[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Topical application of lotions containing the phytoestrogenic isoflavonoid equol have been reported to protect mice against UV radiation-induced inflammation, immune suppression and photocarcinogenesis. The photoimmune protective property was shown to depend on equol's activation of oestrogen receptor signalling in the skin. However, isoflavones are also recognised for their antioxidant properties in biological systems. As endogenous cutaneous antioxidant enzymes including the inducible stress protein haem oxygenase (HO)-1, have photoprotective efficacy, this study in the Skh:hr-1 hairless mouse seeks evidence for an antioxidant role for equol in contributing to its photoimmune protection. Oxidative stress has been measured as UVA-induced lipid peroxidation in the mouse skin, and was dose-dependently inhibited by topical equol. Inhibition of the UVA (320-400 nm)-inducible HO activity significantly reduced the level of equol protection against lipid peroxidation, thereby attributing a component of equol's lipid protection capacity to this stress enzyme. It was consistent that topical equol enhanced the level of HO induction by UVA irradiation in both skin and liver. Subsequently, the dose-dependent protection by topical equol lotions against solar simulated UV radiation induced immunosuppression, measured by the contact hypersensitivity reaction, was found also to be partially reduced by the inhibition of HO activity. Therefore, in addition to the activation by equol of oestrogenic signalling pathways for photoprotection, this isoflavonoid also provides UV-protective antioxidant effects that depend partially on HO-1 induction.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antioxidant and anti-proliferative biological effects of isoflavonoids are relevant properties to counteract the characteristics of many cutaneous diseases. This study uses ultraviolet (UV)B irradiation to induce inflammation in the mouse skin, as a model for some symptoms of cutaneous inflammatory and hyperproliferative diseases such as psoriasis in humans, with the objective of testing two topically applied isoflavonoid compounds for therapeutic properties. UVB exposure resulted in the overexpression of the cytokines, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and the adhesion molecule P-cadherin. Infiltration into the dermal compartment of mast cell populations was also induced. These factors are also overexpressed in psoriatic skin. The effect of topical applications of two isoflavonoids, equol and a synthetic analogue NV-38, was tested. Both isoflavonoids dose dependently inhibited the UVB induction of cutaneous TNF-α mRNA and protein, a cytokine critical for the initiation of psoriatic inflammation. Expression of IL-6 mRNA and protein was also decreased, and the number of infiltrating mast cells into the dermis was reduced by both isoflavonoids. Furthermore, the upregulated mRNA and protein levels of P-cadherin, a marker characteristic of cutaneous hyperproliferation, were also normalized by both isoflavonoids. These results suggest that this class of compounds has the potential for useful, innocuous anti-inflammatory therapy from topical application in human cutaneous diseases.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Immunology and Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isoflavones derived from many edible plants, such as genistein from the soybean, have well-documented antioxidant and estrogenic activity but may also be anticarcinogenic. In this study, we examined the potential of the isoflavone equol [(S)-4',7-dihydroxyisoflavane] to protect from skin carcinogenesis in the hairless mouse. Daily topical applications of equol lotions significantly protected against skin carcinogenesis induced by chronic exposure to solar-simulated UV radiation (SSUV) or by topical treatment with the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) or by the combined cocarcinogenic treatment of DMBA followed by chronic SSUV. Monitoring of tumor development for 40 weeks showed significantly delayed tumor appearance and reduced tumor multiplicity in all equol-treated groups. In mice treated with either SSUV or DMBA + SSUV, equol significantly reduced the proportion of tumors progressing from benign papillomas to malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by 33-58% and reduced the average diameter of SCC by 71-82%. In a short-term study, equol dose dependently inhibited the SSUV induction of the tumor promotion biomarker enzyme, ornithine decarboxylase, in the skin, suggesting the anticarcinogenic activity of equol may be attributed to its inhibition of the tumor promotion phase of carcinogenesis.