[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relapse or worsening of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is generally assumed to be due to recurrent disease. Here we document that often that may not be the case.
This is a prospective study of 7 consecutive IMN patients whose renal status improved, then worsened after completing a course of immunosuppressive therapy. Each underwent detailed testing and repeat kidney biopsy.
In 4 patients (group A), the biopsy showed recurrent IMN (fresh subepithelial deposits). Immunosuppressive therapy was begun. In the other 3 patients (group B), the biopsy showed that the deposits had been eradicated. However, the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was thickened and vacuolated. Immunosuppressive therapy was withheld. Groups A and B were comparable except that group B had very high intakes of salt and protein, based on 24-hour urine testing. Reducing their high salt intake sharply lowered proteinuria to the subnephrotic range and serum creatinine stabilized.
This work is the first to demonstrate that relapse/worsening of NS can occur in IMN even though the GBM deposits have been eradicated. High salt and protein intake in combination with thickened and vacuolated GBM appears to be the mechanism.
Preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Nephron Clinical Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2) affects mesangial proliferation, survival and production of proinflammatory proteins. During a survey of the mesangial cell proteome after treatment with 15dPGJ2, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was found to be the most conspicuously up-regulated protein, suggesting that stress proteins are key mediators or modulators of the effects of 15dPGJ2. Because cyclopentenone prostaglandins are highly reactive toward intracellular thiols, the role of intracellular thiol modification in the stress response to 15dPGJ2 was examined.
Human mesangial cells were treated with 15dPGJ2 and intracellular thiol status was monitored by the fluorescent thiol probe monobromobimane (MBB). Specific intracellular thiol pools were manipulated by treating the cells with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) to deplete glutathione (GSH), or phenylarsine oxide (PAO) to modify protein vicinal dithiols. Transcription pathways were examined with reporter gene or adenoviral constructs.
15dPGJ2 decreased mesangial GSH and other intracellular thiols, but depletion of GSH specifically with BSO did not induce HSP70. Thiol-replenishing reagents, which can restore modified protein thiols, attenuated 15dPGJ2-induced HSP70 levels. Furthermore, PAO mimicked the effects of 15dPGJ2 on HSP70. 15dPGJ2 also activated the stress-responsive transcription factor Nrf2, which requires thiol modification of its cytoplasmic inhibitor protein for transcriptional activity, and induced the Nrf2-dependent stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1).
15dPGJ2 activates a stress response in human mesangial cells by covalent modification of protein thiols through its unique cyclopentenone ring structure. This stress response may be beneficial in preventing renal cell injury or death during kidney inflammation or ischemia.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2004 · Kidney International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is widely accepted that proteinuria reduction is an appropriate therapeutic goal in chronic proteinuric kidney disease. Based on large randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT), ACE inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy have emerged as the most important antiproteinuric and renal protective interventions. However, there are numerous other interventions that have been shown to be antiproteinuric and, therefore, likely to be renoprotective. Unfortunately testing each of these antiproteinuric therapies in RCT is not feasible. The nephrologist has two choices: restrict antiproteinuric therapies to those shown to be effective in RCT or expand the use of antiproteinuric therapies to include those that, although unproven, are plausibly effective and prudent to use. The goal of this work is to provide the documentation needed for the nephrologist to choose between these strategies. This work describes 25 separate interventions that are either antiproteinuric or may block injurious mechanisms of proteinuria. Each intervention is assigned a level of recommendation (Level 1 is the highest; Level 3 is the lowest) according to the strength of the evidence supporting its antiproteinuric and renoprotective efficacy. Pathophysiologic mechanisms possibly involved are also discussed. The number of interventions at each level of recommendation are: Level 1, n = 7; Level 2, n = 9; Level 3, n = 9. Our experience indicates that we can achieve in most patients the majority of Level 1 and many of the Level 2 and 3 recommendations. We suggest that, until better information becomes available, a broad-based, multiple-risk factor intervention to reduce proteinuria can be justified in those with progressive nephropathies. This work is intended primarily for clinical nephrologists; therefore, each antiproteinuria intervention is described in practical detail.
