Hyeseong Cho

Ajou University Medical Center, 수원시, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea

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Publications (65)323.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore novel genomic biomarkers predicting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis by integrative analysis of DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) and gene expression profiles. Array comparative genomic hybridization and expression array were performed on 45 and 31 HCC samples, respectively. To identify functionally important genes, concordant results of DNA copy number and gene expression were retrieved by integrative analysis. Cox regression analysis indicated that the CNAs in 192 genomic regions were significantly associated with overall survival (OS; p < 0.05). Integrative analysis capturing concordant results demonstrated that the low expression of TLE4 (p = 0.041) and XPA (p = 0.006) was associated with poor OS. In the analysis of tumor recurrence, 514 genomic regions with CNAs were associated with recurrence. Integrative analysis revealed that the overexpression of 16 genes, including FGR (p = 0.003), RELA (p = 0.049), LTBP3 (p = 0.050), and RIN1 (p = 0.023), was significantly associated with shorter time to tumor recurrence. On multivariate analysis, FGR and XPA were independent risk factors of early recurrence and poor OS, respectively. Integrated analysis of CNAs and gene expression profiles correlated with long-term follow-up data successfully identified potential prognostic markers predicting survival and tumor recurrence in patients with HCC who underwent surgical resection.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · DNA and Cell Biology
  • Song-Hee Kim · Yong-Yea Park · Young-Suk Yoo · Hyeseong Cho
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    ABSTRACT: MARCH5, a mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase, controls mitochondrial dynamics proteins and misfolded proteins, and has been proposed to play a role in mitochondria quality control. However, it remains unclear how mutant MARCH5 found in cancer tissues is removed from cells. Here, we show that mutation in MARCH5 ligase domain increased its half-life 4-fold, resulting in a drastic increase in its protein level. Abnormal accumulation of E3 ligase-defective MARCH5 mutants, MARCH5(H43W) and MARCH5(C65/68S) , was diminished by overexpression of active MARCH5(WT) ; the mutant proteins were degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that MARCH5 forms homodimers, and that substitution of Gly to Leu at the first putative GxxxG dimerization motif, but not the second one, resulted in loss of dimeric interaction. Moreover, overexpression of the dimerization-defective mutant MARCH5(4GL) could not decrease the level of accumulated MARCH5(H43W) , suggesting that dimerization of MARCH5 is necessary for self-clearance. Abnormal accumulation of MARCH5(H43W) and mitochondrial hyperfusion led to NF-ĸB activation, which was suppressed by overexpression of MARCH5(WT) . Together, the data reveal a self-protective mechanism involving MARCH5, which can target its own dysfunctional mutant for degradation in order to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · FEBS Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte chromosome polyploidization is an important feature of liver development, and seems to be required for response to liver stress and injury signals. However, the question of how polyploidization can be tightly regulated in liver growth remains to be answered. Using a conditional knock-out mouse model, the liver-specific depletion of Ssu72 protein phosphatase was found to result in impairment in regulation of polyploidization. Interestingly, the aberrant polyploidization in Ssu72-depleted mice was found to be associated with impaired liver damage response and increased markers of liver injury, and also seemed to mimic the phenotypic features of liver diseases such as fibrosis, steatosis and steatohepatitis. In addition, the depletion of Ssu72 caused deregulation of cell cycle progression by overriding the restriction-point of cell cycle and aberrantly promoting DNA endoreplication via G2/M arrest. In conclusion, our results suggest that Ssu72 plays a substantial role in maintenance of hepatic chromosome homeostasis, and would allow monitoring of liver function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulation of PLK1 at kinetochores is essential for chromosome alignment and segregation; however, the mechanism underlying PLK1 recruitment to kinetochores remains unresolved. The chromatin remodeller RSF1 tightly associates with centromere proteins, but its mitotic function is unknown. Here we show that RSF1 localizes at mitotic kinetochores and directly binds PLK1. RSF1 depletion disrupts localization of PLK1 at kinetochores; the C-terminal fragment of RSF1, which can bind PLK1, is sufficient to restore PLK1 localization. Moreover, CDK1 phosphorylates RSF1 at Ser1375, and this phosphorylation is necessary for PLK1 recruitment. Subsequently, PLK1 phosphorylates RSF1 at Ser1359, stabilizing PLK1 deposition. Importantly, RSF1 depletion mimicks the chromosome misalignment phenotype resulting from PLK1 knockdown; these defects are rescued by RSF1 S1375D or RSF1 S1359D but not RSF1 S1375A, showing a functional link between phosphorylation of RSF1 and chromosome alignment. Together, these data show that RSF1 is an essential centromeric component that recruits PLK1 to kinetochores and plays a crucial role in faithful cell division.