patient demographics, injury mechanism, injury severity, admission physiology, and outcome were recorded. Patients were compared, and outcomes were analyzed based on age at presentation, with patients 17 years or younger defining our pediatric cohort. A total of 1,423 patients with penetrating thoracic trauma were admitted during the study period. Two hundred twenty patients (15.5%) were pediatric, with 205 being adolescents (13-17 years) and 15 being children (≤12 years). In terms of management for the pediatric population, tube thoracostomy alone was needed in 32.7% (72 of 220), whereas operative thoracic exploration was performed in 20.0% (44 of 220). Overall mortality was 13.6% (30 of 220). There was no significant difference between the pediatric and adult population with regard to injury mechanism or severity, need for therapeutic intervention, operative approach, use of emergency department thoracotomy, or outcome. Stepwise logistic regression failed to identify age as a predictor for the need for either therapeutic intervention or mortality between the two age groups as a whole. However, subgroup analysis revealed that being 12 years or younger (odds ratio, 3.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-11.4) was an independent predictor of mortality. Management of traumatic penetrating thoracic injuries in terms of the need for therapeutic intervention and operative approach was similar between the adult and pediatric populations. Mortality from penetrating thoracic trauma can be predicted based on injury severity, the use of emergency department thoracotomy, and admission physiology for adolescents and adults. Children may be at increased risk for poor outcome independent of injury severity. Epidemiologic study, level III.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014
  • Sumanth Kidambi · Malek G Massad
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    ABSTRACT: To say that digitalis (aka digoxin) is well described in the literature is perhaps an understatement. A review in PubMed reveals over 14,000 articles devoted to the topic 1. Yell the word 'digoxin' out in the middle of a meeting or gathering of scientists and enthusiasts and you are almost certain to get into a spirited debate. Much of this debate is over what place, if any, will digoxin hold in our ever-growing arsenal of cardiac drugs. Given all this speculation about the future of digoxin, we thought that at present we should look back at its past history, obviously briefly.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Cardiology
  • Asad Usman · Malek G Massad

    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Large series reporting outcomes for penetrating thoracic trauma have identified injury pattern and injury severity scoring as predictors of poor outcome. However, the impact of surgical expertise on patient outcomes has not been previously investigated. We sought to determine how often board-certified cardiothoracic surgeons are utilized for operative thoracic trauma and whether this has an effect on patient outcomes. A level I trauma center registry was queried between 2003 and 2011. Records of patients undergoing surgery as a result of penetrating thoracic trauma were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, injuries, injury severity, utilization of a cardiothoracic surgical operative consult and outcomes were recorded. Patients operated on by cardiothoracic surgeons were compared with patients operated on by trauma surgeons using stepwise multivariate analyses to determine the factors associated with utilization of cardiothoracic surgeons for operative thoracic trauma and survival. Cardiothoracic surgeons were used in 73.0% of cases (162 of 222) over the study period. The use of cardiothoracic surgeons increased incrementally both overall (38.5% to 73.9%), and for emergent/urgent cases (31.8% to 73.3%). When comparing patients undergoing operation on an emergent/urgent basis by cardiothoracic versus trauma surgeons, there was no significant difference with regard to demographics, mechanism of injury, injury severity scoring, or surgical morbidity. Stepwise logistic regression showed the presence of a cardiothoracic surgeon to be independently associated with survival (odds ratio 4.70; p = 0.019). Use of cardiothoracic surgeons for operative thoracic trauma increased over the study period. Outcomes for severely injured patients with elevated chest injury scores or decreased revised trauma scores may be improved with appropriate operative consultation with a board-certified cardiothoracic surgeon.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • Malek G. Massad · Enrico Benedetti

    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · World Journal of Surgery
  • Anup Kumar · Malek G Massad

