[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to detect the genes encoding extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and determine the epidemiological relatedness of 69 Escherichia coli and 33 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected from a regional hospital in central Taiwan, mostly from inpatients (E. coli 87.0%; K. pneumoniae 88.0%). The phenotypes of these isolates were examined according to the combination disc method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Most of the ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates (98.6% and 97%, respectively) could be detected using cefotaxime discs with and without clavulanate. Genotyping was performed by PCR with type-specific primers. CTX-M-14 type (53.6%) was the most prevalent ESBL among E. coli isolates while SHV type (57.6%) was the most dominant among K. pneumoniae isolates. Six E. coli and three K. pneumoniae isolates did not carry genes encoding ESBLs of types TEM, SHV, CTX-M-3, CTX-M-14, CMY-2 and DHA-1. The co-existence of two or more kinds of ESBL in a single isolate was common, occurring in 40.6% and 72.7% of E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, respectively. PFGE analysis revealed that ESBL producers isolated in this setting were genetically divergent.
Preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of Medical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L-Homophenylalanine (L-HPA) and N(6)-protected-2-oxo-6-amino-hexanoic acid (N(6)-protected-OAHA) can be used as building blocks for the manufacture of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. To synthesize L-HPA and N(6)-protected-OAHA simultaneously from 2-oxo-4-phenylbutanoic acid (OPBA) and N(6)-protected-L-lysine, several variants of Escherichia coli aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) were developed by site-directed mutagenesis and their catalytic activities were investigated. Three kinds of N(6)-protected-L-lysine were tested as potential amino donors for the bioconversion process. AAT variants of R292E/L18H and R292E/L18T exhibited specific activities of 0.70+/-0.01 U/mg protein and 0.67+/-0.02 U/mg protein to 2-amino-6-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-hexanoic acid (BOC-lysine) and 2-amino-6-(2,2,2-trifluoro-acetylamino)-hexanoic acid, respectively. E. coli cells expressing R292E/L18H variant were able to convert OPBA and BOC-lysine to L-HPA and 2-oxo-6-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-hexanoic acid (BOC-OAHA) with 96.2% yield in 8 h. This is the first report demonstrating a process for the simultaneous production of two useful building blocks, L-HPA and BOC-OAHA.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Biotechnology Progress
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A dihydropyrimidinase gene (pydB) was cloned from the moderate thermophilic Brevibacillus agri NCHU1002 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified dihydropyrimidinase exhibited strict d-enantioselectivity for D,L-p-hydroxyphenylhydantoin and D,L-5-[2-(methylthio)ethyl]hydantoin, and non-enantiospecificity for D,L-homophenylalanylhydantoin (D,L-HPAH). The hydrolytic activity of PydB was enhanced notably by Mn2+, with a maximal activity at 60 degrees C and pH 8.0. This enzyme was completely thermostable at 50 degrees C for 20 days. A whole cell biocatalyst for the production of L-homophenylalanine (L-HPA) from D,L-HPAH by coexpression of the pydB gene and a thermostable L-N-carbamoylase gene from Bacillus kaustophilus CCRC11223 in E. coli JM109 was developed. The expression levels of dihydropyrimidinase and L-N-carbamoylase in the recombinant E. coli cells were estimated to be about 20% of the respective total soluble proteins. When 1% (w/v) isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-induced cells were used as biocatalysts, a conversion yield of 49% for L-HPA with more than 99% ee could be reached in 16 h at pH 7.0 from 10mM D,L-HPAH. The cells can be reused for at least eight cycles at a conversion yield of more than 43%. Our results revealed that coexpression of pydB and lnc in E. coli might be a potential biocatalyst for L-HPA production.