[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Left atrial (LA) size is a good predictor of many cardiovascular outcomes, including atrial fibrillation, stroke and heart failure. Real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) may be a superior index for estimating LA volume, compared with traditional M-mode and 2D methods. In this study, we used RT3DE to evaluate phasic LA volumes and functions among different age groups of healthy Taiwanese subjects. Methods: Sixty-eight healthy volunteers were divided into three groups according to age. Group 1: under 40 years old (n = 20); group 2: 40-60 years old (n = 24); and group 3: over 60 years old (n = 24). RT3DE of LA volume was acquired from the apical view. Three phasic LA volumes, including maximal LA volume (LAVmax), minimal LA volume (LAVmin) and LA volume before atrial contraction (LAVpreA) were measured. These phasic LA volumes were used to calculate the emptying volume and emptying fraction at different phases of one heart cycle. Results: There were significantly positive correlations between age and LA volumes (r = 0.639 for LAVmax, r = 0.642 for LAVpreA, r = 0.661 for LAVmin; all p < 0.001). Total LA empty volume (p < 0.001) and active LA empty volume (p = 0.001) also positively correlated with age. In contrast, total, passive and active LA emptying fractions were not significantly different among the three age groups. Conclusion: Aging has a significant effect on phasic LA volumes, but phasic LA empty fractions remain unchanged in healthy Taiwanese adults.
Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Acta Cardiologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcatheter closure of a secundum defect using a septal occluder is a safe and effective procedure based on long-term follow-up, but no clinical studies have examined immediate hemodynamic changes. We evaluated pulmonary venous flow velocity pattern before and immediately after deployment of the Amplatzer septal occluder for closure of atrial septal defect. From May 2003 to January 2005, 48 patients with secundum atrial septal defect received transcatheter closure with complete occlusion. Patients were divided into two groups according to age: pediatric group, under 16 years (n = 30, age 7.3 +/- 3.2 years), and adult group, 16 years or older (n = 18, age 30.1 +/- 11.4 years). Pulmonary venous flow pattern was recorded by transesophageal echocardiography before and immediately after occluder deployment. Immediately after deployment in both patient groups, pulmonary vein systolic (S) and diastolic (D) wave velocity decreased, but atrial reversal (AR) wave velocity increased. In the pediatric group, S-wave was 56.1 +/- 17.1 versus 35.5 +/- 11.3 cm/sec (P < 0.001); D-wave was 57.6 +/- 12.5 versus 42.9 +/- 11.8 cm/sec (P < 0.001); and AR wave velocity was 12.2 +/- 3.8 versus 15.5 +/- 4.1 cm/sec (P < 0.001). In the adult group, S-wave was 48.4 +/- 13.7 versus 32.7 +/- 10.3 cm/sec (P < 0.001); D-wave was 51.9 +/- 11.7 versus 38.0 +/- 8.5 m/sec (P < 0.001); and AR wave velocity was 12.1 +/- 4.1 versus 16.2 +/- 4.9 cm/sec (P < 0.001). Comparison of pulmonary venous flow before and immediately after deployment of the Amplatzer septal occluder provides an excellent model to evaluate the influence of an atrial communication on pulmonary venous flow. Pulmonary venous forward flow decreases following atrial septal defect (ASD) closure.
No preview · Article · May 2009 · Echocardiography
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sympathetic hyperactivation in many kinds of neurocardiogenic injury can result in obvious heart failure. We generated a vagotomized feline model in which sympathetic hyperactivation was induced by electrical stimulation of dorsal medulla (ESDM) of brain stem to investigate the relationship between disruption of extracellular collagen matrix (ECM) and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in myocardium in the sympathetic hyperactivity. Mean blood pressure, heart rate and plasma norepinephrine were all significantly increased from baseline to a peak at 5 min after ESDM. Echocardiographic study showed significant left ventricular dilatation and hypokinesia (ejection fraction: from 87.7 +/- 6.3% to 39.4 +/- 7.8%) from baseline to 180 mm after ESDM. Histopathological finding revealed significant overstretching or spring-like disappearance and disruption of ECM. MMP-2 expression was significantly increased in left ventricular myocardium as compared to sham. These results suggest that ESDM-induced sympathetic hyperactivity causes the expression of MMP-2 that disrupts myocardial ECM, contributing to the development of cardiac dysfunction.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · The Chinese journal of physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome is gaining more attention as a special cluster of cardiovascular risks. However, its role, with or without diabetes, in predicting atherosclerosis progression, remains largely undetermined. We investigated the predictors for angiographic coronary atherosclerosis progression in patients with metabolic syndrome and angina pectoris.