    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · The American surgeon
  • Anthi Katsouli · Malek G Massad
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    ABSTRACT: Diagnosis and management of blood culture-negative endocarditis constitute a formidable clinical challenge and a systemic approach is necessary for a successful outcome. Blood cultures are negative in endocarditis due mainly to preceding antibiotic administration or to fastidious slow-growing organisms. Less so, non-infective endocarditis is a paraneoplastic manifestation or may occur in association with autoimmune diseases. When the clinical diagnosis is contemplated and cultures and serologies are negative, histologic and molecular examination of the removed valve tissue may confirm the diagnosis. Treatment with antibiotics is often warranted and valve replacement remains appropriate for patients with heart failure or irreversible structural damage.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an uncommon non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) that grows mainly in serous body cavities. The most common presentation of PEL is that of a young immunocompromised male with shortness of breath, as the pleural cavity is most commonly affected. Diagnosis is primarily based on fluid cytology in which PEL cells display variable morphology and a null lymphocyte immunophenotype; however, evidence of HHV-8 infection within the neoplastic cell is essential. Patients have commonly been treated with systemic multidrug chemotherapy and antiretroviral therapy if they were HIV positive or were immunocompromised for other reasons. In the immunocompetent patient, there have been no agreed-upon pathways for management of this condition. Progression of disease is common and median survival is approximately 6 months. Novel intrapleural treatments with antiviral agents such as intracavity cidofovir have shown to be effective in controlling local disease, and ongoing clinical trials may provide some promise in the treatment for this condition.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
  • Malek G Massad · Khaled Abdelhady
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    ABSTRACT: No abstract available.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Chest computed tomography (CCT) is a method of screening for intrathoracic injuries in hemodynamically stable patients with penetrating thoracic trauma. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in utilization of CCT over time and evaluate its contribution to guiding therapeutic intervention. A level 1 trauma center registry was queried between 2006 and 2011. Patients undergoing CCT in the emergency department after penetrating thoracic trauma as well as patients undergoing thoracic operations for penetrating thoracic trauma were identified. Patient demographics, operative indications, use of CCT, injuries, and hospital admissions were analyzed. In all, 617 patients had CCTs performed, of whom 61.1% (371 of 617) had a normal screening plain chest radiograph (CXR). In 14.0% (51 of 371) of these cases, the CCT revealed findings not detected on screening CXR. The majority of these injuries were occult pneumothoraces or hemothoraces (84.3%; 43 of 51), of which 27 (62.8%) underwent tube thoracostomy. In only 0.5% (2 of 371), did the results of CCT alone lead to an operative indication: exploration for hemopericardium. The use of CCT in our patients significantly increased overall (28.8% to 71.4%) as well as after a normal screening CXR (23.3% to 74.6%) over the study period. The use of CCT for penetrating thoracic trauma increased 3.5-fold during the study period with a concurrent increase in findings of uncertain clinical significance. Patients with a normal screening CXR should be triaged with 3-hour delayed CXR, serial physical examinations, and focused assessment with sonography for trauma; and CCT should only be used selectively as a diagnostic modality.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to the heart has never been reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old patient with papillary RCC metastatic to the left and right ventricles, found during a triple vessel coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
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    ABSTRACT: Practice guidelines for the appropriate use of emergency department thoracotomy (EDT) according to current national resuscitative guidelines have been developed by the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS-COT) and published. At an urban level I trauma center we analyzed how closely these guidelines were followed and their ability to predict mortality. Between January 2003 and July 2010, 120 patients with penetrating thoracic trauma underwent EDT at Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH). Patients were separated based on adherence (group 1, n=70) and nonadherence (group 2, n=50) to current resuscitative guidelines, and group survival rates were determined. These 2 groups were analyzed based on outcome to determine the effect of a strict policy of adherence on survival. Of EDTs performed during the study period, 41.7% (50/120) were considered outside current guidelines. Patients in group 2 were less likely to have traditional predictors of survival. There were 6 survivors in group 1 (8.7%), all of whom were neurologically intact; there were no neurologically intact survivors in group 2 (p=0.04). The presence of a thoracic surgeon in the operating room (OR) was associated with increased survival (p=0.039). A policy of strict adherence to EDT guidelines based on current national guidelines would have accounted for all potential survivors while avoiding the harmful exposure of health care personnel to blood-borne pathogens and the futile use of resources for trauma victims unable to benefit from them. Cardiothoracic surgeons should be familiar with current EDT guidelines because they are often asked to contribute their operative skills for those patients who survive to reach the OR.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare vascular neoplasm of endothelial origin with clinical behavior intermediate between hemangioma and angiosarcoma. The natural history of EHE is highly variable. This study uses an Internet registry to identify clinical patterns with prognostic significance in EHE. Cases from the International Hemangioendothioma, Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma, and Related Vascular Disorders (HEARD) Support Group were evaluated based on demographics, organ involvement, disease progression, presence or absence of pleural effusion, and treatment. Survival among various cohorts was compared using log-rank analysis of Kaplan-Meier plots. Two hundred sixty-four patients were identified from April 2004 to November 2009. Fifty-eight cases were excluded because of inadequate information or wrong diagnosis. EHE was more common in female patients (61%). Male gender and age ≥ 55 years were associated with decreased survival. The most commonly affected organs were liver, lung, and bone. No specific organ or combination of organ involvement differentially affected survival, and survival was no different between patients with multiple vs single organ involvement. However, pattern B, defined as lesions without distinct borders (eg, pulmonary infiltrates, pleural effusion, ascites), hemoptysis, or involvement of more than two bones adversely affected survival in all cohorts. A novel staging system with prognostic value for EHE is proposed. Pleural effusion or other signs of uncontained tumor growth, hemoptysis, and osseous involvement of more than two bones implied worse survival than did localized and discrete tumors, regardless of number of organs involved. A lay registry can provide useful insights into the clinical behavior of a rare cancer.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Chest
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    ABSTRACT: Management of patients with concomitant carotid and coronary artery disease has been controversial. Divergent strategies have been employed, including simultaneous carotid endarterectomy and coronary bypass (SCC) versus various staged procedures. Although no strict comparison group is available, this study defines current outcomes of SCC, compared qualitatively to two reference categories. Utilizing the STS database from 2003 to 2007, patients who had SCC were compared with patients with cerebrovascular disease who had coronary bypass (CABG) with prior carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and those with carotid Doppler stenosis >75% and no carotid intervention. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for differences in baseline characteristics and operative mortality (OM), and a composite of neurological complications (NC) was assessed. Of 745,769 patients who underwent isolated CABG with/without CEA, 108,212 (14%) had cerebrovascular disease. Of this group, 5,732 (5%) underwent SCC. The SCC group had more males and lower preoperative risk factors. After statistical adjustment for all baseline differences, SCC had clinically and statistically higher OM and NC compared with any of the reference groups, with 20-40% higher event risk. Although no quantitative control group exists for comparison, SCC as recently performed in North America has a high risk compared with any of the reference groups. Suboptimal results associated with the SCC strategy suggest a need for quality improvement and research on the optimal management of patients with simultaneous carotid and coronary disease.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · World Journal of Surgery
  • E G Chedrawy · M G Massad
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    ABSTRACT: Acute coronary syndromes range in severity from unstable angina to evolving myocardial infarction with persistent ST-segment elevation, with or without cardiogenic shock. Despite major improvements in medical and percutaneous therapy, acute coronary syndromes still represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aggressive approaches to myocardial revascularization and mechanical circulatory support reviewed in this article seem to reduce the mortality associated with acute coronary syndromes. The optimal timing of surgery should not only reduce short-term mortality but also improve long-term outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
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    Ahmad Z Chaudhry · Michael D Diodato · Malek G Massad