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Journal of Biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-Acylamino acid racemase (NAAAR) gene of Deinococcus radiodurans BCRC12827 was cloned into expression vector pQE30 to generate pQE-naaar and expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli JM109. The expressed enzyme purified from the crude cell extract of IPTG-induced E. coli JM109 (pQE-naaar) exhibited high racemization activity to N-carbamoyl-l-homophenylalanine (NCa-l-HPA) and N-carbamoyl-d-homophenylalanine (NCa-d-HPA) with specific activities of 1.91 U/mg protein and 1.31 U/mg protein, respectively. To develop a recombinant E. coli whole cell system for the conversion of racemic NCa-HPA to l-homophenylalanine (l-HPA), naaar gene from D. radiodurans and l-N-carbamoylase (LNCA) gene from Bacillus kaustophilus BCRC11223 were cloned and coexpressed in E. coli cells. Recombinant cells treated with 0.5% toluene at 30 °C for 30 min exhibited enhanced NAAAR and LNCA activities, which are about 20- and 60-fold, respectively, higher than those of untreated cells. Using toluene-permeabilized recombinant E. coli cells, a maximal productivity of 7.5 mmol l-HPA/l h with more than 99% yield could be obtained from 150 mmol racemic NCa-HPA. Permeabilized cells also showed considerable stability in the bioconversion process using 10 mmol racemic NCa-HPA as substrate, no significantly decrease in conversion yield for l-HPA was found in the eight cycles.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L-Homophenylalanine (l-HPA) is a chiral unnatural amino acid used in the synthesis of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and many pharmaceuticals. To develop a bioconversion process with dynamic resolution of N-acylamino acids for the l-HPA production, N-acylamino acid racemase (NAAAR) and l-aminoacylase (LAA) genes were cloned from Deinococcus radiodurans BCRC12827 and expressed in Escherichia coli XLIBlue. The recombinant enzymes were purified by nickel-chelate chromatography, and their biochemical properties were determined. The NAAAR had high racemization activity toward chiral N-acetyl-homophenylalanine (NAc-HPA). The LAA exhibited strict l-enantioselection to hydrolyze the NAc-l-HPA. A stirred glass vessel containing transformed E. coli cells expressing D. radiodurans NAAAR and LAA was used for the conversion of NAc-d-HPA to l-HPA. Unbalance activities of LAA and NAAAR were found in E. coli cell coexpressing laa and naaar genes, which resulted in the accumulation of an intermediate, NAc-l-HPA, in the early stage of conversion and a low productivity of 0.83 mmol l-HPA/L h. The results indicated that low activity of LAA present in the biomass is the rate-limiting factor in l-HPA production. In the case of two whole cells with separately expressed enzyme, the enzymatic activities of LAA and NAAAR could be balanced by changing the loading of individual cells. When the activities of two enzymes were fixed at 3600 U/L, 99.9% yield of l-HPA could be reached in 1 h, with a productivity of 10 mmol l-HPA/L h. The cells can be reused at least six cycles at a conversion yield of more than 96%. This is the first NAAAR/LAA process using NAc-HPA as substrate and recombinant whole cells containing Deinococcus enzymes as catalysts for the production of l-HPA to be reported.
No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Biotechnology Progress
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-Acylamino acid racemase (NAAAR) and N-carbamoyl-D-amino-acid amidohydrolase (D-NCAase) are important biocatalysts for producing enantiopure alpha-amino acids. NAAAR forms an octameric assembly and displays induced fit movements upon substrate binding, while D-NCAase is a tetramer that does not change conformation in the presence of a ligand. To investigate the effects of introducing potentially stabilizing S-S bridges in these different multimeric enzymes, cysteine residues predicted to form inter or intra-subunit disulfide bonds were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis. Inter-subunit S-S bonds were formed in two NAAAR variants (A68C-D72C and P60C-Y100C) and two d-NCAase variants (A302C and P295C-F304C). Intra-subunit S-S bonds were formed in two additional NAAAR variants (E149C-A182C and V265C). Crystal structures of NAAARs variants show limited deviations from the wild-type overall tertiary structure. An apo A68C-D72C subunit differs from the wild-type enzyme, in which it has an ordered lid loop, resembling ligand-bound NAAAR. The structures of A222C and A302C D-NCAases are nearly identical to the wild-type enzyme. All mutants with inter-subunit bridges had increases in thermostability. Compared with the wild-type enzyme, A68C-D72C NAAAR showed similar kcat/Km ratios, whereas mutant D-NCAases demonstrated increased kcat/Km ratios at high temperatures (A302C: 4.2-fold at 65 degrees C). Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulations reveal that A302C substantially sustains the fine-tuned catalytic site as temperature increases, achieving enhanced activity.
