[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) lesions have often been discussed as a negative predictor in idopathic membranous nephropathy (MN). The mechanism of the development of FSGS lesion in MN is still uncertain.
From 250 cases of MN, 26 cases contained FSGS lesion. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics between MN cases with FSGS lesion [MN-FSGS(+)] and MN without FSGS lesion [MN-FSGS(-)], matched for gender, age, stage of MN.
The glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was significantly lower in MN-FSGS(+) cases compared to MN-FSGS(-), although nephrotic syndrome, hematuria, and systolic blood pressure levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Pathologically, glomeruli in MN-FSGS(+) cases showed narrowing and loss of glomerular capillaries with separating from GBM or disappearance of CD34+ endothelial cells, and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in capillary walls, indicating the development of glomerular capillary injury. These findings of endothelial injury were seen even in MN-FSGS(-) cases, but they were more prominent in MN-FSGS(+) than MN-FSGS(-) by computer assessed morphometric analysis. In MN-FSGS(+) cases, 44 out of 534 glomeruli (8.2%) contained FSGS lesions (n = 31, NOS lesion; n = 13, perihilar lesion). Significant thickness of GBM with ECM accumulation was evident in MN-FSGS(+) cases. Podocyte injury with effacement of foot processes was also noted, but the expression of VEGF on podocytes was not different between the two groups, which suggests that the significant thickness of capillary walls may influence the function of VEGF from podocyte resulting in the glomerular capillary injury that contribute to the development of FSGS lesion in MN.
Glomerular capillary injury was seen in all MN cases. Furthermore, the prominent injuries of glomerular capillaries may be associated with the deterioration of eGFR and the formation of FSGS lesions in MN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell or bone marrow transplantation (BMT) causes graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). However, the involvement of the kidney in acute GVHD is not well-understood. Acute GVHD was induced in Lewis rats (RT1l) by transplantation of Dark Agouti (DA) rat (RT1a) bone marrow cells (6.0×107 cells) without immunosuppression after lethal irradiation (10 Gy). We examined the impact of acute GVHD on the kidney in allogeneic BMT rats and compared them with those in Lewis-to-Lewis syngeneic BMT control and non-BMT control rats. In syngeneic BMT and non-BMT control rats, acute GVHD did not develop by day 28. In allogeneic BMT rats, severe acute GVHD developed at 21-28 days after BMT in the skin, intestine, and liver with decreased body weight (>20%), skin rush, diarrhea, and liver dysfunction. In the kidney, infiltration of donor-type leukocytes was by day 28. Mild inflammation characterized by infiltration of CD3+ T-cells, including CD8+ T-cells and CD4+ T-cells, and CD68+ macrophages to the interstitium around the small arteries was noted. During moderate to severe inflammation, these infiltrating cells expanded into the peritubular interstitium with peritubular capillaritis, tubulitis, acute glomerulitis, and endarteritis. Renal dysfunction also developed, and the serum blood urea nitrogen (33.9±4.7 mg/dL) and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG: 31.5±15.5 U/L) levels increased. No immunoglobulin and complement deposition was detected in the kidney. In conclusion, the kidney was a primary target organ of acute GVHD after BMT. Acute GVHD of the kidney was characterized by increased levels of urinary NAG and cell-mediated injury to the renal microvasculature and renal tubules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The glomerulus contains well-developed capillaries, which are at risk of injury due to high hydrostatic pressure, hyperfiltration, hypertension and inflammation. However, the pathological alterations of the injured glomerular basement membrane (GBM), the main component of the glomerular filtration barrier, are still uncertain in cases of glomerulonephritis.
We examined the alterations of the GBM in 50 renal biopsy cases with IgA nephropathy (31.8 ± 17.6 years old) using double immunostaining for the α2(IV) and α5(IV) chains of type IV collagen, and examining the ultrastructural alterations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM).