Patients with metabolic syndrome and angina pectoris who underwent repeat coronary angiograms and had serum samples at the time of first catheterization were enrolled for analysis (N=113). A modified Gensini scoring system was used to define CAD progression between the index and follow-up angiograms. Those who had significant angiographic progression of coronary disease were classified as the progression group (N=42) and those who did not as the non-progression group (N=71).
There were more cases of diabetes mellitus (52% vs. 31%, p=0.040) in the CAD progression group. The progression group also had higher baseline fasting blood glucose (150+/-73 vs. 117+/-46 mg/dl, p=0.010) but similar LDL cholesterol (114+/-38 vs. 109+/-33 mg/dl, p=0.421) than the non-progression group. In terms of inflammatory markers, there was no difference in hs-CRP (p=0.208), MCP-1 (p=0.514), or sCD40L (p=0.549) between the groups. In binary logistic regression, diabetes mellitus remained a significant predictor of CAD progression (OR 2.43, p=0.030) for patients with metabolic syndrome and angina pectoris, but hs-CRP and LDL-C were not.
Diabetes mellitus, but not inflammatory marker hs-CRP or LDL-C, is a significant predictor of angiographic CAD progression in patients with metabolic syndrome and angina pectoris.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Clinica Chimica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that osteoporosis decreases physical function in older males. However, the role of metabolic parameters and physical activity influencing older men's bone status remains unclear. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate calcaneus bone mass by ultrasonic screening and the associated physical and metabolic functions in older men. This was a cross-sectional study. Three hundred sixty-eight older men (average age, 78.8 years) living in a veterans' home were enrolled. We measured body height and weight, waist and hip circumference, body fat, lean body mass, blood pressure, 6-min walking distance, complete blood count, and blood biochemical profile. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and T-score were recorded using Soundscan quantitative ultrasound over the right calcaneus. The range of calcaneus BUA was 27.3-134.0; T-score was from -4.78 to 3.43. Of the total participants, 36.4% were osteopenic (-2.5 < T-score < -1.0) and 16.3% were osteoporotic (T-score <or= -2.5). BUA correlated with weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, body fat, lean body mass, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, albumin, prealbumin, fasting and PC-2h blood insulin, red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and 6-min walking distance. Multiple regression stepwise analysis revealed that only BMI, distance of 6-min walking, and blood triglyceride level were independently and positively associated with the values of BUA. Calcaneus bone mass is significantly and positively associated with BMI, blood triglycerides, and 6-min walking distance in older men.
