Mieke Gouwy

University of Leuven, Louvain, Flemish, Belgium

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Publications (36)169.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Post-translational modification of chemokines is an essential regulatory mechanism to enhance or dampen the inflammatory response. CD26/dipeptidylpeptidase IV, ubiquitously expressed in tissues and blood, removes NH2-terminal dipeptides from proteins with a penultimate Pro or Ala. A large number of human chemokines, including CXCL2, CXCL6, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, CCL3L1, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CCL14, and CCL22, are cleaved by CD26; however, the efficiency is clearly influenced by the amino acids surrounding the cleavage site and although not yet proven, potentially affected by the chemokine concentration and interactions with third molecules. NH2-terminal cleavage of chemokines by CD26 has prominent effects on their receptor binding, signaling, and hence, in vitro and in vivo biologic activities. However, rather than having a similar result, the outcome of NH2-terminal truncation is highly diverse. Either no difference in activity or drastic alterations in receptor recognition/specificity and hence, chemotactic activity are observed. Analogously, chemokine-dependent inhibition of HIV infection is enhanced (for CCL3L1 and CCL5) or decreased (for CXCL12) by CD26 cleavage. The occurrence of CD26-processed chemokine isoforms in plasma underscores the importance of the in vitro-observed CD26 cleavages. Through modulation of chemokine activity, CD26 regulates leukocyte/tumor cell migration and progenitor cell release from the bone marrow, as shown by use of mice treated with CD26 inhibitors or CD26 knockout mice. As chemokine processing by CD26 has a significant impact on physiologic and pathologic processes, application of CD26 inhibitors to affect chemokine function is currently explored, e.g., as add-on therapy in viral infection and cancer.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Levels of serum amyloid A (SAA), a major acute phase protein in humans, are increased up to 1000-fold upon infection, trauma, cancer or other inflammatory events. However, the exact role of SAA in host defense is yet not fully understood. Several pro- and anti-inflammatory properties have been ascribed to SAA. Here, the regulated production of SAA by cytokines and glucocorticoids is discussed first. Secondly, the cytokine and chemokine inducing capacity of SAA and its receptor usage are reviewed. Thirdly, the direct (via FPR2) and indirect (via TLR2) chemotactic effects of SAA and its synergy with chemokines are unraveled. Altogether, a complex cytokine–SAA–chemokine network is established, in which SAA plays a key role in regulating the inflammatory response.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Cytokine & growth factor reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Chemokines attract leukocytes to sites of infection in a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) dependent manner. Therefore, chemokines are crucial molecules for proper functioning of our antimicrobial defense mechanisms. In addition, some chemokines have GPCR-independent defensin-like antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungi. Recently, high affinity for GAGs has been reported for the positively charged COOH-terminal region of the chemokine CXCL9. In addition to CXCL9, also CXCL12γ has such a positively charged COOH-terminal region with about 50 % positively charged amino acids. In this report, we compared the affinity of COOH-terminal peptides of CXCL9 and CXCL12γ for GAGs and KD values in the low nM range were detected. Several enveloped viruses such as herpesviruses, hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue virus (DENV), etc. are known to bind to GAGs such as the negatively charged heparan sulfate (HS). In this way GAGs are important for the initial contacts between viruses and host cells and for the infection of the cell. Thus, inhibiting the virus-cell interactions, by blocking GAG-binding sites on the host cell, might be a way to target multiple virus families and resistant strains. This article reports that the COOH-terminal peptides of CXCL9 and CXCL12γ have antiviral activity against DENV serotype 2, clinical and laboratory strains of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Moreover, we show that CXCL9(74-103) competes with DENV envelope protein domain III for binding to heparin. These short chemokine-derived peptides may be lead molecules for the development of novel antiviral agents.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Biochemical pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Cell migration depends on the ability of leukocytes to sense an external gradient of chemotactic proteins produced during inflammation. These proteins include chemokines, complement factors, and some acute phase proteins, such as serum amyloid A. Serum amyloid A chemoattracts neutrophils, monocytes, and T lymphocytes via its G protein-coupled receptor formyl peptide receptor 2. We demonstrate that serum amyloid A1α more potently chemoattracts neutrophils in vivo than in vitro. In contrast to CD14(+) monocytes, no rapid (within 2 h) induction of interleukin-8/CXC chemokine ligand 8 or macrophage-inflammatory protein-1α/CC chemokine ligand 3 was observed in purified human neutrophils after stimulation of the cells with serum amyloid A1α or lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, interleukin-8/CXC chemokine ligand 8 induction in monocytes by serum amyloid A1α was mediated by toll-like receptor 2 and was inhibited by association of serum amyloid A1α with high density lipoprotein. This indicates that the potent chemotactic response of neutrophils toward intraperitoneally injected serum amyloid A1α is indirectly enhanced by rapid induction of chemokines in peritoneal cells, synergizing in a paracrine manner with serum amyloid A1α. We observed direct synergy between IL-8/CXC chemokine ligand 8 and serum amyloid A1α, but not lipopolysaccharide, in chemotaxis and shape change assays with neutrophils. Furthermore, the selective CXC chemokine receptor 2 and formyl peptide receptor 2 antagonists, SB225002 and WRW4, respectively, blocked the synergy between IL-8/CXC chemokine ligand 8 and serum amyloid A1α in neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro, indicating that for synergy their corresponding G protein-coupled receptors are required. Additionally, SB225002 significantly inhibited serum amyloid A1α-mediated peritoneal neutrophil influx. Taken together, endogenous (e.g., IL-1β) and exogenous (e.g., lipopolysaccharide) inflammatory mediators induce primary chemoattractants such as serum amyloid A that synergize in an autocrine (monocyte) or a paracrine (neutrophil) fashion with secondary chemokines induced in stromal cells. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of leukocyte biology
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    ABSTRACT: Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein which is up-regulated in inflammatory diseases and chemoattracts monocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes via its G protein-coupled receptor FPRL1/FPR2. Here, we demonstrated that the SAA1α isoform also chemoattracts monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (DCs) in the Boyden and μ-slide chemotaxis assay and that its chemotactic activity for monocytes and DCs was indirectly mediated via rapid chemokine induction. Indeed, SAA1 induced significant amounts (≥5 ng/ml) of MIP-1α/CCL3 and IL-8/CXCL8 in monocytes and DCs in a dose-dependent manner within 3 h. However, SAA1 also directly activated monocytes and DCs for signaling and chemotaxis without chemokine interference. SAA1-induced monocyte migration was nevertheless significantly prevented (60 to 80% inhibition) in the constant presence of desensitizing exogenous MIP-1α/CCL3, neutralizing anti-MIP-1α/CCL3 antibody or a combination of CCR1 and CCR5 antagonists, indicating that this endogenously produced CC chemokine was indirectly contributing to SAA1-mediated chemotaxis. Further, anti-IL-8/CXCL8 antibody neutralized SAA1-induced monocyte migration, suggesting that endogenous IL-8/CXCL8 acted in concert with MIP-1α/CCL3. This explained why SAA1 failed to synergize with exogenously added MIP-1α/CCL3 or SDF-1α/CXCL12 in monocyte and DC chemotaxis. In addition to direct leukocyte activation, SAA1 induces a chemotactic cascade mediated by expression of cooperating chemokines to prolong leukocyte recruitment to the inflammatory site.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · European Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: CXC chemokines influence a variety of biological processes, such as angiogenesis, both in a physiological and pathological context. Platelet factor-4 (PF-4)/CXCL4 and its variant PF-4var/CXCL4L1 are known to favor angiostasis by inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation and chemotaxis. CXCL4L1 in particular is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis with anti-tumoral characteristics, both through regulation of neovascularization and through attraction of activated lymphocytes. However, its underlying signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. Here, we have identified various intracellular pathways activated by CXCL4L1 in comparison with other CXCR3 ligands, including CXCL4 and interferon-γ-induced protein 10/CXCL10. Signaling experiments show involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family in CXCR3A-transfected cells, activated lymphocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC). In CXCR3A transfectants, CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 activated p38 MAPK, as well as Src kinase within 30 and 5 min, respectively. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation occured in activated lymphocytes, yet was inhibited in microvascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. CXCL4L1 and CXCL4 counterbalanced the angiogenic chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCL12 in both endothelial cell types. Notably, inhibition of ERK signaling by CXCL4L1 and CXCL4 in lymphatic endothelial cells implies that these chemokines might also regulate lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, CXCL4, CXCL4L1 and CXCL10 slightly enhanced forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in HMVEC. Finally, CXCL4, but not CXCL4L1, induced activation of p70S6 kinase within 5 min in HMVEC. Our findings confirm that the angiostatic chemokines CXCL4L1 and CXCL4 activate both CXCR3A and CXCR3B and bring new insights into the complexity of their signaling cascades.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Angiogenesis