Preview · Article · Jan 2004 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) peritonitis is usually caused by infection and less commonly by a sterile inflammatory reaction.
The authors report the case of a kidney-pancreas transplant recipient who was receiving PD after kidney transplant rejection 5 years after transplantation. The patient had a viable pancreas transplant. He had abdominal pain associated with cloudy PD effluent. The PD leukocyte count was elevated with a predominance of monocytic leukocytes.
Blood, urine, and PD effluent cultures were negative. An ultrasound scan of the transplanted kidney and a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis did not identify the cause of the peritonitis. Foley catheter decompression of the bladder resulted in improvement of the abdominal pain and PD effluent leukocytosis. Twenty-five days later, the patient again experienced abdominal pain and cloudy PD effluent. Cultures of blood and PD effluent were again negative. CT scanning and cystoscopy of the transplanted pancreas identified a leak at the pancreaticoduodenocystotomy anastamosis. Urinary bladder decompression was followed by surgical exploration that identified an erosion of the distal transplanted duodenum, necessitating enteric diversion of the transplanted pancreas's exocrine secretions. The patient underwent conversion to hemodialysis, and the pancreas transplant continued to function well. He has subsequently received a living related kidney transplant.
This is the first reported case of noninfectious PD peritonitis caused by pancreaticoduodenocystotomy leak in a patient with a functional pancreas transplant.
Preview · Article · Jul 2003 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mediates the development of glomerulosclerosis by stimulating mesangial cell production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. TGF-beta1 and several ECM genes are regulated by promoter O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-responsive elements (TREs) that are transactivated by the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex. AP-1-TRE interactions are regulated by redox changes. Recently, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) were shown to negatively regulate several transcription factor families. In these studies, we postulated that PPAR-alpha could antagonize TGF-beta1 expression by cultured human mesangial cells (HMC). A TGF-beta1 luciferase expression plasmid was transduced into HMC via recombinant deficient adenoviral vectors. The TGF-beta1 promoter activity increased twofold (209%) following 18-h treatments with H(2)O(2) (1,000 micro M). Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated that HMC possess PPAR-alpha RNA, and PPAR-alpha protein was identified by immunohistochemistry. Pretreatment of cells with the PPAR-alpha ligands WY14643 (100-500 micro M) or clofibrate (100-500 micro M) dose-dependently inhibited oxidant-mediated induction of TGF-beta1. This inhibition occurred without affecting the H(2)O(2)-mediated activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways extracellular regulated kinase, p38 MAPK, or Jun N-terminal kinase, which are responsible for the regulation of AP-1 phosphorylation. These studies are the first to identify PPAR-alpha expression by HMC. The results of these studies suggest that TGF-beta1 expression mediated by oxidant stress may be suppressible by PPAR-alpha activation.
No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Antioxidants and Redox Signaling
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calciphylaxis is a small vessel vasculopathy involving mural calcification with intimal proliferation, fibrosis, and thrombosis. This syndrome occurs predominantly in individuals with renal failure and results in ischemia and necrosis of skin, subcutaneous fat, visceral organs, and skeletal muscle. The syndrome causes significant morbidity in the form of infection, organ failure, and pain. Mortality rates are high. In individuals with renal failure, risk factors for the development of calciphylaxis include female sex, Caucasian race, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Many cases occur within the first year of dialysis treatment. Several recent reports demonstrate that prolonged hyperphosphatemia and/or elevated calcium x phosphorus products are associated with the syndrome. Protein malnutrition increases the likelihood of calciphylaxis, as does warfarin use and hypercoagulable states, such as protein C and/or protein S deficiency. Recent advances in diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies have helped in the management of patients with calciphylaxis.