No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circulating vasogenic factors may be up-regulated in response to ischemia to promote angiogenesis in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Studies on this are limited in number and size, and results are inconsistent, especially regarding basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) level. From March 1999 to April 2004, all consecutive patients with lower limb PAD having serum samples at the time of intervention were recruited. The diameter of the primary PAD lesion had to be at least 70% stenotic at the lower limb artery. Control subjects, who underwent angiography, were free of PAD, coronary disease, and other major medical diseases. Serum samples were analyzed for circulating hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and bFGF levels. Patients with PAD (n = 60) had higher circulating HGF levels (mean +/- SEM, 1,544 +/- 238 vs 970 +/- 129 pg/mL; P = .04) but similar bFGF distribution tertiles (P = .55) compared with control subjects (n = 30). Thirty-six patients with summed PAD lesion lengths exceeding 5 cm demonstrated a significantly higher circulating HGF level compared with control subjects (mean +/- SEM, 1,701 +/- 335 vs 970 +/- 129 pg/mL; P = .048). Patients with concurrent coronary artery disease tend to have a higher circulating HGF level (mean +/- SEM, 1,606 +/- 365 vs 970 +/- 129 pg/mL; P = .06) but not a higher bFGF level compared with control subjects. Circulating HGF level, but not bFGF level, is significantly elevated in patients with symptomatic angiographically documented PAD, especially in those with more extensive involvement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipocyte cytokines regulate glucose metabolism and insulin resistance and adiponectin is thought to have a protective effect against atherosclerosis. Studies have shown that adiponectin expression is decreased in obese subjects and those with metabolic syndrome or diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between circulating adipocyte cytokine concentrations and angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) progression in patients with chest pain. Patients with stable angina pectoris who underwent repeat coronary angiograms and had serum samples at the time of first catheterization between March 1999 and January 2004 were enrolled. A modified Gensini scoring system was used to define angiographic coronary artery progression between the index and follow-up angiograms. Those who had significant angiographic progression of coronary lesions were classified into the progression group (N=55). Those who did not have CAD progression were classified into the non-progression group (N=102). Univariate analysis showed that CAD progression was associated with male gender (93% vs. 78%, p=0.038), higher baseline total cholesterol (187+/-43 vs. 173+/-39 mg/dl, p=0.037) and higher baseline fasting blood glucose (128+/-57 vs. 110+/-40 mg/dl, p=0.037). Patients in the progression group had a significantly lower serum adiponectin level (14.3+/-7.9 vs. 18.9+/-13.2 mug/ml, p=0.007) than, but resistin (28.9+/-13.4 vs. 34.4+/-26.0 ng/ml, p=0.142) and leptin (7.4+/-4.6 vs. 7.7+/-6.5 ng/ml, p=0.675) levels similar to, those in the non-progression group. In a multivariate binary logistic regression model, male gender (odds ratio 4.283, p=0.015), higher serum cholesterol (odds ratio 1.010, p=0.032) and lower serum adiponectin (odds ratio 0.959, p=0.030) were all significant independent predictors of CAD progression. In conclusion, we found that a decreased circulating level of adiponectin is associated with angiographic CAD progression in patients with angina pectoris.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · International journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This increase might be caused by low-grade inflammation, but a number of studies have suggested that serum CRP concentrations are under genetic control. Since the relation between CRP concentration and cardiovascular diseases occurs across ethnicities, we determined whether CRP gene variants affect fasting hs-CRP concentrations in a cohort of Chinese men.
High-sensitivity CRP concentrations were measured in 369 Chinese men. Six polymorphisms were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and direct sequencing within the CRP gene: 969T>C, 1009A>G, and a 3-allele polymorphism 1440C>A>T in the 5' UTR (promoter region), 2667G>C in exon 2, and 3872A>G and 5992T>A in the 3' UTR.
In a group of participants (n=328) whose fasting serum hs-CRP concentrations were within the 5th to 95th percentile, we found that the genetic polymorphism 1009A>G was significantly associated with fasting serum hs-CRP concentrations (GG vs. AG or AA genotypes, CRP concentrations 0.072+/-0.062 vs. 0.176+/-0.166 and 0.166+/-0.185 mg/dl, mean+/-S.D., both P=0.023). Furthermore, subjects carrying the 1009G bearing haplotype exhibited the lowest CRP concentrations (P=0.05).