    Preview · Article · Apr 2010 · World Journal of Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating condition that without proper management can deteriorate progressively. Elevated pulmonary artery pressure without an identifiable etiology is called IPAH. PH resulting from a specific disease is referred to as secondary PH; left-sided cardiac disease can lead to an increase in pulmonary artery pressure resulting in increased vascular resistance and subsequent structural remodeling. If left-sided failure progresses to right-sided failure with high pulmonary artery pressure, the outcome is ominous. It has been clearly proven that early diagnosis and effective medical therapy can markedly decrease morbidity and mortality. In this review, we discuss the current treatment modalities and their limitations for PH secondary to heart failure. Conventional therapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension as well as recent advances in the medical management of PH in general, are also described. Last, the surgical management of these patients and other promising interventional modalities are reviewed.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
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    Ahmed Chaudhry · Malek G Massad

    Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · World Journal of Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid emulsion infusion reverses local anesthetic-induced cardiac toxicity, but the effect of adding epinephrine has not been studied. We compared escalating doses of epinephrine on recovery with lipid infusion in a rat model of bupivacaine overdose. Rats anesthetized with isoflurane received an IV bolus of 20 mg/kg bupivacaine, producing asystole (zero time) in all animals. Ventilation (100% oxygen) and chest compressions were started immediately, and at 3 min the rats received one of six IV treatments (n = 5 for all groups): 5 ml/kg saline followed by infusion for 2 min at 1.0 ml x kg x min, and a second 5 ml/kg bolus at 5 min; or the same bolus and infusion treatment using 30% lipid emulsion plus a single injection of epinephrine at one of five doses: 0 (lipid control), 1, 2.5, 10, or 25 mcg/kg. An electrocardiogram and arterial pressure were monitored continuously, and arterial blood gas was measured at 7.5 and 15 min. Epinephrine improved initial return of spontaneous circulation (rate-pressure product > 30% baseline) but only 3 of 5 rats at 10 mcg/kg and 1 of 5 rats at 25 mcg/kg sustained return of spontaneous circulation by 15 min. Lipid alone resulted in slower but more sustained recovery. Epinephrine doses above a threshold near 10 mcg/kg increased lactate, worsened acidosis, and resulted in poor recovery at 15 min, as compared with lipid controls. There was tight correlation of epinephrine dose to serum lactate at 15 min. Epinephrine over a threshold dose near 10 mcg/kg impairs lipid resuscitation from bupivacaine overdose, possibly by inducing hyperlactatemia.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Anesthesiology
  • A Tarakji · S Prasad · E Chedrawy · M G Massad

    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon

Publication Stats

2k Citations
378.14 Total Impact Points


  • 1997-2013
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • • Department of Surgery (Chicago)
      • • Department of Anesthesiology (Chicago)
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2007
    • Wright State University
      • Department of Surgery
      Dayton, OH, United States
  • 2004
    • The University of Chicago Medical Center
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1999
    • Cleveland Clinic
      • Transplant Center
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 1998
    • Cleveland Clinic Laboratories
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States