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondria serve as platforms for innate immunity. The mitochondrial antiviral signalling (MAVS) protein forms aggregates that elicit robust type-I interferon induction on viral infection, but persistent MAVS signalling leads to host immunopathology; it remains unknown how these signalling aggregates are resolved. Here we identify the mitochondria-resident E3 ligase, MARCH5, as a negative regulator of MAVS aggregates. March5(+/-) mice and MARCH5-deficient immune cells exhibit low viral replication and elevated type-I interferon responses to RNA viruses. MARCH5 binds MAVS only during viral stimulation when MAVS forms aggregates, and these interactions require the RING domain of MARCH5 and the CARD domain of MAVS. MARCH5, but not its RING mutant (MARCH5(H43W)), reduces the level of MAVS aggregates. MARCH5 transfers ubiquitin to Lys7 and Lys500 of MAVS and promotes its proteasome-mediated degradation. Our results indicate that MARCH5 modulates MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling, preventing excessive immune reactions.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: The synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3, 12-dioxooleana-1, 9(11)-dien-C28-methyl ester (CDDO-Me) is considered a promising anti-tumorigenic compound. In this study, we show that treatment with CDDO-Me induces progressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vacuolation in various breast cancer cells and ultimately kills these cells by inducing apoptosis. We found that CDDO-Me-induced increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels, reflecting influx from the extracellular milieu, make a critical contribution to ER-derived vacuolation and subsequent cell death. In parallel with increasing Ca2+ levels, CDDO-Me markedly increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, there exists a reciprocal positive-regulatory loop between Ca2+ influx and ROS generation that triggers ER stress and ER dilation in response to CDDO-Me. In addition, CDDO-Me rapidly reduced the protein levels of c-FLIPL (cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein) and overexpression of c-FLIPL blocked CDDO-Me-induced cell death, but not vacuolation. These results suggest that c-FLIPL downregulation is a key contributor to CDDO-Me-induced apoptotic cell death, independent of ER-derived vacuolation. Taken together, our results show that ER-derived vacuolation via Ca2+ influx and ROS generation as well as caspase activation via c-FLIPL downregulation are responsible for the potent anticancer effects of CDDO-Me on breast cancer cells.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: Receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIP3 or RIPK3) is an essential part of the cellular machinery that executes "programmed" or "regulated" necrosis. Here we show that programmed necrosis is activated in response to many chemotherapeutic agents and contributes to chemotherapy-induced cell death. However, we show that RIP3 expression is often silenced in cancer cells due to genomic methylation near its transcriptional start site, thus RIP3-dependent activation of MLKL and downstream programmed necrosis during chemotherapeutic death is largely repressed. Nevertheless, treatment with hypomethylating agents restores RIP3 expression, and thereby promotes sensitivity to chemotherapeutics in a RIP3-dependent manner. RIP3 expression is reduced in tumors compared to normal tissue in 85% of breast cancer patients, suggesting that RIP3 deficiency is positively selected during tumor growth/development. Since hypomethylating agents are reasonably well-tolerated in patients, we propose that RIP3-deficient cancer patients may benefit from receiving hypomethylating agents to induce RIP3 expression prior to treatment with conventional chemotherapeutics.Cell Research advance online publication 8 May 2015; doi:10.1038/cr.2015.56.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic instability is intimately associated with tumor development. In particular, liver cancers associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) exhibit high genetic instability; however, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms remains limited. In this study, we found that γ-H2AX, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and the levels of phospho-Chk2 (p-Chk2, the activated form) were significantly elevated in HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinomas and neighboring regenerating nodules. Likewise, introduction of the pHBV or pMyc-HBx genes into cells induced accumulation of γ-H2AX foci and increased the p-Chk2 level. In these cells, inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc25C phosphatase (Ser216) and CDK1 (Tyr15) was elevated; consequently, cell-cycle progression was delayed at G2/M phase, suggesting that activation of the ATM-Chk2 pathway by HBx induces cell-cycle delay. Accordingly, inhibition of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) by caffeine or siRNA abolished the increase in the p-Chk2 level and restored the delayed CDK1 kinase activity in ChangX cells. We also found that cytoplasmic HBx, but not nuclear HBx, induced ROS production and led to the accumulation of γ-H2AX foci and the p-Chk2 level. Together, these data indicate that HBx-induced ROS accumulation induces DNA damage that activates the ATM-Chk2 pathway. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of HBV pathogenesis.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of General Virology