The CRP 1009A>G genotypes and associated haplotypes were associated with lower fasting serum hs-CRP concentrations in a group of elderly Chinese men.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) is an effective treatment for mitral stenosis, but trans-septal puncture carries a certain risk of complications. There have been few reports on phase-array intra-cardiac echocardiography (ICE) guidance in trans-septal puncture for PTMC, especially in patients with dilated left atrium or distorted anatomy. Herein, we report our preliminary experience with ICE-guided trans-septal puncture in patients with dilated left atrium (>or=5.5 cm) who underwent PTMC. From June 2005 to March 2006, there were nine consecutive patients with symptomatic mitral stenosis and left atrium size larger than 5.5 cm who underwent trans-septal puncture for PTMC with the ICE guidance in this institution by a same operator. The procedural and catheterization results were analyzed. Using ICE guidance, the success rate for trans-septal puncture was 100% for all patients with dilated left atrium (>or=5.5 cm). The trans-septal procedures were free of major and minor complications and the patients were not exposed to contrast medium. Mitral valve area increased significantly from 1.0+/-0.2 cm(2) to 1.9+/-0.2 cm(2). Our preliminary result showed that ICE safely and effectively guided trans-septal puncture for PTMC in patients with dilated left atrium (>or=5.5 cm), thus eliminating contrast medium usage and avoiding unnecessary longer X-ray exposure.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · International journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interruption of the aortic arch is a rare and usually lethal congenital anomaly that is often associated with multiple cardiac malformations. Most neonates with aortic arch interruption perish once the ductus arteriosus closes after birth. However, sporadic cases have been reported to survive into adulthood uneventfully. Here, we report a 19-year-old male with a 3-month history of exertional dyspnea. A series of cardiovascular studies confirmed the presence of aortic arch interruption in conjunction with sinus venosus atrial septal defect and partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. To the best of our knowledge, such an association has not been previously reported in adults.
Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Journal of the Chinese Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caveolin-1, the major structural protein of caveolae, is present in several cell types known to play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, the distribution and expression of caveolin-1 in the arterial walls were studied in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Immunohistochemical results indicated that the staining intensity of caveolin-1 reached a high level in the arterial intima at 5 weeks after high-cholesterol-diet treatment and decreased to a very low level at 8 weeks when atheromatous plaques appeared. Western blot analysis showed that in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet for 5 weeks, the expression of caveolin-1 reached its highest level and then decreased from 8 to 12 weeks. The proliferative activity of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) decreased to the lowest level at 5 weeks and then increased at 8 and 12 weeks. Nitric oxide synthase activity gradually decreased in animals fed a high-cholesterol diet throughout the experiment. These studies demonstrate that the change in abundance of caveolin-1 is associated with SMC proliferation in the formation of atheromatous plaque after hypercholesterolemia insult.
Preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iso-osmolar iodixanol was shown to least affect very-short-term renal function. However, its short- and long-term renal effects after cardiovascular catheterizations in severe renal insufficiency remain unknown.
Patients undergoing elective cardiovascular catheterizations and having pre-procedural serum creatinine (Scr) > or =2.5 mg/dl were prospectively studied. The results were compared to those of historical controls who received iopromide.
The iodixanol group included 27 patients, aged 73+/-1 years, and the case-matched control group consisted of another 27 patients, aged 71+/-1 years. The baseline Scr were 3.0+/-0.3 and 3.0+/-0.2 mg/dl respectively. Although the Scr at 3 months was similar, the Scr at 6 months was lower in the iodixanol group (2.7+/-0.3 vs 4.2+/-0.5 mg/dl, p = 0.017). The absolute and percentage increments in Scr at 3 months (0.0+/-0.2 vs 0.6+/-0.2 mg/dl, p = 0.014, and 1+/-4% vs 24+/-6%, p = 0.003, respectively) and 6 months (-0.3+/-0.2 vs 1.3+/-0.4 mg/dl, p = 0.001, and -10+/-5% vs 47+/-12%, p < 0.001, respectively) were lower in the iodixanol group.
Iodixanol better preserves short- and long-term renal outcomes in patients with severe baseline renal insufficiency.