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells, described as the initiators of adaptive immune responses. Immature monocyte-derived DCs (MDDC) showed decreased CD14 expression, increased cell surface markers DC-SIGN and CD1a and enhanced levels of receptors for the chemokines CCL3 (CCR1/CCR5) and CXCL8 (CXCR1/CXCR2) compared with human CD14(+) monocytes. After further MDDC maturation by LPS, the markers CD80 and CD83 and the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 were upregulated, whereas CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 expression was reduced. CCL3 dose-dependently synergized with CXCL8 or CXCL12 in chemotaxis of immature MDDC. CXCL12 augmented the CCL3-induced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in immature MDDC, although the synergy between CCL3 and CXCL12 in chemotaxis of immature MDDC was dependent on the Akt signaling pathway but not on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. CCL2 also synergized with CXCL12 in immature MDDC migration. Moreover, two CXC chemokines not sharing receptors (CXCL12 and CXCL8) cooperated in immature MDDC chemotaxis, whereas two CC chemokines (CCL3 and CCL7) sharing CCR1 did not. Further, the non-chemokine G protein-coupled receptor ligands chemerin and fMLP synergized with respectively CCL7 and CCL3 in immature MDDC signaling and migration. Finally, CXCL12 and CCL3 did not cooperate, but CXCL12 synergized with CCL21 in mature MDDC chemotaxis. Thus, chemokine synergy in immature and mature MDDC migration is dose-dependently regulated by chemokines via alterations in their chemokine receptor expression pattern according to their role in immune responses.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Immunobiology
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine serum is a rich source of cytokines and growth factors supporting in vitro cell culture. Here, a novel bovine monocyte chemotactic factor (boMCF-1) was isolated from commercial bovine serum by a four step purification procedure including adsorption to silicic acid, heparin affinity and cation-exchange chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. Homogeneous boMCF-1 was characterized as a 7717Da protein by mass spectrometry and identified by Edman degradation as the predicted product of bovine macrophage inflammatory protein-1α gene (boMIP-1α/CCL3) isoform 2 (lacking three NH(2)-terminal amino acids), belonging to the MIP subfamily of CC chemokines. Monocyte chemotactic activity of boCCL3 isoform 2 was completely desensitized by human CCL3 and CCL5, partially by CCL7 and not by CCL2. Its activity was better inhibited by CCR1 than by CCR5 blockade. BoCCL3 isoform 2, present in bovine serum at about 10ng/ml, functioned as a most potent chemoattractant for immature (but not mature) dendritic cells with a minimal effective concentration of 0.03ng/ml and a maximal chemotactic index of 30 at 0.3ng/ml. Its chemotactic activity on immature dendritic cells was significantly desensitized by human CCL3, CCL5 and CCL7. Blockade of CCR5 rather than CCR1 partially prevented chemotactic activity, whereas blockade of both further enhanced this inhibition. BoCCL3 isoform 2 was not chemokinetic but, like human CCL3, synergized with CXCL12 in monocytic cell chemotaxis. Since it cannot be deduced which is the exact human homolog of boCCL3 isoform 2, further research is required to study the biology of other boCCL3 family members.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Biochemical pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: The arrest and directed migration of leukocytes during homeostasis, tumour development and inflammation is orchestrated by a multitude of chemokines, which govern leukocyte migratory activities. Immune cells are particularly adept at adjusting rapidly to changes within the environment by migration in response to chemokines. The confrontation of leukocytes with different combination of chemokines that are concomitantly produced under physiological or pathological conditions in vivo is complex. There are different ways to enhance or reduce leukocyte migration mediated by chemokines such as posttranslational modifications. Here, we described a positive regulatory mechanism in leukocyte trafficking, by the synergism between chemokines to rapidly augment the local leukocyte influx, thereby enhancing the outcome of an inflammatory response in vivo. The cellular mechanisms involved in chemokine synergy are still debated, but probably include chemokine and/or receptor heterodimerization and subsequent cooperation in signal transduction.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Immunology letters
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most important functions of chemokines and their receptors is the regulation of directional migration of leukocytes within tissues. In specific tissue compartments, cells are exposed to multiple chemokines presented in complex dimensional and temporal patterns. Therefore, a leukocyte requires the mechanisms to integrate the various directional signals it receives from different chemoattractants. In this study, we report that CCL3, CCL5, and CCL8, three potent mononuclear cell chemoattractants, are able to synergize with the homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 in the migration of CD14(+) monocytes, CD3(+) T-lymphocytes, or PHA-activated lymphoblasts. In addition, CCL5 augmented the CXCR4 ligand-driven ERK phosphorylation in mononuclear cells. Furthermore, the synergistic effect between CCL5 and CXCL12 in monocyte chemotaxis is inhibited in the presence of specific CCR1 antibody and AMD3100, but not by maraviroc. In HIV-1 infection assays, a combination of CXCL12 and CCL5 cooperated to inhibit the replication of the dual-tropic (R5/X4) HIV-1 HE strain. Finally, although the dual-tropic HIV-1 strain was barely suppressed by AMD3100 or maraviroc alone, HIV-1 infection was completely blocked by the combination of these two receptor antagonists. Our data demonstrate the cooperation between CCL5 and CXCL12, which has implications in migration of monocytes/lymphocytes during inflammation and in HIV-1 infection.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · European Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: The CXC and CC chemokine gene clusters provide an abundant number of chemotactic factors selectively binding to shared G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Hence, chemokines function in a complex network to mediate migration of the various leukocyte subsets, expressing specific GPCRs during the immune response. Further fine-tuning of the chemokine system is reached through specific posttranslational modifications of the mature proteins. Indeed, enzymatic processing of chemokines during an early phase of inflammation leads to activation of precursor molecules or cleavage into even more active or receptor specific chemokine isoforms. At a further stage, proteolytic processing leads to loss of GPCR signaling, thereby providing natural chemokine receptor antagonists. Finally, further NH(2)-terminal cleavage results in complete inactivation to dampen the inflammatory response. During inflammatory responses, the two chemokines which exist in a membrane-bound form may be released by proteases from the cellular surface. In addition to proteolytic processing, citrullination and glycosylation of chemokines is also important for their biological activity. In particular, citrullination of arginine residues seems to reduce the inflammatory activity of chemokines in vivo. This goes along with other positive and negative regulatory mechanisms for leukocyte migration, such as chemokine synergy and scavenging by decoy receptors.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Experimental Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: Insight into molecular and cellular mechanisms of innate immunity is critical to understand viral pathogenesis and immunopathology and might be exploited for therapy. Whereas the molecular mechanisms of the IFN defense are well established, cellular mechanisms of antiviral immunity are only emerging, and their pharmacological triggering remains unknown. COAM is a polysaccharide derivative with antiviral activity but without comprehension about its mechanism of action. The COAM mixture was fractionated, and prophylactic treatment of mice with COAM polymers of high MW resulted in a conversion from 100% lethal mengovirus infection to an overall survival rate of 93% without obvious clinical sequelae. Differential and quantitative analysis of peritoneal leukocytes demonstrated that COAM induced a profound influx of neutrophils. Selective cell depletion experiments pointed toward neutrophils and macrophages as key effector cells in the rescue of mice from lethal mengovirus. COAM was able to induce mRNA and protein expression of the mouse neutrophil chemokine GCP-2. Binding of GCP-2 to COAM was demonstrated in solution and confirmed by SPR technology. Although COAM was not chemotactic for neutrophils, COAM-anchored muGCP-2 retained chemotactic activity for human and mouse neutrophils. In conclusion, this study established that COAM rescued mice from acute and lethal mengovirus infection by recruiting antiviral leukocytes to the site of infection, as proposed through the induction, binding, and concentration of endogenous chemokines. These findings reinforce the role of neutrophils and macrophages as critical cells that can be manipulated toward antiviral defense.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of leukocyte biology
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated possible cellular receptors for the human CXC chemokine platelet factor-4 variant/CXCL4L1, a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. We found that CXCL4L1 has lower affinity for heparin and chondroitin sulfate-E than platelet factor-4 (CXCL4) and showed that CXCL10 and CXCL4L1 could displace each other on microvascular endothelial cells. Labeled CXCL4L1 also bound to CXCR3A- and CXCR3B-transfectants and was displaced by CXCL4L1, CXCL4, and CXCL10. The CXCL4L1 anti-angiogenic activity was blocked by anti-CXCR3 antibodies (Abs) in the Matrigel and cornea micropocket assays. CXCL4L1 application in CXCR3(-/-) or in wild-type mice treated with neutralizing anti-CXCR3 Abs, resulted in reduced inhibitory activity of CXCL4L1 on tumor growth and vascularization of Lewis lung carcinoma. Furthermore, CXCL4L1 and CXCL4 chemoattracted activated T cells, human natural killer cells, and human immature dendritic cells (DCs). Migration of DCs toward CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 was desensitized by preincubation with CXCL10 and CXCL11, inhibited by pertussis toxin, and neutralized by anti-CXCR3 Abs. Chemotaxis of T cells, natural killer cells, and DCs is likely to contribute to the antitumoral action. However, the in vivo data indicate that the angiostatic property of CXCL4L1 is equally important in retarding tumor growth. Thus, both CXCR3A and CXCR3B are implicated in the chemotactic and vascular effects of CXCL4L1.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: Posttranslational modifications, e.g. proteolysis, glycosylation, and citrullination regulate chemokine function, affecting leukocyte migration during inflammatory responses. Here, modification of CXCL5/epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating protein-78 (ENA-78) by proteases or peptidylarginine deiminases (PAD) was evaluated. Slow CXCL5(1-78) processing by the myeloid cell marker aminopeptidase N/CD13 into CXCL5(2-78) hardly affected its in vitro activity, but slowed down the activation of CXCL5 by the neutrophil protease cathepsin G. PAD, an enzyme with a potentially important function in autoimmune diseases, site-specifically deiminated Arg(9) in CXCL5 to citrulline, generating [Cit(9)]CXCL5(1-78). Compared with CXCL5(1-78), [Cit(9)]CXCL5(1-78) less efficiently induced intracellular calcium signaling, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, internalization of CXCR2, and in vitro neutrophil chemotaxis. In contrast, conversion of CXCL5 into the previously reported natural isoform CXCL5(8-78) provided at least 3-fold enhanced biological activity in these tests. Citrullination, but not NH(2)-terminal truncation, reduced the capacity of CXCL5 to up-regulate the expression of the integrin α-chain CD11b on neutrophils. Truncation nor citrullination significantly affected the ability of CXCL5 to up-regulate CD11a expression or shedding of CD62L. In line with the in vitro results, CXCL5(8-78) and CXCL5(9-78) induced a more pronounced neutrophil influx in vivo compared with CXCL5(1-78). Administration of 300 pmol of either CXCL5(1-78) or [Cit(9)]CXCL5(1-78) failed to attract neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity. Citrullination of the more potent CXCL5(9-78) lowers its chemotactic potency in vivo and confirms the tempering effect of citrullination in vitro. The highly divergent effects of modifications of CXCL5 on neutrophil influx underline the potential importance of tissue-specific interactions between chemokines and PAD or proteases.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Cytokine
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    ABSTRACT: During inflammatory reactions, endogenously produced cytokines and chemokines act in a network and interact with hormones and neurotransmitters to regulate host immune responses. These signaling circuitries are even more interfaced during infections, when microbial agonists activate TLR, RLR, and NLR receptors. On the basis of the discovery of synergy between chemokines for neutrophil attraction, we extend here this phenomenon between the chemokine MCP-1/CCL2 and the GPCR ligand fMLP or the TLR4 agonist LPS on monocytes. In fact, the bacterial tripeptide fMLP, but not the cytokines IL-1beta or IFN-gamma, significantly and dose-dependently synergized with CCL2 in monocyte chemotaxis. Furthermore, LPS rapidly induced the expression of IL-8/CXCL8 but not of the CCL2 receptor CCR2 in monocytic cells. In turn, the induced CXCL8 synergized with CCL2 for mononuclear cell chemotaxis, and the chemotactic effect was mediated by CXCR1/CXCR2, because CXCL8 receptor antagonists or antibodies were capable of blocking the synergy, while keeping the responsiveness to CCL2 intact. These data recapitulate in vitro the complexity of innate immune regulation, provide a novel mechanism of enhancing monocyte chemotaxis during bacterial infections with gram-negative bacteria and demonstrate the importance of local contexts in inflammatory and infectious insults.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Journal of leukocyte biology