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    ABSTRACT: α-mangostin (α-MG), one of the active substances in Garcinia mangostana, has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer effects in various cancer cell types. α-MG treatment induces G1 arrest in cancer cell models through the induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) and the subsequent loss of CDK activity. However, outside its role in the p53-p21CIP1 axis, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of α-MG on cell cycle arrest remain unclear. In this study, we observed that α-MG inhibits the proliferation of HCT116 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, although the loss of p53 rescued the α-MG effect on cell cycle arrest, in agreement with previous reports, p21Cip1 expression was only marginally delayed in the absence of p53 after α-MG treatment. Instead, we found that the activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the subsequent downregulation of Bmi-1 also contributed to the induction of p16Ink4a, which is responsible for G1 arrest upon α-MG treatment. These findings indicate that α-MG exerts cytostatic effects on colon cancer cells by inducing G1 arrest via the p38 MAPK-p16INK4a axis.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · RSC Advances
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    ABSTRACT: Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) is a severe adverse drug reaction involving extensive keratinocyte death in the epidermis. Histologically, skin from TEN patients exhibits separation at the dermoepidermal junction and accompanying necrosis of epidermal keratinocytes. Receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIP3, or RIPK3) is an essential part of the cellular machinery that executes 'programmed', or 'regulated', necrosis and plays a key role in spontaneous cell death and inflammation in keratinocytes under certain conditions. Here we show that RIP3 expression is highly upregulated in skin sections from TEN patients, and may therefore contribute to the pathological damage in TEN through activation of programmed necrotic cell death. The expression level of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), a key downstream component of RIP3 was not significantly different in skin lesions of TEN. However, elevated MLKL phosphorylation was observed in skin from TEN patients, indicating the presence of RIP3-dependent programmed necrosis. Importantly, in an in vitro model of TEN, dabrafenib, an inhibitor of RIP3, prevented RIP3-mediated MLKL phosphorylation and decreased cell death. Results from this study suggest that the high expression of RIP3 in keratinocytes from TEN patients potentiates MLKL phosphorylation/activation and necrotic cell death. Thus, RIP3 represents a potential target for treatment of TEN.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 06 March 2015. doi:10.1038/jid.2015.90.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: Although loss of Sirt1 leads to chromosome aneuploidy, which accounts for higher tumor susceptibility, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that Sirt1 directly regulates Plk1, of which activity is critical for mitotic progression and spindle dynamics. Depletion or inhibition of Sirt1 significantly perturbs the formation of the mitotic spindle, leading to defective chromosome segregation. Elevated depolymerization of the mitotic spindle following loss of Sirt1 was associated with the deregulation of Plk1 activity. Thus, we conclude that Sirt1 may contribute to a mitotic regulator that controls spindle dynamics through Plk1 activity, resulting in fine-tuning of Plk1 dependent microtubule dynamics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Wip1 belongs to the protein phosphatase C (PP2C) family, of which expression is up-regulated by a number of external stresses, and serves as a stress modulator in normal physiological conditions. When overexpressed, premature dephosphorylation of stress-mediators by Wip1 results in abrogation of tumor surveillance, thus Wip1 acts as an oncogene. Previously, the functional regulation of Wip1 in cell-cycle progression by counteracting cellular G1 and G2/M checkpoint activity in response to DNA damage was reported. However, other than in stress conditions, the function and regulatory mechanism of Wip1 has not been fully determined. Herein, we demonstrated that protein regulation of Wip1 occurs in a cell cycle-dependent manner, which is directly governed by APC/C(Cdh1) at the end of mitosis. In particular, we also showed evidence that Wip1 phosphatase activity is closely associated with its own protein stability, suggesting that reduced phosphatase activity of Wip1 during mitosis could trigger its degradation. Furthermore, to verify the physiological role of its phosphatase activity during mitosis, we established doxycycline-inducible cell models, including a Wip1 wild type (WT) and phosphatase dead mutant (Wip1 DA). When ectopically expressing Wip1 WT, we observed a delay in the transition from metaphase to anaphase. In conclusion, these studies show that mitotic degradation of Wip1 by APC/C(Cdh1) is important for normal mitotic progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, Met, regulate