No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · International Journal of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nontraditional atherosclerotic risk factors have become the focus of attention in recent years. In addition, metabolic syndrome is gaining recognition as another multiplex cardiovascular risk factor. However, to date, no studies have investigated the effect of metabolic syndrome on circulating soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, cellular adhesion molecules, and disease severity in patients with symptomatic coronary artery diseases. This study was conducted to address this issue. Patients with stable angina who received percutaneous coronary interventions for significant (> or = 70% diameter stenosis) de novo lesions between January 1999 and January 2004 and had preprocedural serum samples were enrolled. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria with waist criterion modified into body mass index of more than 25 kg/m2. The serum samples were thawed and analyzed for circulating sCD40L, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, adhesion molecules, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Coronary severity was assessed by a modified version of Gensini scoring system. A total of 313 patients, 248 males and 65 females, were studied. Among them, 222 (70.9%, 170 males and 52 females) had metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome had higher serum creatinine level and lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol despite higher triglyceride concentration. In multivariate analysis, patients with metabolic syndrome had higher sCD40L (6057 +/- 275 vs. 5051 +/- 423 pg/mL, P = .037) and more hs-CRP in higher tertiles (P = .005) than patients without, but similar levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and P selectin. Metabolic syndrome was also significantly associated with multiple coronary vessel involvements with 70% or higher diameter stenosis (36.5% double-vessel and 14% triple-vessel diseases vs 30.8% double-vessel and 5.5% triple-vessel diseases, P = .026) and multiple coronary segment involvements with 50% or higher diameter stenosis (P = .014) in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, the presence of metabolic syndrome is independently associated with elevated sCD40L, hs-CRP, and coronary disease severity in patients with coronary artery disease requiring interventional treatment of stable angina.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intravenous norepinephrine (NE) at a dose of 1-6 microg/kg/minute can induce increased extracellular matrix (ECM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a higher dose of NE on cardiac remodeling.
After intraperitoneal urethane-chloralose anesthesia, 7 cats (3.03 +/- 0.58 kg) received intravenous infusion of NE 30 microg/kg/minute for 3 hours. Aortic blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were measured by polygraphy at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes. Left ventricular size and ejection fraction (EF) were measured by M-mode echocardiography before and after NE administration. Histopathology was performed by hematoxylin-eosin, silver impregnation, and Sirius red staining. Activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in the left ventricle was measured by zymography.
Mean blood pressure (mmHg) increased from 139 +/- 20 to 198 +/- 19, 187 +/- 23, and 166 +/- 16 at 15, 30, and 60 minutes, respectively, during NE infusion. HR (beats/minute) decreased from 214 +/- 10 to 158 +/- 28 at 15 minutes and then recovered gradually. The left ventricles showed significant dilatation (end-diastolic diameter: from 1.20 +/- 0.18 to 1.58 +/- 0.23cm, p=0.003; end-systolic diameter: from 0.62 +/- 0.23 to 1.35 +/- 0.29cm, p=0.002) and hypokinesia (EF: from 86.2 +/- 5.2 to 33.1 +/- 16.5%, p < 0.001). Histopathology revealed that left ventricular myocytes were elongated, wavy, and fragmented, while collagen fibers were overstretched, straightened, and disrupted. MMP-9 activity was significantly elevated (p = 0.003 vs. control), while MMP-2 activity was unchanged.
High-dose NE increases MMP-9 activity and causes ECM disruption, left ventricular dilatation and dysfunction.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · Journal of the Chinese Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical trials on contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) prevention with different approaches generated various results. In this study, we investigated whether intravenous aminophylline preceding percutaneous transluminal renal artery stenting (PTRS) might provide better renal protection.
Patients with severe atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis and undergoing PTRS were prospectively studied. Intravenous aminophylline 250 mg was administered 30 min before PTRS.
The aminophylline group included 15 patients (mean age, 68+/-4 years) and the case-matched control group consisted of another 15 patients (mean age, 71+/-2 years). After a mean follow-up of 5-6 months, both groups showed similar serum creatinine (1.7+/-0.2 vs. 1.6+/-0.1 mg/dl, P=NS), BUN (20.0+/-3.0 vs. 24.0+/-3.0 mg/dl, P=NS), fall in systolic (-15+/-13 vs. -11+/-3 mm Hg, P=NS) and diastolic BP (-2+/-4 vs. -6+/-5 mm Hg, P=NS). The incidence of post-operative renal deterioration was 6.7% in the study group and none in the control group.
Pre-treatment intravenous aminophylline provides no additional renal protective effect in delicately practiced PTRS.
No preview · Article · Jul 2006 · International Journal of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death worldwide. Epidemiological studies have documented conventional risk factors; however, no studies to date have addressed the roles of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and there have been few reports on other novel risk factors in CAD progression. The aim of the present study was to explore the roles of novel and conventional risk factors in CAD progression.