The GBM of IgA nephropathy cases showed various morphological and qualitative alterations. In the TEM findings, thinning, gaps, rupture, thickening with a lamellar and reticular structure and double contours were detected in the GBM. Double immunostaining for α5(IV) and α2(IV) showed thickening of the GBM with reduced α5(IV) and increased α2(IV), or mosaic images of α5(IV) and α2(IV), and holes, fractures, spiny projections and rupture of α5(IV) in the GBM. In addition, LV-SEM showed an etched image and multiple holes in a widening and wavy GBM. These findings might be associated with the development of a brittle GBM in IgA nephropathy.
Glomerular basement membrane alterations were frequently noted in IgA nephropathy, and were easily evaluated by double immunostaining for α2(IV) and α5(IV) of type IV collagen and LV-SEM. The application of these analyses to human renal biopsy specimens may enhance our understanding of the alterations of the GBM that occur in human glomerular diseases.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We clarified the effects of an ophthalmic solution of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist on corneal inflammation and wound healing after alkali burn injury in rats.
After alkali exposure, either an ophthalmic solution with 0.1% pioglitazone hydrochloride (the PPARγ group) or vehicle (the vehicle group) was topically applied to the cornea until day 14. Histological, immunohistochemical, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed.
After alkali injury, PPARγ expression increased, with the infiltration of many inflammatory cells. The infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages started from the corneal limbus within 6 h, and developed in the corneal center by day 7, with associated neovascularization. The accumulation of α-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts and the deposition of type III collagen were noted on day 14. The histological changes were suppressed significantly by treatment with the ophthalmic solution of the PPARγ agonist. In addition, the number of infiltrating M2 macrophages in the cornea was increased by PPARγ agonist treatment. In real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, the messenger ribonucleic acid expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor beta 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor-A were decreased in the PPARγ group compared to the vehicle group in the early periods of corneal inflammation.
The ophthalmic solution of the PPARγ agonist inhibited inflammation, decreased the fibrotic reaction, and prevented neovascularization in the cornea from the early phase after alkali burn injury. The ophthalmic solution of the PPARγ agonist may provide a new treatment strategy with useful clinical applications for corneal inflammation and wound healing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel form of glomerular injury with monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) IgG deposition, termed “proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) with monoclonal IgG deposits” (PGNMID), is a recently described entity. PGNMID presents with various histological patterns, such as membranoproliferative GN, endocapillary proliferative GN and membranous nephropathy (MN). The deposits are composed of monoclonal immunoglobulin, most commonly IgG3 and occasionally IgG2. At present, the clinical significance of each IgG subclass and the morphological patterns of glomerular injury have not been fully investigated due to the limited number of PGNMID cases reported. The patient was a 27-year-old woman presenting with a mild degree of proteinuria and no other physical or serological abnormalities. Monoclonal Ig could not be identified in her serum or urine. Renal biopsy found features of MN with deposition of monoclonal IgG2κ. Electron microscopy examination revealed non-organised electron-dense deposits predominantly in subepithelial locations. Based on a diagnosis of PGNMID, she was treated with prednisolone and proteinuria significantly decreased in less than 4 weeks. Although the clinical outcomes of PGNMID remain to be defined, MN features may possibly be a sign of favourable prognosis—a hypothesis supported by recent reports. The absence of advanced chronic damage in the kidney, such as glomerulosclerosis or tubulointerstitial fibrosis, may also have contributed to the favourable outcome in the present case. Further studies on additional PGNMID cases that allow the correlation of morphological features and IgG subclasses with clinical outcomes are needed in order to confirm our findings and further solidify the clinical aspects of this new disease entity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The category of chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is not included in Banff schema for liver allograft rejection. In the present study, we examined the pathology of chronic rejection using rat liver transplantation. Orthotopic liver transplantation from Lewis to BN rats was performed without immunosuppression, and with or without HA reconstruction. We studied grafts at day 120 for arterialized and day 39 for nonarterialized transplants focusing on the immunoglobulin G (IgG) deposition and the pathologic characteristics of rejection. About 20% of arterialized grafts survived more than 120 days. Between day 7 and day 120, T-cell infiltration to arterialized grafts was accompanied by IgG deposition in portal veins, hepatic arteries, and bile ducts in portal areas, sinusoids and hepatocytes. At day 120, arterialized grafts were morphologically characterized by late chronic rejection with IgG deposition, intraluminal portal veins fibrosis, intimal fibrous thickening of hepatic arteries, diffuse sinusoidal fibrosis, as well as injury and loss of bile ducts due to fibrosis. The severities of T cell-mediated rejection and AMR were higher in nonarterialized than arterialized grafts. Nonarterialized Lewis liver grafts in BN rats were rejected by day 39, as characterized by late chronic rejection with IgG deposition and cellular infiltration. In conclusion, chronic AMR may be involved in chronic rejection of liver transplantations. When chronic AMR was involved in chronic liver graft rejection, typical late morphological changes emerged within a short period.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Transplantation Proceedings
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic artery (HA) reconstruction is performed in the clinical liver transplantation.
We assessed the importance of HA reconstruction in the success of liver transplantation. Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed without immunosspression from Lewis (RT1l) to Lewis rats (syngeneic transplantation) as well as Lewis to BN (RT1n) rats (allogeneic transplantation) with or without HA reconstruction. We examined graft function, pathology, and mRNA levels using DNA arrays in both arterialized and nonarterialized liver grafts.
In Lewis-to-Lewis syngeneic grafts, both the arterialized and nonarterialized grafts survived >120 days with normal graft function. lnfiltration of CD3(+) T cells and CD68(+) macrophages, marked bile duct proliferation with apoptotic epithelial cells, and expansion and increasing fibrosis of portal areas were evident in the nonarterialized grafts at day 120, although preservation of architecture was noted in the arterialized grafts. DNA array analysis of nonarterialized syngeneic grafts demonstrated the upregulation of mRNA of cell death-related proteins, cell cycle-related proteins, and inflammation-related proteins than those in arterialized grafts. Moreover, the arterialized Lewis-to-BN allogeneic grafts could survive for a long time with less severe graft dysfunction than those in non-arterialized allogeneic grafts.
HA reconstruction in liver transplantation inhibited hypoxic injury and subsequent inflammation and bile duct proliferation, prevented the augmentation of T-cell-and antibody-mediated rejection, and mediated long-term graft acceptance. HA reconstruction is essential factor in the success of liver transplantation.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Transplantation Proceedings
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aims:
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in advanced liver dysfunction. Our aim is to clarify the mechanisms of acute hepatic failure (AHF)-associated AKI.
We examined the mechanisms of AHF-associated AKI, which is characterized by AKI in AHF and hyperbilirubinemia, following DA-to-Lewis rat liver transplantation.
During the progression of AHF and hyperbilirubinemia in liver graft rejection, AHF-associated AKI gradually developed by day 11. Degeneration and apoptotic cells were apparent in tubular epithelial cells with bile pigment accumulation and mitochondrial degeneration. Injury of peritubular capillaries (PTCs) was also noted with apoptotic endothelial cells, decreased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, accumulation of α-smooth muscle actin+ pericytes and/or myofibroblasts, and inflammation. Angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin-1, and angiopoietin-2 in the cortex were decreased on day 11. In addition, a marked reduction in the velocity of red blood cells in PTCs was evident in vivo.
AHF-associated AKI seems to be mediated by renal tubular epithelial cell injury with bile pigment accumulation, impaired microcirculation caused by PTC endothelial cell injury with depletion of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and angiogenic factors, and by a decrease in RBC velocity and renal inflammation. Multiple mechanisms including tubular and PTC injuries and renal inflammation may be involved in the development of AHF-associated AKI.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · American Journal of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aims:
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc endopeptidases that degrade extracellular matrix and are involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic damage in acute kidney injury (AKI). In the present study, we analyzed the role of MMP-2 in the repair process in ischemic AKI.
AKI was induced in MMP-2 wild-type (MMP-2(+/+)) and MMP-2-deficient (MMP-2(-/-)) mice by 90-min renal artery clamping followed by reperfusion. Renal histology and the activity and distribution of MMP-2 were examined from day 1 to day 14. During the recovery from AKI, MMP-2(+/+) mice were also treated with MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitor.