skeletal muscle differentiation. In the present study, we identified a novel alternatively spliced isoform of Met lacking exon 13 (designated Δ13Met), which is expressed mainly in human skeletal muscle. Alternative splicing yielded a truncated Met having extracellular domain only, suggesting an inhibitory role. Indeed, Δ13Met expression led to a decrease in HGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Met and ERK phosphorylation as well as cell proliferation and migration via sequestration of HGF. Interestingly, in human primary myoblasts undergoing differentiation, Δ13Met mRNA and protein levels were rapidly increased, concomitantly with a decrease in wild-type Met mRNA and protein. Inhibition of D13Met with siRNA led to a decreased differentiation whereas its overexpression potentiated differentiation of human primary myoblasts. Furthermore, in notexin-induced mouse injury model, exogenous D13Met expression enhanced regeneration of skeletal muscle, further confirming a stimulatory role of the isoform in muscle cell differentiation. In summary, we identified a novel alternatively spliced inhibitory isoform of Met that stimulates muscle cell differentiation, which confers a new means to control muscle differentiation and/or regeneration. Copyright © 2014, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Cetuximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody developed for targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), has been intensively used to treat cancer patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and head and neck cancer. Intact immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody like cetuximab, however, has some limitations such as high production cost and low penetration rate from vasculature into solid tumor mass due to its large size. In attempt to overcome these limitations, we engineered cetuximab to create single chain variable fragments (scFv-CH3; Minibody) that were expressed in bacterial system. Among three engineered minibodies, we found that MI061 minibody, which is composed of the variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) region joined by an 18-residue peptide linker, displays higher solubility and better extraction properties from bacterial lysate. In addition, we validated that purified MI061 significantly interferes ligand binding to EGFR and blocks EGFR's phosphorylation. By using a protein microarray composed of 16,368 unique human proteins covering around 2,400 plasma membrane associated proteins such as receptors and channels, we also demonstrated that MI061 only recognizes the EGFR but not other proteins as compared with cetuximab. These results indicated that engineered MI061 retains both binding specificity and affinity of cetuximab for EGFR. Although it had relatively short half-life in serum, it was shown to be highly significant anti-tumor effect by inhibiting ERK pathway in A431 xenograft model. Taken together, our present study provides compelling evidence that engineered minibody is more effective and promising agent for in vivo targeting of solid tumors.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a role in liver cancer development. We previously showed that ROS increased HBx levels and here, we investigated the role of antioxidants in the regulation of HBx expression and their clinical relevance. We found that overexpression of catalase induced a significant loss in HBx levels. The cysteine null mutant of HBx (Cys-) showed a dramatic reduction in its protein stability. In clonogenic proliferation assays, Huh7-X cells produced a significant number of colonies whereas Huh7-Cys- cells failed to generate them. The Cys at position 69 of HBx was crucial to maintain its protein stability and transactivation function in response to ROS. Among 50 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens, 72% of HCCs showed lower catalase levels than those of surrounding non-tumor tissues. In advanced stage IV, catalase levels in non-tumor tissues were increased whereas those in tumors were further reduced. Accordingly, patients with a high T/N ratio for catalase showed significantly longer survival than those with a low T/N ratio. Together, catalase expression in HCC patients can be clinically useful for prediction of patient survival, and restoration of catalase expression in HCCs could be an important strategy for intervention in HBV-induced liver diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Oncotarget
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    Park HY · Heounjeong Go · Song HR · Suhyeon Kim · Ha GH · Jeon YK · Kim JE · Ho Lee · Hyeseong Cho · Kang HC · Chung HY · Kim CW · Chung DH · Lee CW
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    ABSTRACT: The signal-responsive E3 ubiquitin ligase pellino 1 (PELI1) regulates TLR and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and contributes to the maintenance of autoimmunity; however, little is known about the consequence of mutations that result in upregulation of PELI1. Here, we developed transgenic mice that constitutively express human PELI1 and determined that these mice have a shorter lifespan due to tumor formation. Constitutive expression of PELI1 resulted in ligand-independent hyperactivation of B cells and facilitated the development of a wide range of lymphoid tumors, with prominent B cell infiltration observed across multiple organs. PELI1 directly interacted with the oncoprotein B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (BCL6) and induced lysine 63-mediated BCL6 polyubiquitination. In samples from patients with diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), PELI1 expression levels positively correlated with BCL6 expression, and PELI1 overexpression was closely associated with poor prognosis in DLBCLs. Together, these results suggest that increased PELI1 expression and subsequent induction of BCL6 promotes lymphomagenesis and that this pathway may be a potential target for therapeutic strategies to treat B cell lymphomas.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Journal of clinical investigation

