[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A live oral cholera vaccine developed from a non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strain VA1.3 was tested in a double-blind randomized placebo controlled study for safety and immunogenicity in 304 men aged between 16 and 50 years from Kolkata, India. A dose of 5 x 10(9)CFU (n=186) or a placebo (n=116) containing the diluent buffer was administered. The vaccine did not elicit adverse events except in two vaccine recipients with mild diarrhoea and vomiting. None excreted the vaccine strain. Vibriocidal antibody response developed in 105/186 (57%) and 5/116 (4%) in vaccine and placebo recipients, respectively. In a subgroup, anti-CT antibody rose (> or =2-folds) in 23/30 (77%) and 6/19 (32%) in vaccine and placebo recipients, respectively. These studies demonstrate that VA1.3 at a dose of 5 x 10(9) is safe and immunogenic in adults from a cholera endemic region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shigella species represent one of the growing numbers of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in developing countries. Fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 and Shigella flexneri type 2a emerged in India during 2002 and 2003, respectively. Sixty strains of Shigella from different parts of India were analysed for antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of the qnr plasmid, mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs), fluoroquinolone accumulation, and the presence of other genes encoding resistance to various antimicrobials. Fluoroquinolone-resistant strains had mutations in gyrA and parC genes and had an active efflux system. They were also resistant to several other antimicrobials but were susceptible to azithromycin and ceftriaxone. The majority of the strains harboured genes encoding resistance to ampicillin (97 %), tetracycline (95 %), streptomycin (95 %) and chloramphenicol (94 %). PFGE analysis revealed clonality among strains of S. dysenteriae types 1 and 5, S. flexneri type 2a and Shigella boydii type 12.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Journal of Medical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kolkata and its suburbs in eastern India are known to be endemic for typhoid fever. The objective of this study was to determine phage types, biotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolated during the period 2003-2005 from a prospective surveillance for typhoid fever in two urban slums in Kolkata.
A total of 195 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolated from blood cultures were phage typed, biotyped and tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility profile.
Phage type E1 was the most common (60.3%) followed by phage type A among five phage types identified. Biotype I (95%) was predominant, 28 isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR) and most of the MDR strains belonged to phage type E1 and biotype I.
A single phage type and biotype were prevalent among the Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolates studied from Kolkata, India.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · The Indian Journal of Medical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although typhoid fever is confirmed by culture of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, rapid and simple diagnostic serologic tests would be useful in developing countries. We examined the performance of Widal test in a community field site and compared it with Typhidot and Tubex tests for diagnosis of typhoid fever. Blood samples were collected from 6697 patients with fever for > or =3 days for microscopy, culture, and serologic testing and from randomly selected 172 consenting healthy individuals to assess the baseline Widal anti-Typhi O lipopolysaccharide antibody (anti-TO) and anti-Typhi H flagellar antibody (anti-TH) titers. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the 3 serologic tests were calculated using culture-confirmed typhoid fever cases as "true positives" and paratyphoid fever and malaria cases as "true negatives". Comparing cutoff values for the Widal test, an anti-TO titer of 1/80 was optimal with 58% sensitivity, 85% specificity, 69% PPV, and 77% NPV. Sensitivity was increased to 67% when the Widal test was done on the 5th day of illness and thereafter. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of Typhidot and Tubex were not better than Widal test. There is a need for more efficient rapid diagnostic test for typhoid fever especially during the acute stage of the disease. Until then, culture remains the method of choice.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease