[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Backgrounds/aims:
Standard liver volume (SLV) is an important parameter that has been used as a reference value to estimate the graft matching in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). This study aimed to determine a reliable SLV formula for Korean adult patients as compared with the 15 SLV formulae from other studies and further estimate SLV formula by gender and body mass index (BMI).
Computed tomography liver volumetry was performed in 1,000 living donors for LDLT and regression formulae for SLV was calculated. Individual donor data were applied to the 15 previously published SLV formulae, as compared with the SLV formula derived in this study. Analysis for confounding variables of BMI and gender was also performed.
Two formulae, "SLV (ml)=908.204×BSA-464.728" with DuBois body surface area (BSA) formula and "SLV (ml)=893.485×BSA-439.169" with Monsteller BSA formula, were derived by using the profiles of the 1,000 living donors included in the study. Comparison with other 15 other formulae, all except for Chouker formula showed the mean volume percentage errors of 4.8-5.4%. The gender showed no significant effect on total liver volume (TLV), but there was a significant increase in TLV as BMI increased.
Our study suggested that most SLV formulae showed a crudely applicable range of SLV estimation for Korean adults. Considering the volume error in estimating SLV, further SLV studies with larger population from multiple centers should be performed to enhance its predictability. Our results suggested that classifying SLV formulae by BMI and gender is unnecessary.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Backgrounds/aims:
We evaluated the clinical usability of immune cell monitoring in adult liver transplantation (LT) recipients.
This study was composed of two parts as using calcineurin phosphatase (CNP) activity assay and ImmuKnow assay independently as in vitro monitoring tools of immune cell function in adult LT recipients.
There was a rough correlation between CNP activity and tacrolimus concentration in 33 patients. This association was evident in patients who were only administered tacrolimus, but disappeared after the co-administration of mycophenolate. In 118 healthy individuals, the mean proportion of helper T-cells was 37.4±8.1%. According to ImmuKnow assay, their immune responses were strong in 12 patients (10.2%), moderate in 92 patients (78.0%), and low in 14 patients (11.9%). In 85 patients waiting for LT, there was a rough correlation between the ImmuKnow ATP level and age. Their immune responses were strong in 0 patients (0%), moderate in 8 patients (9.4%), and low in 77 patients (90.6%). There was a difference in the ImmuKnow ATP levels between healthy individuals and patients with liver disease. In 137 LT recipients, there was no correlation between the ImmuKnow ATP levels and tacrolimus concentration. This trend did not change after grouping the patients according to co-administration with mycophenolate. Eight recipients experienced acute rejection, but none showed strong immune response.
We think that both CNP activity assay and ImmuKnow assay are too limited to objectively determine the level of immunosuppression. Further studies should be performed to identify other methods for immune function monitoring.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iliac vein allografts are suitable for middle hepatic vein (MHV) reconstruction during living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), but their supply is often limited. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts are easily available but have drawbacks of accidental gastric penetration and non-degradable foreign body. To replace the use of PTFE grafts, we started using cryopreserved aorta allografts (CAAs). This study presents the technical details and patency outcomes of using CAAs in MHV reconstruction. We reviewed the surgical techniques of CAA interposition and analyzed the patency rates in 74 patients who underwent LDLT during the 6-year study period. The two control groups received either cryopreserved iliac veins (n = 122) or PTFE grafts (n = 84). The surgical techniques for MHV reconstruction used to implant the CAA and PTFE grafts are very similar because the techniques developed for PTFE grafts were also applied to CAAs. We inserted an arterial patch at the liver cut surface because the CAA wall is too thick to perform direct anastomosis. Two patients (2.7 %) underwent MHV stenting during the first month. The 1-year patency rate was 69.7 % in the CAA group vs. 39.2 % in iliac vein group vs. 57.2 % in PTFE group (p = 0.000). The overall graft and patient survival rates did not differ depending on the MHV interposition vessel materials (p > 0.1). CAAs combined with small-artery patches demonstrated high patency rates that surpass other vessel grafts, and thus, we suggest that CAA can be reliably used for MHV reconstruction when CAA is available.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
This study aimed to assess the prognostic impact of preoperative transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) on long-term survival outcomes in patients undergoing resection of small solitary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Enrolled patients had undergone macroscopic curative resection of solitary 2-5 cm HCC with (n = 105) or without (n = 830; control group) preoperative TACE.
TACE group was divided into subgroups A (n = 68, 1-2 TACEs within 12 months), B (n = 23, ≥3 TACEs within 12 months), and C (n = 14, TACE prior to 12 months). The number of TACE sessions was 1.8 ± 1.6. In TACE A-C subgroups, pathological response of tumor necrosis >50 % at median post-TACE period after final TACE was observed in 41 (60.3 %) at 1.9 months, 10 (43.5 %) at 2.1 months, and 2 (14.3 %) at 18.9 months, respectively. The 5-year tumor recurrence and patient survival rates were 62.8 and 70.4 % in TACE group and 51.4 and 83.4 % in control group, respectively (p ≤ 0.003). Median periods of postoperative tumor recurrence in TACE A-C subgroups and control group were 35, 13, 14, and 55 months, respectively (p < 0.001); and postoperative survival periods at 75 % survival rate were 51, 38, 51, and 98 months, respectively (p = 0.003). TACE-induced extensive tumor necrosis did not improve postoperative prognosis in TACE A subgroup (p ≥ 0.053). Postoperative prognosis after preoperative sequential TACE and portal vein embolization was comparable to that of the control group (p ≥ 0.052).
Preoperative TACE for small solitary HCCs may adversely affect post-resection prognosis, irrespective of pathological responses. Preoperative TACE should be avoided for patients with resectable small HCCs.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · World Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) is rare. This study investigated the clinicopathological features of cHCC-CC and compared the postresection survival outcomes of cHCC-CC, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHC).
Between January 2000 and September 2012, 53 patients with cHCC-CC underwent tumor resection, accounting for 1.1 % of surgeries for primary liver malignancies. Control groups included patients with HCC (n = 1452) and IHC (n = 149) who underwent R0 resection of stage I/II tumors ≤5 cm.
Mean tumor diameter of cHCC-CC group was 5.5 ± 2.9 cm, and single tumor was identified in 50. Pathological classification included combined (n = 41), mixed (n = 11), and double (n = 1) tumors. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year tumor recurrence rates were 60.8, 71.8, 80.7, and 80.7 %, respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival rates were 73.3, 35.6, 30.5, and 11.1 %, respectively. Tumor recurrence and patient survival did not differ significantly according to AJCC tumor staging and histological type (all p ≥ 0.2). Tumor recurrence rates did not differ significantly between the cHCC-CC, HCC, and IHC groups (p = 0.43), whereas differences in survival rates were significant (p = 0.000), with a median survival after tumor recurrence of 8, 51, and 6 months, respectively (p = 0.000).
Patients with cHCC-CC showed similar recurrence rates to those of control patients with HCC and IHC, whereas their survival outcomes were worse than those of control HCC patients because of poor responses to recurrence treatment. Further evaluation of differences in tumor characteristics and tumor biology is necessary to accurately predict the prognosis of patients with cHCC-CC.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The aim of the study was to compare the short-term donor outcomes of laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (LLLS) for adult to child living donor liver transplantation (A-C LDLT) and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN).
Although laparoscopy has become the standard approach in kidney donors, its use remains limited and controversial in LLS for A-C LDLT due to the lack of conclusive assessment of procedure-related morbidity.
From 2001 to 2014, 124 healthy donors undergoing laparoscopic LLLS for A-C LDLT at 5 tertiary referral centers in Europe, North America, and Asia, and 300 healthy donors undergoing LDN at 2 tertiary centers in Europe were retrospectively analyzed. The outcomes of LLLS were compared with those of LDN including the use of the comprehensive complication index (CCI).
Although liver donors experienced significantly less overall (16.9% vs 31.7%, P = 0.002) and grade 1 to 2 (12.1% vs 24.7%, P = 0.004) complications than kidney donors, the rates of major complication (≥ grade 3) were similar between the 2 groups. In both groups, donors experiencing postoperative complications had similar CCI (19.3 vs 21.9 for liver and kidney donors, respectively, P = 0.29). After propensity score analysis allowing for matching donors on age, sex, and body mass index, the postoperative outcomes remained comparable between the 2 groups.
Laparoscopic LLS for A-C LDLT yields at least similar short-term donor outcomes as LDN. These results provide the first validation for a laparoscopic donor hepatectomy and suggest that the laparoscopic approach should be considered a new standard practice for retrieval of left lateral section liver grafts as it is for kidney donation.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Annals of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autologous portal Y-graft (PYG) interposition has been regarded as the standard procedure for reconstruction of double portal vein (PV) orifices of right liver grafts during living donor liver transplantation, but it has the drawback of being vulnerable to functional PV stenosis. A refined technique of conjoined unification venoplasty (CUV) was developed to secure PV reconstruction. We reviewed the surgical experience on reconstruction of graft double PVs in 28 cases during a 1-year period of 2014. Computational simulation and modeling studies led us to develop CUV, which consists of placing a unification patch between two graft PV orifices and overlying the coverage with a crotch-opened autologous PYG, the shape of which provides a wide range of tolerance for alignment mismatching in PV anastomosis. During the 1-year study period, the numbers of patients using autologous PYG interposition, circumferential PV fencing with greater saphenous vein, homograft vein interposition, and CUV were 11, 3, 1, and 0, respectively, for 6 months before implementing CUV, and 5, 1, 1, and 6, respectively, for 6 months after implementing CUV. PV complications occurred in 2 of 16 patients with autologous PYG interposition, but no complications were observed in 12 patients operated on using other techniques including CUV. The drawback of conventional autologous PYG interposition can be overcome technically by CUV, which secures PV patency through hemodynamic-compliant offset of anatomical discrepancy and anastomotic alignment mismatching. We believe that CUV could be a useful and effective technical option for reconstruction of right liver grafts with two graft PVs.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the last two decades, laparoscopic surgery has been adopted in various surgical fields. Its advantages of reduced blood loss, reduced postoperative morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and excellent cosmetic outcome compared with conventional open surgery are well validated. In comparison with other abdominal organs, laparoscopic hepatectomy has developed relatively slowly due to the potential for massive bleeding, technical difficulties and a protracted learning curve. Furthermore, applications to liver graft procurement in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) have been delayed significantly due to concerns about donor safety, graft outcome and the need for expertise in both laparoscopic liver surgery and LDLT. Now, laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy in adult-to-pediatric LDLT is considered the standard of care in some experienced centers. Currently, the shift in application has been towards left lobe and right lobe graft procurement in adult LDLT from left lateral section in pediatric LDLT. However, the number of cases is too small to validate the safety and reproducibility. The most important concern in LDLT is donor safety. Even though a few studies reported the technical feasibility and comparable outcomes to conventional open surgery, careful validating through larger sample sized studies is needed to achieve standardization and wide application.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor recurrence is very common after resection of huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study intended to evaluate early recurrence and long-term outcomes in patients with huge HCC ≥ 10 cm after primary resection and treatment of recurrence.
Recurrence and survival outcomes were retrospectively evaluated in 471 patients with huge HCCs who underwent resection between January 2000 and April 2012.