No preview · Article · Jul 2006 · Journal of Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to change the substrate specificity of Escherichia coli aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). A double mutant, R292E/L18H, with a 12.9-fold increase in the specific activity toward L-lysine and 2-oxo-4-phenylbutanoic acid (OPBA) was identified. E. coli cells expressing this mutant enzyme could convert OPBA to L-homophenylalanine (L-HPA) with 97% yield and more than 99.9% ee using L-lysine as amino donor. The transamination product of L-lysine, 2-keto-6-aminocaproate, was cyclized nonenzymatically to form Delta(1)-piperideine 2-carboxylic acid in the reaction mixture. The low solubility of L-HPA and spontaneous cyclization of 2-keto-6-aminocaproate drove the reaction completely toward L-HPA production. This is the first aminotransferase process using L-lysine as inexpensive amino donor for the L-HPA production to be reported.
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Biotechnology Progress
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-acylamino acid racemase (NAAAR) catalyzes the racemization of N-acylamino acids and can be used in concert with an aminoacylase to produce enantiopure alpha-amino acids, a process that has potential industrial applications. Here we have cloned and characterized an NAAAR homologue from a radiation-resistant ancient bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans. The expressed NAAAR racemized various substrates at an optimal temperature of 60 degrees C and had Km values of 24.8 mM and 12.3 mM for N-acetyl-D-methionine and N-acetyl-L-methionine, respectively. The crystal structure of NAAAR was solved to 1.3 A resolution using multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) methods. The structure consists of a homooctamer in which each subunit has an architecture characteristic of enolases with a capping domain and a (beta/alpha)7 beta barrel domain. The NAAAR.Mg2+ and NAAAR.N-acetyl-L-glutamine.Mg2+ structures were also determined, allowing us to define the Lys170-Asp195-Glu220-Asp245-Lys269 framework for catalyzing 1,1-proton exchange of N-acylamino acids. Four subsites enclosing the substrate are identified: catalytic site, metal-binding site, side-chain-binding region, and a flexible lid region. The high conservation of catalytic and metal-binding sites in different enolases reflects the essentiality of a common catalytic platform, allowing these enzymes to robustly abstract alpha-protons of various carboxylate substrates efficiently. The other subsites involved in substrate recognition are less conserved, suggesting that divergent evolution has led to functionally distinct enzymes.
No preview · Article · Oct 2004 · Journal of Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prephenate dehydratase is a key regulatory enzyme in the phenylalanine-specific pathway of Corynebacterium glutamicum. PCR-based random mutagenesis and functional complementation were used to screen for m-fluorophenylalanine (mFP)-resistant mutants. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the mutant prephenate dehydratases indicated that Ser-99 plays a role in the feedback regulation of the enzyme. When Ser-99 of the wild-type enzyme was replaced by Met, the specific activity of the mutant enzyme was 30% lower than that of the wild-type. The Ser99Met mutant was active in the presence of 50 μM phenylalanine, whereas the wild-type enzyme was not. The functional roles of the eight conserved residues of prephenate dehydratase were investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. Glu64Asp substitution reduced enzyme activity by 15%, with a 4.5- and 1.7-fold increase in K
m and k
cat values, respectively. Replacement of Thr-183 by either Ala or Tyr resulted in a complete loss of enzyme activity. Substitution of Arg-184 with Leu resulted in a 50% decrease of enzyme activity. The specific activity for Phe185Tyr was more than 96% lower than that of the wild-type, and the K
m value was 26-fold higher. Alterations in the conserved Asp-76, Glu-89, His-115, and Arg-236 residues did not cause a significant change in the K
m and k
cat values. These results indicated that Glu-64, Thr-183, Arg-184, and Phe-185 residues might be involved in substrate binding and/or catalytic activity.
No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Archives of Microbiology