No preview · Article · May 2002 · Seminars in Dialysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Proliferation of intrinsic glomerular cells is a common response to renal injury. Acutely, proliferation may be beneficial, but sustained glomerular hypercellularity after injury is associated with progressive renal failure. To identify endogenous factors that may be responsible for regulating glomerular cell number, the effects of J-series cyclopentenone prostaglandins (PGs) on human glomerular mesangial cell proliferation and death were examined. Methods. Human mesangial cells were grown in the presence or absence of PGJ2 or its metabolite 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 (15dPGJ2). The number of viable cells was measured by the reduction of the tetrazolium MTS to a colored formazan product. Apoptosis was assessed by caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Results. PGJ2 at concentrations up to 10 μmol/L caused mesangial proliferation. 15dPGJ2 also caused mesangial proliferation at low concentrations (≤2.5 μmol/L), but induced mesangial cell death at higher concentrations (>5 μmol/L). Cell death occurred in part through apoptosis, measured as an increase in caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation in 15dPGJ2-treated cells. Cell death was associated with a decline in baseline phosphorylation of the survival factor Akt and increased Akt degradation, whereas 15dPGJ2-induced mesangial proliferation was blocked by inhibition of the PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway. 15dPGJ2 is a potent PPARγ agonist. Like 15dPGJ2, treatment of mesangial cells with thiazolidinedione-type PPARγ ligands (10 to 20 μmol/L) caused significant cell death, but at lower concentrations also caused a small degree of proliferation. Conclusions. J-series prostaglandins thus may be involved in the initiation of glomerular hypercellularity through Akt-dependent proliferation, and restoration of normal glomerular architecture through PPARγ-mediated apoptosis. Manipulation of these prostaglandins may be relevant to the treatment of progressive glomerular disease.
Preview · Article · Apr 2002 · Kidney International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High glucose (HG) environments activate several protein kinase pathways in mesangial cells, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, ERK. The p38 MAPK pathway is activated by events that occur in the setting of diabetes, such as protein kinase C (PKC) up-regulation and cellular stresses (osmotic stress and redox changes). Substrates of activated p38 MAPK include transcription factors that are involved in the microvascular complications of diabetes. This current study investigated the mechanisms of HG-mediated activation of p38 MAPK in cultured human mesangial cells (HMCs) and the effects of p38 MAPK activation on the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1).
HMCs were cultured in 5 mmol/L D-glucose [normal glucose (NG)] or 30 mmol/L D-glucose (HG) for seven days. Cells were also treated with HG for brief periods of time (0.5 to 4 hours) to assess the acute effects of HG on p38 MAPK. Using Western blotting of HMC lysates, changes in the tyrosine and threonine phosphorylation of p38 MAPK were measured. The kinase activity of immunoprecipitated p38 MAPK was determined by an in vitro assay that measured the phosphorylation and activation of MAPKAP kinase-2, an intermediary signaling protein downstream of p38 MAPK. To investigate the role of osmotic stress in HG activation of p38 MAPK, cells were acutely treated with mannitol (25 to 250 mOsm/L x 5 to 60 min) or were grown seven days in media supplemented with mannitol at concentrations iso-osmotic to HG media. To investigate the role of PKC in HG-mediated p38 MAPK activation, HMCs were treated with the PKC inhibitors GF 109203X, Ro 32-0432, or rottlerin during the last several hours of HG treatment. HG conditioned cells were also treated with the antioxidants L-N-acetylcysteine (L-NAC) or diphenyliodonium (DPI) prior to harvest. To determine a functional significance of HG-mediated p38 MAPK activation, the DNA binding of the transcription factor complex AP-1 was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay.
The p38 MAPK pathway was not activated by the acute addition of HG to the HMCs. However, activation of p38 MAPK in HMCs grown seven days in HG was demonstrated by increased tyrosine and threonine phosphorylation of p38 MAPK proteins and increased kinase activity of immunoprecipitated p38 MAPK. As assessed by a kinase assay, p38 MAPK activity in cells grown in HG for seven days exceeded that of NG cells by more than 250%. This difference was not due to differences in the amount of p38 MAPK protein between the treatment groups. Acute osmotic activation of p38 MAPK occurred at extremely high mannitol concentrations (250 mOsm/L) that exceeded the osmotic stress of acute HG. Furthermore, in cells grown for seven days in mannitol at concentrations similar to HG, p38 MAPK activity was similar to control values. Phorbol ester (PMA) treatment stimulated a twofold increase in p38 MAPK activity. The addition of GFX or Ro 32-0432 to HG cells, at concentrations that inhibited PMA activation of p38 MAPK, did not inhibit the glucose-mediated p38 MAPK activation. Rottlerin, a PKC delta inhibitor, also failed to reverse the HG-mediated p38 MAPK activation. Treatment of HG cells with L-NAC or DPI inhibited the HG-mediated p38 MAPK phosphorylation. As we have previously shown, DNA binding of the transcription factor complex AP-1 was increased in HG cells. This binding was reversed by treatment of the HG cells with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB 203580.