Mean tumor diameter was 13.6 ± 3.1 cm, with 93 % of patients having single tumors. Anatomic and R0 resection rates were 91.1 and 89.4 %, respectively. Perioperative mortality rate was 1.7 %. Tumor recurrence and patient survival rates were 62.2 and 69.2 % at 1 year and 76.0 and 35.5 % at 5 years, respectively. Of patients with recurrence, 92.5 % received specific treatment. Median patient survival period after initial intrahepatic recurrence was 16 months. Tumor volume did not affect recurrence or survival outcomes. Independent risk factors for tumor recurrence and patient survival were serum alpha-fetoprotein ≥100 ng/mL, hypermetabolic uptake on positron emission tomography, satellite nodules, and microvascular invasion. These four factors were used to develop a risk prediction model, in which 1-year HCC recurrence rates in patients with 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 risk factors were 18.7, 30.3, 58.7, 79.0, and 92.1 %, respectively, and their 1-year patient survival rates were 100, 97.0, 75.5, 63.9, and 42.1 %, respectively.
In patients with huge HCCs, hepatic resection with active recurrence treatment resulted in improved long-term survival. Our 4-factor risk prediction model appears to contribute to quantitative postoperative risk estimation for early HCC recurrence and patient survival in patients with HCC ≥ 10 cm.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · World Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to the 7th AJCC TNM staging system, solitary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is classified as T1 or T2 based on microvascular invasion (MVI) regardless of tumor size. This study intended to evaluate the prognostic impact of tumor size on survival outcomes after macroscopic curative resection of solitary HCC.
Patients who underwent R0 resection of solitary HCC <10 cm (n = 2558) were selected for study. Follow-up lasted ≥24 months or until death.
HCC was detected during regular health screening or routine follow-up in 2054 cases (80.3 %). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was associated in 2127 (83.2 %). Mean patient age was 54.4 ± 9.9 years. Anatomical resection was performed in 1786 (69.8 %). MVI was identified in 407 (16.0 %) which therefore became stage T2; the other 2150 became stage T1. Tumor recurrence and patient survival rates were 24.9 and 95.0 % after 1 year, 49.6 and 84.1 % after 3 years, 57.7 and 75.0 % after 5 years, and 67.3 and 56.6 % after 10 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that non-anatomical resection, MVI, and tumor size >5 cm were independent risk factors for both tumor recurrence and overall patient survival. Long-term survival correlated negatively with tumor size and MVI. Subgroup analysis with MVI and size cutoff of 5 cm revealed a significant survival difference (p = 0.000). Tumor size >5 cm was not a significant prognostic factor in non-HBV patients.
These results suggest that the prognostic impact of tumor size may be underestimated in the current version of the AJCC staging system and that solitary HCC staging could be improved with inclusion of tumor size cutoff of 5 cm in HBV-associated patients. Further validation is necessary with multicenter studies.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preoperative risk assessment for post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is essential for major hepatectomy. We intended to establish a standard liver volume (SLV) formula for Korean patients and validate the predictive power of the indocyanine green clearance rate constant (ICG-K) fraction of future remnant liver (FRL) (FRL-kICG) to total liver volume (TLV).
This study comprised 2 retrospective studies. Part I established SLV formula and acquired ICG pharmacokinetic data from 2155 living donors. In part II, FRL-kICG cutoff was determined using 723 patients who underwent right liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma.
In part I, the formula SLV (mL) = -456.3 + 969.8 × BSA (m(2)) (r = 0.707, r (2) = 0.500, p = 0.000) was derived with mean volume error of 10.5 %. There was no correlation between TLV and ICG retention rate at 15 min. With a cutoff of 0.04 with hepatic parenchymal resection rate (PHRR) limit of 70 %, 99.0 % of our living donors were permissible for left or right hepatectomy. In part II, 25 hepatocellular carcinoma patients (3.5 %) showed an FRL-kICG or SLV-corrected FRL-kICG <0.05. Of these, 4 (16 %) died of PHLF, whereas only 2 (0.3 %) died in the other patient group with both an FRL-kICG and SLV-corrected FRL-kICG ≥ 0.05 (P = 0.000).