In both MMP-2(+/+) and MMP-2(-/-) mice, AKI developed on day 1 after ischemia/reperfusion with widespread acute tubular injury, but subsequent epithelial cell proliferation was evident on days 3-7. During the repair process, active MMP-2 and MMP-9 increased in regenerating tubular epithelial cells in MMP-2(+/+) mice on days 7-14, and the tubular repair process was almost complete by day 14. On the other hand, in MMP-2(-/-) mice, less prominent proliferation of tubular epithelial cells was evident on days 3 and 7, and damaged tubules that were covered with elongated and immature regenerated epithelial cells were identified on days 7 and 14. Incomplete recovery of injured microvasculature was also noted with persistent macrophage infiltration. Similarly, treatment with MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitor resulted in impaired recovery in MMP-2(+/+) mice.
MMP-2 is involved in tubular repair after AKI. The use of the MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitor was a disadvantage when it was administered during the repair stage of ischemic AKI. Treatment with MMP inhibitor for AKI needs to be modified to enhance recovery from AKI.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Nephron Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in rats is technically feasible and useful for the assessment of clinical liver transplantation and analysis of inflammatory liver diseases. OLT in rats was pioneered by Lee et al. in 1973 using hand-suture techniques of all vessels. This model has not been widely used due to the long operative time and technical demand. The cuff method was introduced by Kamada in 1979, and today, the Kamada technique is the one most commonly used worldwide. However, this technique does not include hepatic artery reconstruction, although this procedure is routinely performed in clinical transplantation. Nevertheless, several techniques for hepatic artery reconstruction in rat OLT have been reported recently, and our group also developed a simple splint technique from recipient right renal artery to donor celiac axis bearing the hepatic artery. In the present article, we describe the Kamada technique, as a standard surgical method for rat OLT. In addition, we also describe our splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction. Then, we compare the features of Kamada technique and our splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction and all other surgical techniques currently in use for rat OLT. The widespread use of the rat OLT model should help to provide full assessment of transplant immunology and the mechanism and treatment of inflammatory liver diseases.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Nippon Medical School
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 60-year-old man had experienced cough, bloody sputum, and a 38 °C fever for 1.5 months. He visited an outpatient clinic and received antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, because the symptoms continued, he visited our hospital. The past medical history included chronic sinusitis, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. A chest x-ray film and computed tomography showed multiple pulmonary nodules with cavities. Macrohematuria had developed 3 days before admission, and renal function had deteriorated (creatinine, 2.45 mg/dL) in 2 weeks. He was admitted to our hospital because of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) and multiple pulmonary nodules. On admission, the clinical diagnosis was suspected to be granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s) (GPA), although tests for proteinase-3 anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (PR3-ANCA) were negative. Antibiotics were administered for 5 days. After renal biopsy, methylprednisolone pulse therapy and cyclophosphamide pulse therapy were performed. The pathological diagnosis on the basis of the renal biopsy was glomerular and interstitial hemorrhage, possibly associated with vasculitis. After the treatment, the pulmonary symptoms, multiple pulmonary nodules, and severe inflammatory reactions in the peripheral blood were resolved. However, renal dysfunction progressed to end-stage renal disease 1 month after renal biopsy. Hemodialysis was started, and the steroid therapy was continued. During hemodialysis, a second renal biopsy was performed and led to a diagnosis of pauci-immune focal segmental crescentic glomerulonephritis. Renal function gradually recovered, and hemodialysis was discontinued. This case was (double) ANCA-negative GPA which presented prominent glomerular and interstitial hemorrhage, may be associated with small vessel vasculitis, but without active necrotizing and crescentic glomerular lesions, in the rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin G deposits is a recently described disease entity, characterized by nonorganized electron-dense deposits in glomeruli and immunofluorescence findings indicating monoclonal immunoglobulin G deposits. The pathogenesis of many cases of proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin G deposits remains unknown. We herein report 2 patients with parvovirus B19 infection who developed acute nephritic syndrome with hypocomplementemia (patient 1) or persistent proteinuria and congestive heart failure (patient 2); however, neither patient had detectable levels of serum monoclonal immunoglobulin G. Renal biopsy in both patients showed diffuse endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin G3κ deposits, and electron microscopy showed nonorganized electron-dense deposits mainly in the subendothelial and mesangial areas. Clinical symptoms, abnormal laboratory findings, and urinary abnormalities recovered spontaneously in both cases within 4 weeks. Our 2 cases may be the first reported patients with proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin G deposits possibly associated with parvovirus B19 infection. Virus infection-associated immune disorders could be implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin G deposits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal tubular cell death in ischemia-reperfusion does not follow the classical apoptosis or necrosis phenotype. We characterized the morphological and biochemical features of injured tubular epithelial cells in ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI).
Ischemic AKI was induced in rats by 60 min of ischemia followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Light and electron microscopic TUNEL (LM-TUNEL and EM-TUNEL), gel electrophoresis of extracted DNA, and caspase-3 involvement were examined during the development of death.
Damaged tubular epithelial cells with condensed and LM-TUNEL-positive (+) nuclei were prominent at 12 and 18 h after reperfusion with DNA 'ladder' pattern on gel electrophoresis. EM-TUNEL+ cells were characterized by nuclei with condensed and clumping chromatin, whereas the cytoplasm showed irreversible necrosis. The protein levels and activity of caspase-3 did not increase in kidneys after reperfusion. In addition, caspase inhibitor (ZVAD-fmk) failed to inhibit DNA fragmentation and prevent tubular epithelial cell death in ischemic AKI.
Caspase-3-independent internucleosomal DNA fragmentation occurs in injured tubular epithelial cells undergoing irreversible necrosis in ischemic AKI. The manner of this cell death may be identical to the cell death termed apoptotic necrosis, aponecrosis, or necrapoptosis. Ischemia-reperfusion injury activates caspase-3-independent endonuclease, which in turn induces irreversible damage of tubular epithelial cells, and may contribute to the initiation and development of AKI.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Nephron Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal fibrosis is a common finding in progressive renal diseases. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We investigated the role of MMP-2 and the effect of inhibition of MMPs on the development of renal fibrosis. Renal fibrosis was induced in MMP-2 wild-type (MMP-2⁺/⁺) mice by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Renal histopathology, EMT-associated molecules, and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were examined during the development of interstitial fibrosis. UUO-renal fibrosis was also induced in MMP-2 deficient (MMP-2⁻/⁻) and MMP-2⁺/⁺ mice treated with minocycline (inhibitor of MMPs). In MMP-2⁺/⁺ mice, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were expressed in damaged tubules, and their activities increased in a time-dependent manner after UUO. Interstitial fibrosis was noted at day 14, with deposition of types III and I collagens and expression of markers of mesenchymal cells (S100A4, vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin, and heat shock protein-47) in damaged tubular epithelial cells, together with F4/80+ macrophage infiltration. Fibrotic kidneys expressed EMT-associated molecules (ILK, TGF-β1, Smad, Wnt, β-catenin, and Snail). In contrast, the kidneys of MMP-2⁻/⁻ mice and minocycline-treated MMP-2⁺/⁺ mice showed amelioration of renal fibrosis with reduced expression of markers of mesenchymal cells in tubular epithelial cells, inhibition of upregulated EMT-associated molecules, and suppression of macrophage infiltration. The results suggested that MMP-2 have a pathogenic role in renal interstitial fibrosis, possibly through the induction of EMT and macrophage infiltration. Inhibition of MMPs may be beneficial therapeutically in renal fibrosis.
Preview · Article · May 2012 · Laboratory Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The mechanisms and morphological characteristics of lymphatic vascular development in embryonic kidneys remain uncertain.
We examined the distribution and characteristics of lymphatic vessels in developing rat kidneys using immunostaining for podoplanin, prox-1, Ki-67, type IV collagen (basement membrane: BM), and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA: pericytes or mural cells). We also examined the expression of VEGF-C.
At embryonic day 17 (E17), podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels were observed mainly in the kidney hilus. At E20, lymphatic vessels extended further into the developing kidneys along the interlobar vasculature. In 1-day-old pups (P1) to P20, lymphatic vessels appeared around the arcuate arteries and veins of the kidneys, with some reaching the developing cortex via interlobular vessels. In 8-week-old adult rats, lymphatic vessels were extensively distributed around the blood vasculature from the renal hilus to cortex. Only lymphatic capillaries lacking continuous BM and αSMA-positive cells were present within adult kidneys, with none observed in renal medulla. VEGF-C was upregulated in the developing kidneys and expressed mainly in tubules. Importantly, the developing lymphatic vessels were characterized by endothelial cells immunopositive for podoplanin, prox-1, and Ki-67, with no surrounding BM or αSMA-positive cells.