Patients with stable angina pectoris who underwent repeat coronary angiograms and had serum samples at the time of their first catheterization between March 1999 and January 2004 were enrolled. Those who had progression of coronary atherosclerosis were classified into the progression group (n = 66). Those who did not have CAD progression were classified into the nonprogression group (n = 124).
There were more cases of diabetes mellitus (36% versus 20%; P = 0.024) and more men (92% versus 81%; P = 0.040) in the CAD progression group than in the nonprogression group, respectively. The progression group also had poorer lipid profiles than the nonprogression group, including higher total cholesterol (188+/-42 mg/dL versus 173+/-39 mg/dL, respectively; P = 0.014) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (122+/-38 mg/dL versus 112+/-36 mg/dL, respectively; P = 0.025). In terms of inflammatory markers, progression patients had higher baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations (P = 0.018), which was also related to the subsequent angiographic severity score changes; however, sCD40L (6182+/-4352 pg/mL versus 6244+/-4602 pg/mL; P = 0.961), MCP-1 (427+/-540 pg/mL versus 341+/-128 pg/mL; P = 0.580) and adhesion molecules concentrations were indifferent between the progression group and the nonprogression group, respectively. Using a multivariate logistical regression model, the ORs for predicting progression were 2.19 for diabetes mellitus, 2.04 for hypercholesterolemia and 1.52 for hs-CRP (P < 0.05).
In the present study, only conventional risk factors, and particularly hs-CRP, were markers for predicting CAD progression. Novel risk factors, such as concentrations of sCD40L, MCP-1 and adhesion molecules, did not play significant roles.
No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · The Canadian journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and post-angioplasty restenosis. Berberine is a well-known component of the Chinese herb medicine Huanglian (Coptis chinensis), and is capable of inhibiting SMC contraction and proliferation, yet the exact mechanism is unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of berberine on SMC growth after mechanic injury in vitro. DNA synthesis and cell proliferation assay were performed to show that berberine inhibited serum-stimulated rat aortic SMC growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Mechanical injury with sterile pipette tip stimulated the regrowth of SMCs. Treatment with berberine prevented the regrowth and migration of SMCs into the denuded trauma zone. Western blot analysis showed that activation of the MEK1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and up-regulation of early growth response gene (Egr-1), c-Fos and Cyclin D1 were observed sequentially after mechanic injury in vitro. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR assay further confirmed the increase of Egr-1, c-Fos, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and Cyclin D1 expression in a transcriptional level. However, berberine significantly attenuated MEK/ERK activation and downstream target (Egr-1, c-Fos, Cyclin D1 and PDGF-A) expression after mechanic injury in vitro. Our study showed that berberine blocked injury-induced SMC regrowth by inactivation of ERK/Egr-1 signaling pathway thereby preventing early signaling induced by injury in vitro. The anti-proliferative properties of berberine may be useful in treating disorders due to inappropriate SMC growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that the highest dominant frequency (DF) is located in the left atrium (LA) during atrial fibrillation (AF) in pacing-induced AF. However, there have been few studies on the mechanisms of the increased DF of AF during acute atrial dilatation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the increased maximal DF (max DF) in pacing-induced AF during acute atrial dilatation.
In eight Langendorff-perfused canine hearts (26 +/- 2 kg), noncontact balloon catheters were placed into the right atrium (RA) and LA, respectively. AF was induced by extrastimulation pre- and postdilatation in the atrium (0 and 15 cm H(2)O, respectively). Fast Fourier transformation analysis was performed to analyze the max DF and harmonic index (HI) from the bi-atrial unipolar virtual electrograms during AF. The fibrillation cycle lengths were obtained from different atrial sites. The number of wavefronts was analyzed during AF. The frequency of regional splitting was defined as the number of wavefront splits per second in different atrial regions during AF. The percentage of the low-voltage zones (<0.5 mV) was defined as the ratio of the area of the low-voltage zones to the total atrial surface area.