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: As a member of imitation switch (ISWI) family in ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors, RSF complex consists of SNF2h ATPase and Rsf-1. Although it has been reported that SNF2h ATPase is recruited to DNA damage sites (DSBs) in a poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase 1 (PARP1)-dependent manner in DNA damage response (DDR), the function of Rsf-1 is still elusive. Here we show that Rsf-1 is recruited to DSBs confirmed by various cellular analyses. Moreover, the initial recruitment of Rsf-1 and SNF2h to DSBs shows faster kinetics than that of γH2AX after micro-irradiation. Signals of Rsf-1 and SNF2h are retained over 30 minutes after micro-irradiation, whereas γH2AX signals are gradually reduced at 10 minutes. Moreover, Rsf-1 is accumulated at DSBs in ATM-dependent manner, and the putative pSQ motifs of Rsf-1 by ATM are required for its accumulation at DSBs. In addition, depletion of Rsf-1 attenuates the activation of DNA damage checkpoint signals and cell survival upon DNA damage. Finally, we demonstrate that Rsf-1 promotes homologous recombination repair (HRR) by recruiting resection factors RPA32 and Rad51. Thus, these findings reveal a new function of chromatin remodeler Rsf-1 as a guard in DNA damage checkpoints and homologous recombination repair.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that prolonged mitochondrial elongation triggers cellular senescence. Here, we report that enforced mitochondrial elongation by hFis1 depletion caused a severe defect in cell cycle progression through G2/M phase (~3-fold reduction in mitotic index; p < 0.01). Reintroduction of Myc-hFis1 to these cells induced mitochondrial fragmentation and restored the cell cycle, indicating that morphodynamic changes of mitochondria closely link to the cell cycle. In hFis1-knockdown cells, cell cycle regulators governing the G2/M phase, including cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin-dependent kinase1 (Cdk1), polo-like kinase1 (Plk1), aurora kinase A and Mad2, were significantly suppressed (2- to 10-fold). Notably, however, when mitochondrial fragmentation was induced by double knockdown of hFis1 and Opa1, the cells regained their ability to enter mitosis, and cell cycle regulators were rebounded. Reconstitution of the cyclin B1/Cdk1 complex, a major regulator of the G2/M transition, failed to restore mitotic entry in hFis1-depleted cells. In contrast, expression of Plk1, an upstream regulator of the cyclin B1/Cdk1 complex, or FoxM1 (forkhead box M1), a master transcriptional factor for the cell cycle regulators of G2/M phase, restored the cell cycle in these cells. Our findings suggest that mitochondrial fission molecule hFis1 ensures the proper cell division by interplay with the cell cycle machinery.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx), encoded by the HBV genome, is involved in the development of HBV-mediated liver cancer, whose frequency is highly correlated with chromosomal instability (CIN). We reported previously that HBx induces mitotic checkpoint dysfunction by targeting the human serine/threonine kinase BubR1 (hBubR1). However, the underlying mechanism remained unresolved. Here, we show that HBx protein-associated protein α (HBxAPα)/Rsf-1 associates with hBubR1 and HBx in the chromatin fraction during mitosis. Depletion of HBxAPα/Rsf-1 abolished the interaction between HBx and hBubR1, indicating that HBxAPα/Rsf-1 mediates these interactions. Knockdown of HBxAPα/Rsf-1 with small interfering RNA did not affect the recruitment of hBubR1 to kinetochores; however, it did significantly impair HBx targeting to kinetochores. A deletion mutant analysis revealed that two Kunitz domains of HBx, the Cdc20-binding domain of hBubR1 and full-length of HBxAPα/Rsf-1 were essential for these interactions. Thus, binding of HBx to hBubR1, stabilized by HBxAPα/Rsf-1, significantly attenuated hBubR1 binding to Cdc20 and consequently increased the rate of mitotic aberrations. Collectively, our data show that the HBx impairs hBubR1 function and induces CIN through HBxAPα/Rsf-1, providing a novel mechanism for induction of genomic instability by a viral pathogen in hepatocarcinogenesis.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Carcinogenesis

Publication Stats

1k Citations
323.29 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000-2015
    • Ajou University Medical Center
      수원시, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
  • 1998-2015
    • Ajou University
      • • Graduate School
      • • Department of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1994-1995
    • Seoul National University
      • College of Natural Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea