[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the associations of serum levels of p,pacute;-DDE and two other persistent organochlorine pesticides, beta-HCH and HCB, in relation to preterm birth.
During 1995 we performed a case-cohort study and 233 mothers were recruited at three large maternity hospitals in Mexico City. Serum levels were obtained shortly after delivery.
A non-significant increased risk of preterm birth in relation to serum p,p'-DDE levels was observed. There was also a suggestion of an increased risk of preterm birth among women in the highest tertile of beta-HCH (adjusted odds ratio 1.85, 95% CI = 0.94-3.66, p value for test of trend p = 0.08) compared with the lowest tertile. No association was found between HCB serum levels and preterm births.
These findings suggest that p,pacute;-DDE and other organochlorine pesticides may pose a risk to preterm birth in countries that continue to use such insecticides for malaria control.
Preview · Article · Apr 2003 · Annals of Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the risk of preterm birth in relation to umbilical cord blood lead levels (UCL) among primiparous and multiparous women. A case-cohort study was performed in Mexico City during 1995. A total of 459 full-term births was compared with 161 preterm births (before 37 gestational weeks). Mothers were interviewed before the delivery about their reproductive histories and other related factors of preterm birth. Lead was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Lead levels were higher in primiparous women who had a preterm birth than in primiparous women with a full-term birth (9.77+/-2.0 microgram/dl vs 8.24+/-2.15 microgram/dl); this difference was marginally significant. After adjusting for other known preterm birth risk factors, the frequency of preterm birth was almost three times higher among women who had UCL levels greater or equal to 5.1 microgram/dl compared to those who had UCL levels lower than 5.1 microgram/dl. This difference was not observed among multiparous women. Our results suggest that intrauterine lead exposure may be associated with preterm birth in first deliveries but not in subsequent ones.
No preview · Article · Dec 1999 · Environmental Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To document the levels and the determinants of dichloro-dyphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) metabolites in maternal milk, we conducted a cohort study of 50 adult females who lived in Mexico City. We measured social and dietary characteristics via interview. Levels of DDT metabolites were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The mean values (lipid milk basis) were 0.162 ppm p,p'-DDT; 0.138 ppm o,p'-DDT; and 0.594 ppm 2,2(bis)p-chlorophyenyl-1-1-dichloroethylene (DDE). The main determinants of DDT metabolites were maternal age, lifetime lactation, history of living in an agricultural area, and consumption of salted meat and fish. We estimated that 6.0% of the breast-fed babies had daily intakes of DDT above the level of 0.005 mg/kg d recommended by the World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (WHO/FAO). Health-outcomes research among children is needed, and investigators should design or adjust current surveillance programs.
No preview · Article · Mar 1999 · Archives of Environmental Health An International Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We review the potential impact of DDT on public health in Mexico. DDT production and consumption patterns in Mexico during the last 20 years are described and compared with those in the United States. In spite of the restrictions on DDT use in antimalaria campaigns in Mexico, use of DDT is still higher than in other Latin American countries. We analyzed information from published studies to determine accumulated levels of this insecticide in blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk samples from Mexican women. Current lipid-adjusted DDE levels from women living in Mexico City are 6.66 ppb in mammary adipose tissue and 0.594 ppm in total breast milk. Finally, the methodological limitations of existing epidemiological studies on DDT exposure and breast cancer are discussed. We conclude that DDT use in Mexico is a public health problem, and suggest two solutions: identification of alternatives for the control of malaria and educational intervention to reduce DDT exposure. We also recommend strengthening epidemiological studies to evaluate the association between accumulated DDT levels in adipose tissue and breast cancer incidence among Mexican women.
Preview · Article · Jul 1996 · Environmental Health Perspectives