Chronic exposure of HMC to HG concentrations activates the p38 MAPK pathway. This activation appears to be independent of changes in the amount of total p38 MAPK produced by the cells, independent of chronic osmotic stress and independent of PKC activation. The reversal of p38 MAPK by L-NAC and DPI suggests the glucose-mediated p38 MAPK activation may occur via reactive oxygen species. The activity of AP-1, a transcription factor complex that regulates several genes involved in diabetic nephropathy, is reversed when the p38 MAPK pathway is inhibited. These findings suggest the p38 MAPK pathway may be an important pathway involved in diabetic complications.
Preview · Article · Oct 2001 · Kidney International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal disease that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) imposes a great burden on the affected individual and on society, which mainly bears the cost of ESRD (currently more than $10 billion to treat about 333,000 patients annually in the U.S.). Thus, there is a great need to identify therapies that arrest the progression mechanisms common to all forms of renal disease. Progress is being made. Perhaps the most visible advance is the randomized controlled trials (RCT) demonstrating the renoprotective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. There are also numerous other promising renoprotective therapies. Unfortunately, testing each therapy in RCT is not feasible. Thus the nephrologist has two choices: restrict renoprotective therapy to those shown to be effective in RCT, or expand the use of renoprotective therapies to include those that, although unproven, are plausibly effective and prudent to use. The goal of this work is to provide the documentation needed for the nephrologist to choose between these strategies.
This work first describes the mechanisms believed to be involved in the progression of renal disease. Based largely on this information, 18 separate interventions that slow the progression are described. Each intervention is assigned a level of recommendation (Level 1 is the highest and Level 3 the lowest) according to the strength of evidence supporting its renoprotective efficacy.
The number of interventions at each level of recommendation are: Level 1, N = 4; Level 2, N = 4; Level 3, N = 10. Our own experience with the multiple-risk-factor intervention is that most patients can achieve the majority of the Level 1 and 2 interventions, and many of the Level 3 interventions. We recommend the expanded renoprotection strategy.
This work advances the hypothesis that, until better information becomes available, a broad-based, multiple-risk-factor intervention intended to slow the progression of renal disease can be justified in those with progressive nephropathies. This work is intended primarily for clinical nephrologists and thus each recommended intervention is described in substantial practical detail.
Preview · Article · May 2001 · Kidney International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calciphylaxis is a severe complication of chronic renal failure, confined almost exclusively to patients on dialysis therapy. Histological characteristics of calciphylaxis include small-vessel calcifications of skin, subcutaneous tissue, and visceral organs. These vascular changes promote tissue ischemia that often results in tissue necrosis. In this study, we investigated the extent of skin ischemia in patients with calciphylaxis by means of transcutaneous oxygen tension (TCPO(2)) measurement, a noninvasive test that accurately assesses skin oxygenation. TCPO(2) levels were measured in 21 patients with calciphylaxis and 21 age- and sex-matched patients without evidence of calciphylaxis (controls). TCPO(2) levels were measured bilaterally at the chest, anterior abdomen, and upper thigh while patients breathed room air and after a 30-minute exposure to 100% fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO(2)). Compared with controls, patients with calciphylaxis showed significantly lower TCPO(2) levels at each body region. In both controls and patients with calciphylaxis, lower TCPO(2) levels correlated with increased weight and use of hemodialysis. No correlation with serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum calcium, or serum phosphorus values was present, although 39% of the patients with calciphylaxis had markedly elevated PTH values (sixfold greater than normal; >300 pg/dL). Low TCPO(2) levels in patients with calciphylaxis were documented in body regions with and without skin lesions. In patients with calciphylaxis, extremely low TCPO(2) values (</=30 mm Hg while patients breathed room air) were present in 62% of the body regions with skin lesions and 26% of the body regions without lesions. Room-air TCPO(2) levels </=30 mm Hg were present in only 0.8% of the body regions of control patients. TCPO(2) levels obtained while patients breathed 100% FIO(2) remained lower in patients with calciphylaxis than in controls. In conclusion, TCPO(2) levels are abnormally low in patients with calciphylaxis, indicating that severe and diffuse skin ischemia exists, even at areas free of skin lesions. Low TCPO(2) values did not substantially increase with 100% FIO(2) in many patients with calciphylaxis, suggesting a fixed insufficiency of the skin vessels. This study shows that TCPO(2) measurements may allow rapid and noninvasive screening for skin ischemia before the development of skin lesions in patients with calciphylaxis.