During nephrogenesis, lymphatic vessels extend from the renal hilus into the renal cortex along the renal blood vasculature. Podoplanin, prox-1, Ki-67, type IV collagen, and αSMA immunostaining can detect lymphatic vessels during lymphangiogenesis.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is associated with various clinicopathological conditions, including hypertension. We report here a case of secondary FSGS associated with malignant hypertension. A 33-year-old man with a 1-month history of visual impairment and headache visited the Department of Ophthalmology at our hospital and was found to have hypertensive retinopathy and severe hypertension (230/160 mmHg). He was referred to our department based on suspected renal dysfunction. His blood pressure on admission was 250/130 mmHg. Physical examination and laboratory tests revealed hypertensive cardiac dysfunction, focal brain edema, renal dysfunction (serum creatinine, Cr 7.07 mg/dl, blood urea nitrogen, BUN 49.9 mg/dl), massive proteinuria (10.7 g/day), and thrombotic microangiopathy. Funduscopy showed exudate, hemorrhage, and papilledema. The cause of secondary hypertension could not be identified. He was treated for primary malignant hypertension, but required hemodialysis 3 days after admission due to anuria. Treatment with antihypertensive agents resulted in the gradual recovery of renal function, although heavy proteinuria continued with nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy performed 1 month after admission showed features of malignant nephrosclerosis with secondary FSGS. Hemodialysis was discontinued following further improvement in renal function and the most recent laboratory tests showed proteinuria 1.8 g/day and persistent renal dysfunction (BUN 36.5 mg/dl, Cr 3.14 mg/dl). Malignant hypertension may cause various injuries, including glomerular endothelial and epithelial cell injuries in glomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration, increase of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, and endothelial–epithelial interaction, resulting in the development of secondary FSGS and heavy proteinuria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 63-year-old man with hepatitis C virus infection was admitted to our hospital for nephrotic syndrome. Light microscopic analysis of a percutaneous renal biopsy showed thickening of the glomerular capillary walls and spike formation. Immunofluorescence revealed granular deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin G1-lambda and C3 complement along the glomerular basement membrane. Urinary protein excretion decreased slightly after combined treatment with steroid and an immunosuppressive agent. Monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease with membranous feature is rare. Additional reports of such cases are needed to elucidate the mechanisms and optimal therapy for this rare entity.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The category of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is not included in the Banff classification of liver transplantation pathology. We investigated the pathology of acute AMR using an orthotopic rat liver transplantation from DA-to-Lewis rats without immunosuppression. We studied liver graft samples at days 5, 7, and 9 to 11, focusing on the pathological characteristics of acute AMR. Progressive acute cellular rejection and AMR led to irreversible graft failure by day 11 ± 2. At day 5 immunoglobulin G (IgG) was deposited on endothelial cells in the portal veins and small arteries. Thereafter, at day 7 to day 11 the IgG deposition expanded on endothelial cells in portal veins and hepatic arteries, epithelial cells in bile ducts, sinusoids and hepatic cells in lobules. Light microscopic studies during the development of acute AMR showed interstitial edema in portal areas with neutrophilic infiltration. Rejecting grafts revealed congestion and/or thrombi in portal veins and hepatic arteries with neutrophil infiltration and fibrinogen deposition, severe degeneration of epithelial cells in bile ducts with periductal edema, intralobular edema, and hemorrhage with neutrophil infiltration and fibrinogen deposition, as well as hepatic cell degeneration and necrosis. In conclusion, acute AMR that developed in liver transplantation was characterized by endothelial cell injuries in microvasculature of portal veins, hepatic arteries, and sinusoids, accompanied by congestion, hemorrhage, thrombus formation, and neutophilic infiltration, as well as by bile duct and hepatic cell degeneration and necrosis.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Transplantation Proceedings