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    ABSTRACT: Chemokines mediate the inflammatory response by attracting various leukocyte types. MCP-2/CC chemokine ligand 8 (CCL8) was induced at only suboptimal levels in fibroblasts and endothelial cells by IL-1beta or IFN-gamma, unless these cytokines were combined. IFN-gamma also synergized with the TLR ligands peptidoglycan (TLR2), dsRNA (TLR3) or LPS (TLR4). Under these conditions, intact MCP-2/CCL8(1-76) produced by fibroblasts was found to be processed into MCP-2/CCL8(6-75), which lacked chemotactic activity for monocytic cells. Furthermore, the capacity of MCP-2/CCL8(6-75) to increase intracellular calcium levels through CCR1, CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5 was severely reduced. However, the truncated isoform still blocked these receptors for other ligands. MCP-2/CCL8(6-75) induced internalization of CCR2, inhibited MCP-1/CCL2 and MCP-2/CCL8 ERK signaling and antagonized the chemotactic activity of several CCR2 ligands (MCP-1/CCL2, MCP-2/CCL8, MCP-3/CCL7). In contrast to MCP-3/CCL7, parvoviral delivery of MCP-2/CCL8 into B78/H1 melanoma failed to inhibit tumor growth, partially due to proteolytic cleavage into inactive MCP-2/CCL8 missing five NH(2)-terminal residues. However, in an alternative tumor model, using HeLa cells, MCP-2/CCL8 retarded tumor development. These data indicate that optimal induction and delivery of MCP-2/CCL8 is counteracted by converting this chemokine into a receptor antagonist, thereby losing its anti-tumoral potential.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · European Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Posttranslational proteolytic processing of chemokines is a natural mechanism to regulate inflammation. In this study, we describe modification of the CXC chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha/CXCL12 by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) that converts arginine residues into citrulline (Cit), thereby reducing the number of positive charges. The three NH(2)-terminal arginines of CXCL12, Arg(8), Arg(12), and Arg(20), were citrullinated upon incubation with PAD. The physiologic relevance of citrullination was demonstrated by showing coexpression of CXCL12 and PAD in Crohn's disease. Three CXCL12 isoforms were synthesized for biologic characterization: CXCL12-1Cit, CXCL12-3Cit, and CXCL12-5Cit, in which Arg(8), Arg(8)/Arg(12)/Arg(20), or all five arginines were citrullinated, respectively. Replacement of only Arg(8) caused already impaired (30-fold reduction) CXCR4 binding and signaling (calcium mobilization, phosphorylation of ERK and protein kinase B) properties. Interaction with CXCR4 was completely abolished for CXCL12-3Cit and CXCL12-5Cit. However, the CXCR7-binding capacities of CXCL12-1Cit and CXCL12-3Cit were, respectively, intact and reduced, whereas CXCL12-5Cit failed to bind CXCR7. In chemotaxis assays with lymphocytes and monocytes, CXCL12-3Cit and CXCL12-5Cit were completely devoid of activity, whereas CXCL12-1Cit, albeit at higher concentrations than CXCL12, induced migration. The antiviral potency of CXCL12-1Cit was reduced compared with CXCL12 and CXCL12-3Cit and CXCL12-5Cit (maximal dose 200 nM) could not inhibit infection of lymphocytic MT-4 cells with the HIV-1 strains NL4.3 and HE. In conclusion, modification of CXCL12 by one Cit severely impaired the CXCR4-mediated biologic effects of this chemokine and maximally citrullinated CXCL12 was inactive. Therefore, PAD is a potent physiologic down-regulator of CXCL12 function.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Interactions between chemokines and enzymes are vital in immunoregulation. Structural protein citrullination by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) has been associated with autoimmunity. In this report, we identified a novel naturally occurring posttranslational modification of chemokines, that is, the deimination of arginine at position 5 into citrulline of CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) by rabbit PAD and human PAD2. Citrullination reduced (>/= 10-fold) the chemoattracting and signaling capacity of CXCL10 for CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) transfectants; however, it did not affect CXCR3 binding. On T lymphocytes, though, citrullinated CXCL10 remained active but was again weaker than authentic CXCL10. PAD was also able to convert CXCL11, causing an impairment of CXCR3 signaling and T-cell activation, though less pronounced than for CXCL10. Similarly, receptor binding properties of CXCL11 were not altered by citrullination. However, deimination decreased heparin binding properties of both CXCL10 and CXCL11. Overall, chemokines are the first immune modulators reported of being functionally modified by citrullination. These data provide new structure-function dimensions for chemokines in leukocyte mobilization, disclosing an anti-inflammatory role for PAD. Additionally because citrullination has severe consequences for chemokine biology, this invites to reassess the involvement and impact of PAD and citrullinated peptides in inflammation, autoimmunity, and hematologic disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Blood

Publication Stats

1k Citations
169.94 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003-2015
    • University of Leuven
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Louvain, Flemish, Belgium
  • 2014
    • Universitair Psychiatrisch Centrum KU Leuven
      Cortenberg, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2005
    • The Institute for Molecular Medicine
      Huntington Beach, California, United States