No preview · Article · May 2001 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases mediate the response of renal glomerular mesangial cells to a variety of physiologic and pathologic stimuli. This investigation examines the effect of the cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) on MAP kinases in human mesangial cells. We show that 15d-PGJ2 dose-dependently increases the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity of human mesangial cells, but has no effect on Jun-NH2-terminal kinase or p38 MAP kinase. Despite the fact that 15d-PGJ2 is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligand, and PPARgamma is shown to be expressed by mesangial cells, the thiazolidinedione PPARgamma agonist ciglitazone does not activate ERK. Additionally, a synthetic PPARgamma antagonist does not attenuate the activation of ERK by 15d-PGJ2. 15d-PGJ2-mediated ERK activation is however blocked by the MEK inhibitor PD 098059, appears to require phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, but is independent of protein kinase C activation. These results demonstrate a novel effect of 15d-PGJ2 to induce ERK in human mesangial cells independently of PPARgamma.
No preview · Article · Mar 2001 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 66-year-old woman developed rapidly progressive renal failure several days after she was diagnosed with non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody test performed as an indirect immunofluorescence assay was positive with a perinuclear pattern of staining (pANCA). The patient did not improve with hemodialysis treatment and died on the second day after admission to the hospital. A complete autopsy was performed and showed metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung and pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis. A literature search showed only 7 previously reported cases of malignant tumors associated with ANCA-positive pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis. The clinicopathologic findings of the current and all previously reported cases and possible relationship between ANCA-positive glomerulonephritis and malignancy are discussed.
No preview · Article · Nov 2000 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 1994, we reported a 3.4 +/- 0.8 year follow-up of the eight patients who experienced remission of nephrotic syndrome during the Collaborative Study Group-sponsored, multicenter trial of captopril therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes with nephropathy (Captopril Study). Of the 409 patients randomized to treatment on the Captopril Study, 108 had nephrotic syndrome (24-hour proteinuria >/= 3.5 g of protein) at baseline. Of these 108 patients, 8 experienced remission of nephrotic syndrome (proteinuria </= 1.0 g/24 h of protein). Remission was significantly associated with captopril therapy and control of systolic blood pressure. The present study describes the status of these eight patients during a follow-up of 7.7 +/- 0.3 years. Since our previous report, one patient has been lost to follow-up and one patient progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) 3.7 years after completion of the Captopril Study. The remaining six patients remain in remission of nephrotic syndrome (mean 24-hour proteinuria, 1.03 +/- 0.3 g of protein) and have stable serum creatinine levels (mean, 1.58 +/- 0.3 mg/dL) and body weights (mean, 69.8 +/- 5.3 kg). Of the six patients, one has discontinued angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) therapy because of hypotension. Excluding the patient who progressed to ESRD, the current mean systolic blood pressure is 135 +/- 6 mm Hg and mean diastolic blood pressure is 78 +/- 4 mm Hg. We conclude that long-term remission of nephrotic syndrome and preservation of renal function is achievable in some patients with type 1 diabetes. Control of blood pressure and ACEi therapy appear to be important in achieving long-term remission.