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · Photochemistry and Photobiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Equol, an isoflavonoid metabolite produced from the dietary isoflavone daidzein by the gut microflora in mammals, has been found to protect not only against ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced cutaneous inflammation and photoimmune suppression, but also have antiphotocarcinogenic properties in mice. Because the state of DNA damage has been correlated with suppression of the immune system and photocarcinogenesis, we have therefore examined the potential of equol to offer protection from solar-simulated UV (SSUV) radiation-induced DNA damage in hairless mice by the immunohistochemical approach using monoclonal antibody specific for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs; H3 antibody). Topical application of 20 microM equol lotion, which was applied both before and after SSUV significantly reduced the number of CPDs. This reduction was evident immediately after SSUV exposure, at 1 h after exposure, and at 24 h after exposure, revealing 54%, 50%, and 26% reduction in CPDs, respectively. When the same concentration was applied for 5 consecutive days after SSUV exposure, there was no significant difference in the reduction of CPDs immediately after SSUV irradiation or at 1 hour afterwards, but there were significant reductions of 23% and 42% at 24 and 48 h after SSUV exposure, respectively. Despite apparently reducing the number of CPDs post-SSUV, topically applied equol did not appear to increase the rate of dimer removal. To conclude, equol applied topically prior to SSUV irradiation offers protection against CPD formation in hairless mice, possibly by acting as a suncreen and thus inhibiting DNA photodamage.
Preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Journal of Veterinary Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phytoestrogenic isoflavonoid equol is known to protect against solar-simulated UV radiation-induced inflammation, immunosuppression, and skin carcinogenesis. The mechanism may involve antioxidant actions, because equol not only is a radical scavenger but also enhances the induction of a relevant cutaneous antioxidant, metallothionein. However, this study in female hairless mice examined whether the estrogenicity of the isoflavonoid might be responsible. Protection by topically applied equol against photoimmune suppression was found to be strongly and dose-dependently inhibited by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780. Furthermore, ICI 182,780 alone was found to significantly exacerbate immunosuppression resulting from solar-simulated UV radiation irradiation, suggesting a natural role for the ER in photoimmune protection. In support of this role, topical application of the physiological ligand 17-beta-estradiol also provided dose-dependent photoimmune protection, inhibitable by ICI 182,780, that was attributed largely to the inactivation of the downstream actions of cis-urocanic acid, an important endogenous immunosuppressive photoproduct. Thus, a hitherto unrecognized function of the ER as a normal photoprotective immune regulator in the skin was revealed. The relationship between equol and cutaneous metallothionein suggests an association of the ER with this inducible antioxidant in constraining the photoimmune-suppressed state and therefore in the prevention of the facilitation of photocarcinogenesis by this immunological defect. This role for the ER may underlie important gender-specific differences in UV-responsiveness that would reflect different needs for environmental photoprotection in males and females.
Preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies report that selected topical isoflavonoids are immunoprotective in both mice and humans, when applied following UV irradiation. Isoflavonoids have documented antioxidant activity, but their mechanism of immunomodulation remains unclear. This study examines whether photoimmunoprotection by the isoflavonoids might result from their interaction with one cutaneous antioxidant known to modulate UV photodamage, metallothionein (MT). In mice bearing a null mutation for MT-I and -II, we found that immunoprotection by the isoflavonoid 4',7-dihydroxyisoflavane (equol) against solar-simulated UV radiation (SSUV) or exogenous cis-urocanic acid was abrogated. Topical equol did not activate MT expression in normal mouse skin, but markedly enhanced the increase in MT expression in murine epidermis following SSUV irradiation. Normal human skin, unlike murine, expressed MT in the basal epidermis. Following SSUV irradiation, topical application of the related synthetic isoflavonoid NV-07alpha to human skin also markedly enhanced epidermal MT expression. The NV-07alpha has been reported previously to protect humans against the UV suppression of Mantoux reactions. Thus, epidermal MT expression appears to protect against photoimmunosuppression in both human and mouse skin. We speculate that equol and its related derivative NV-07alpha may activate the MT gene synergistically with SSUV, to produce the enhanced immunoprotective effect.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Topical application of the isoflavone equol immediately following solar-simulated UV (SSUV) radiation exposure has previously been demonstrated to have significant photoprotective effects. Equol reduced both the inflammatory edema and the systemic suppression of the contact hypersensitivity reaction in hairless mice. Furthermore, daily topical equol application immediately following irradiation during a 10-week chronic SSUV exposure regime also reduced photocarcinogenesis severity in the mouse. This study examines the potential for topical equol to prevent photoaging in response to chronic SSUV irradiation for up to 30 weeks. We did not find consistent expression of the characteristic markers of photoaging until 30 weeks, although moderate epidermal hyperplasia and a transient increase in dermal mast cell numbers were evident after 1 week. Daily application of 10 muM equol lotion significantly reduced these early changes. However after 30 weeks of SSUV exposure, photoaging was well developed, as shown histologically by markedly increased epidermal hyperplasia, increased dermal mast cell number, pronounced focal elastotic deposits, degraded dermal collagen and deposition of glycosaminoglycans in the lower dermis. Topical equol treatment protected significantly from each of these impairments, as demonstrated histologically and quantitatively. Additionally, equol was found to have strong antioxidant action against acute UVA (320-400 nm)-induced lipid peroxidation of mouse skin, this property accounting for its antiphotoaging mechanism. The evidence for equol's antiphotoaging activity, taken together with its anti-inflammatory, immunoprotective and anticarcinogenic efficacy against SSUV irradiation in the mouse, suggests that equol could be developed as a helpful topical photoprotective agent for daily use by humans.
No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · Photochemistry and Photobiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isoflavones derived from many edible plants have been reported to possess significant antioxidant, estrogenic and tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Genistein has been found previously to provide protection from oxidative damage induced by UV radiation both in vitro and following dietary administration. We have therefore examined the potential of a number of isoflavones from red clover (Trifolium pratense) and some metabolically related compounds to offer protection from UV irradiation in hairless mice by topical application after UV exposure. We show that whereas the primary isoflavones, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin, were inactive, 20 microM lotions of genistein and the metabolites equol, isoequol and the related derivative dehydroequol had powerful potential to reduce the inflammatory edema reaction and the suppression of contact hypersensitivity induced by moderate doses of solar-simulated UV radiation. For equol the protection was concentration dependent and 5 microM equol markedly reduced the UV-induced inflammation but abrogated the UV-induced immunosuppression. Equol protected similarly from immunosuppression induced by the putative epidermal mediator, cis-urocanic acid (UCA), indicating a potential mechanism of action involving inactivation of this UV-photoproduct. Since immunosuppression induced by both UV radiation and by cis-UCA appears to be an oxidant-dependent response our observations support the actions of these topically applied isoflavones and their metabolites as antioxidants. They also indicate that lotions containing equol, unlike topical UV sunscreens, more readily protect the immune system from photosuppression than from the inflammation of the sunburn reaction, even when applied after exposure, and thus such compounds may have a future role as sun-protective cosmetic ingredients.
No preview · Article · Oct 2001 · Photochemistry and Photobiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant-derived isoflavones are currently receiving much attention because of their phyto-estrogenic and antioxidant activities. In this study, we describe novel photoprotective effects of one isoflavone derivative from red clover (NV07), following its application topically in Skh:HR-1 hairless mice. We found that in mice irradiated in the short-term (3 days) with minimally erythemal solar simulated UV radiation, topical lotions containing NV07 dose-responsively reduced the erythema-associated oedema, the induction of ornithine decarboxylase, and the suppression of contact hypersensitivity. In mice irradiated chronically (50 days), daily application of topical NV07-lotion reduced photocarcinogenesis significantly, and appeared to be actively protective during both the initiation phase and the later promotion phase of tumour induction.