The DF was measured during AF. The shortest fibrillation cycle length was located in the LA posterior wall and became shorter during acute atrial dilatation. The max DF was located in the LA posterior wall and increased during acute atrial dilatation (7.1 +/- 0.8 vs 8.8 +/- 2.1, P = 0.02). The max DF of the LA correlated with the wavefront number (r = 0.797, P < 0.001 predilatation; r = 0.860, P < 0.001 postdilatation). The splitting of wavefronts facilitated the formation of new wavefronts. During acute atrial dilatation, the frequency of regional splitting was closely correlated with the percentage of the low-voltage zones (r = 0.876, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the LA posterior wall had a higher percentage of the low-voltage zones than the other sites.
In acute atrial dilatation, the percentage of the low-voltage zones increased, especially in the LA posterior wall, which correlated with the regional splitting of the AF wavefronts. The increase in the splitting facilitated the formation of new wavefronts and resulted in a higher max DF during acute atrial dilatation.
No preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD40 and its ligand participate in atherosclerosis formation, progression and destabilization. Increased soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) was observed in hypercholesterolemia, unstable angina and conditions with platelet activation. To date, there is no report on the association of sCD40L with angiographic peripheral artery disease (PAD) disease severity.
From March 1999 to April 2004, consecutive patients having angiographically documented PAD and given consents for pre-procedural serum sample use were recruited into this study. The key PAD lesions should be > or = 70% diameter stenotic at the lower limbs and patients were dichotomized into two groups depending on total PAD lengths. Peer angiographic control subjects were those free of coronary disease, PAD and major medical diseases. The serum samples were thawed and analyzed for sCD40L, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and hs-CRP in a single batch.
A total of 63 well-defined lower-limb PAD patients and 30 control subjects were studied. Patients with PAD lengths >5 cm (N=38) presented higher sCD40L than those with lesions < or = 5 cm (N=25) (5430+/-459 vs. 3889+/-507 pg/ml, p=0.037) and control subjects (5430+/-459 vs. 3973+/-551 pg/ml, p=0.037). However, there was no significant difference in circulating MCP-1 (375+/-49 vs. 310+/-49 pg/ml and 297+/-24 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.371) or hs-CRP (0.64+/-0.16 vs. 0.51+/-0.15 mg/ml and 0.46+/-0.15 mg/dl, respectively, p=0.682) across three groups. PAD patients with associated coronary lesions did not differ in circulating CD40L, MCP-1 or hs-CRP from without and control subjects.
Soluble CD40L was significantly elevated in patients with more advanced symptomatic PAD and might be an indicator for disease extent stratification. The distribution of sCD40L in PAD was not affected by coronary involvement or not.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Thrombosis Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous transluminal renal artery stenting (PTRAS) is associated with declining renal function in a non-negligible portion of patients and is inflicted by different mechanisms, including atheroembolism. This study investigated whether delicate PTRAS to reduce atheroembolism might minimize postoperative renal injury and better preserve renal function. Patients undergoing PTRAS performed by experienced interventional cardiologists, applying coronary intervention concepts, techniques, devices and delicacy principles whenever possible, were prospectively studied. A total of 34 patients (29 M/5 F) with impaired renal function (group A, creatinine 2.4 +/- 0.1 mg/dL) and another 20 patients (16 M/4 F) with normal serum creatinine (group B, baseline creatinine 1.2 +/- 0.0 mg/dL) were studied. PTRAS was successfully performed in all but one group A patient. During a 6-month follow-up, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (130 +/- 2 versus 148 +/- 4 mmHg, P = 0.001 and 70 +/- 2 versus 78 +/- 3 mmHg, P = 0.006) and serum creatinine (2.1 +/- 0.1 versus 2.4 +/- 0.1 mg/dL, P < 0.001) were all significantly lowered in group A patients. Using a 20% change cut-off value, renal function improved in eight (24%), remained unchanged in 24 patients (73%), and deteriorated in only one patient (3%). The corresponding alterations in blood pressure and renal function were insignificant in group B patients. Patients with bilateral involvement (eleven patients) also had significantly lowered serum creatinine on follow-up. In conclusion, delicately practiced PTRAS can reduce the rate of postprocedural renal deterioration in patients with impaired renal function, and should be adopted in every renal intervention.
No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · International Heart Journal