No preview · Article · Sep 1999 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been suggested as potential mediators for interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta)-induced gene activation. This study investigated the role of the MAP kinases p38 and ERK2 in IL-1beta-mediated expression of the chemokine MCP-1 by human mesangial cells. Phosphorylation of p38 kinase, which is necessary for activation, increased significantly after IL-1beta treatment. p38 kinase immunoprecipitated from IL-1beta-treated cells phosphorylated target substrates to a greater extent than p38 kinase from controls. SB 203580, a selective p38 kinase inhibitor, was used to examine the role of p38 kinase in MCP-1 expression. SB 203580 decreased IL-1beta-induced MCP-1 mRNA and protein levels, but did not affect MCP-1 mRNA stability. Because NF-kappaB is necessary for MCP-1 gene expression, the effect of p38 kinase inhibition on IL-1beta induction of NF-kappaB was measured. SB 203580 (up to 25 microM) had no effect on IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB nuclear translocation or DNA binding activity. Our previous work showed that IL-1beta also activates the MAP kinase ERK2 in human mesangial cells. PD 098059, a selective inhibitor of the ERK activating kinase MEK1, had no effect on IL-1beta-induced MCP-1 mRNA or protein levels, or on IL-1beta activation of NF-kappaB. These data indicate that p38 kinase is necessary for the induction of MCP-1 expression by IL-1beta, but is not involved at the level of cytoplasmic activation of NF-kappaB. In contrast, ERK2 does not mediate IL-1beta induced MCP-1 gene expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In these studies, we determined whether there are receptors for the anaphylatoxin C5a (C5aR, CD88) on human mesangial cells (HMC). To prepare Abs to C5aR, we first synthesized an immunogenic peptide spanning residues 8-32 of the molecule, and this peptide was used to immunize rabbits. Anti-C5aR antiserum, but not preimmune serum, stained fixed and unfixed HMC in culture. By Western blotting anti-C5aR, Abs identified a 49.6-kDa protein in HMC. By reverse-transcription PCR, a cDNA product of 558 bp was amplified corresponding to the expected size of C5aR cDNA. A cDNA of the same size was amplified simultaneously from human PBL. Restriction mapping of the products amplified from HMC and from PBL gave restriction fragments of the same size. Incubation of HMC with increasing doses of C5a caused a progressive increase in the levels of the transcription factors activator protein-1 (AP-1) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), but C5a had no effect on the level of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). The effects of C5a on AP-1 were concentration and time dependent and peaked after 60 min. In contrast, the C5a metabolite C5adesArg had no significant effect on AP-1 levels. Preincubation of HMC with rabbit anti-C5aR antiserum inhibited partially the effect of C5a on AP-1. However, anti-C5aR Abs alone had no appreciable effects on AP-1. C5a caused a significant up-regulation of mRNA for the early response genes c-jun and c-fos on HMC. These results provide evidence for the presence of C5aR in adult HMC in culture and indicate that, after binding to C5aR, the anaphylatoxin C5a causes significant up-regulation of certain transcription factors and early response genes.
Full-text · Article · Jul 1998 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human mesangial cells (HMC) grown in high glucose environments synthesize excessive amounts of extracellular matrix proteins (ECM). The promoter regions of certain ECM genes contain TPA (phorbol ester)-responsive element (TRE) motifs that bind the transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1), a complex of Jun and other phosphoproteins. AP-1 binding to the TRE promoter is regulated by the quantity, composition and post-translational modifications of proteins in the AP-1 complex. We report an increased binding of AP-1 to TRE oligonucleotides in HMC cultured chronically (5 days) in high glucose environments (30 mM d-glucose). This increased binding is not due to differences in the nuclear quantity of AP-1 proteins or in the composition of the AP-1 complex when compared to AP-1 proteins from cells grown in normal glucose (5 mM d-glucose). A 30 mM l-glucose environment also increased AP-1 binding, but to a degree less than d-glucose. The increased AP-1 binding was partly reversed by treatment of HMC with Calphostin C or Bisindolylmaleimide I suggesting a partial role of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway in mediating AP-1 binding. AP-1 binding was unaffected by treatment of cells with the MEK inhibitor PD 98059. In addition, increased AP-1 binding persisted for at least 48 hours after media glucose concentrations were normalized. The level of Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activity and the phosphorylation of the JNK kinase, SEK1, were unchanged by chronic high glucose concentrations. These studies suggest that in HMC cultured in chronic high glucose, post-translational modifications increase the binding of AP-1 to the TRE motif.
Preview · Article · May 1998 · Kidney International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) significantly influences renal cellular function through the induction of several gene products. The molecular mechanisms involved in gene regulation by IL-1beta are poorly understood; however, the appearance of novel tyrosine phosphoproteins in IL-1beta-treated cells suggests that IL-1beta may function through tyrosine phosphoprotein intermediates. The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are tyrosine phosphoproteins that could potentially mediate the effects of IL-1beta. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation following IL-1beta treatment may be dependent on redox changes since the IL-1beta receptor is not a protein-tyrosine kinase and oxidation has been shown to induce tyrosine phosphorylation. In this report we demonstrate that conditioning human glomerular mesangial cells with IL-1beta results in the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of two members of the MAP kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2 (ERK2) and p54 Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). This effect of IL-1beta is abrogated by pretreating cells with the antioxidants N-acetyl-L-cysteine or dithiothreitol. Furthermore, the effects of IL-1beta on ERK and JNK activation are reproduced by treating mesangial cells with membrane-permeable oxidants. IL-1beta and oxidants also cause phosphorylation and activation of the upstream ERK regulatory element MAP kinase kinase. Interestingly, IL-1beta, but not exogenous oxidants, causes phosphorylation of the upstream JNK activator, JNK kinase. These data indicate that IL-1beta activates ERK2 through an oxidation-dependent pathway. Exogenous oxidants and IL-1beta activate JNK through different upstream mechanisms; however, antioxidant inhibition of JNK activation indicates that endogenous oxidants may play a role in IL-1beta-induced JNK activation. Thus IL-1beta may affect mesangial cell function by activating MAP kinases, which can then regulate gene transcription. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species released during inflammatory glomerular injury may also affect mesangial function through a MAP kinase signal.
No preview · Article · May 1997 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) significantly influences renal cellular function through the induction of several gene products. The
molecular mechanisms involved in gene regulation by IL-1β are poorly understood; however, the appearance of novel tyrosine
phosphoproteins in IL-1β-treated cells suggests that IL-1β may function through tyrosine phosphoprotein intermediates. The
mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are tyrosine phosphoproteins that could potentially mediate the effects of IL-1β.
Protein tyrosine phosphorylation following IL-1β treatment may be dependent on redox changes since the IL-1β receptor is not
a protein-tyrosine kinase and oxidation has been shown to induce tyrosine phosphorylation. In this report we demonstrate that
conditioning human glomerular mesangial cells with IL-1β results in the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of two members
of the MAP kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2 (ERK2) and p54 Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). This effect of IL-1β is abrogated by pretreating cells with the antioxidantsN-acetyl-l-cysteine or dithiothreitol. Furthermore, the effects of IL-1β on ERK and JNK activation are reproduced by treating mesangial
cells with membrane-permeable oxidants. IL-1β and oxidants also cause phosphorylation and activation of the upstream ERK regulatory
element MAP kinase kinase. Interestingly, IL-1β, but not exogenous oxidants, causes phosphorylation of the upstream JNK activator,
JNK kinase. These data indicate that IL-1β activates ERK2 through an oxidation-dependent pathway. Exogenous oxidants and IL-1β
activate JNK through different upstream mechanisms; however, antioxidant inhibition of JNK activation indicates that endogenous
oxidants may play a role in IL-1β-induced JNK activation. Thus IL-1β may affect mesangial cell function by activating MAP
kinases, which can then regulate gene transcription. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species released during inflammatory glomerular
injury may also affect mesangial function through a MAP kinase signal.
No preview · Article · Apr 1997 · Journal of Biological Chemistry