The FRL-kICG appears to reliably predict PHLF risk quantitatively. We suggest FRL-kICG cutoffs of 0.04 and 0.05 with PHRR limits of 70 % and 65 % for normal and diseased livers, respectively. Further validation with large patient population in multicenter studies is necessary to improve FRL-kICG predictability.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both preoperative transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) alone and portal vein embolization (PVE) alone have a detrimental prognostic effect on the post-resection outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The main objective of this study was to assess the prognostic impact of preoperative TACE on the long-term survival outcomes in patients undergoing preoperative PVE and right liver resection for solitary HCC.
Patients who underwent macroscopic curative right liver resection of solitary HCC that lied between 3.0 and 7.0 cm (n=113) with or without preoperative TACE and PVE were selected for the study, making these subjects were divided into three groups; the TACE-PVE group (n=27), the PVE-alone group (n=13), and the control group (n=73). The subjects in the three groups were followed up for ≥36 months or until death.
The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year overall patient survival rates of all 113 patients were 96.5%, 88.2%, 81.3% and 65.0%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year overall patient survival rates were 96.3%, 83.4%, 83.4% and 47.6% respectively in the TACE-PVE group; 84.6%, 76.9%, 57.7% and 19.2% respectively in the PVE-alone group; and 98.6%, 91.7%, 85.1% and 81.7% respectively in the control group (p=0.047). Patients were also sub-grouped according to tumor size, and those with a tumor of up to cutoff at 5 cm showed no prognostic difference (p=0.774), but tumor size >5 cm was associated with inferior patient survival only in the TACE-PVE group (p=0.018).
Preoperative sequential TACE and PVE appear to be compliant to the conventional oncological concept in addition to induction of the future remnant liver regeneration. Therefore, we suggest that preoperative TACE should be come first whenever preoperative PVE for major hepatectomy is planned, especially in patients with hypervascular HCC tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The wall of normal proximal bile duct is occasionally thin with close approximation to the right hepatic artery. Thus, isolation of this hepatic artery can result in excessive weakening of the remnant proximal bile duct wall during hemiliver graft harvest. This type of injury can induce ischemic stricture of the donor common bile duct. This study aimed to review the clinical sequences of such ischemic type donor bile duct injuries primarily managed with endoscopic and radiological interventional treatments. A retrospective review of medical records was performed for two living donors who suffered from ischemic type donor bile duct injury. They were followed up for more than 10 years. The right and left liver grafts were harvested from these two donors. Bile duct anatomy was normal bifurcation in one and anomalous branching in the other. Bile duct stenosis was detected in them at 2 weeks and 1 week after liver donation. They underwent endoscopic balloon dilatation and temporary stent (endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage tube) insertion. After keeping the tube for 2 months, the tube was successfully removed in one donor. However, endoscopic treatment was not successful, thus additional radiological intervention was necessary in the other donor. On follow-up over 10 years, they are doing well so far with no recurrence of biliary stricture. Based on our limited experience, interventional treatment with subsequent long-term follow-up appears to be an essential and choice treatment for ischemic type biliary stricture occurring in liver living donors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because noticeable changes were made to the 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC), we validated the prognostic impact of tumor staging after macroscopic curative resection of IHCC.
A cohort of 659 IHCC patients who underwent R0 (n = 539) or R1 (n = 120) resection were selected with exclusion of R2 resection (n = 111). Study patients were followed up for ≥24 months or until death with no patient lost during survival analysis.
Anatomical resection was performed in 599 (90.9 %) and concurrent bile duct resection was conducted in 97 (14.7 %). Median survival periods following R0, R1, and R2 resections were 28, 12, and 3 months, respectively (p = 0.000). In the R0 resection group, the 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year tumor recurrence rates were 36.4 %, 57.9 %, 64.7 %, and 65.0 %, respectively, and the 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year patient survival rates were 73.1 %, 44.2 %, 33.0 %, and 23.1 %, respectively. Independent risk factors for tumor recurrence and patient survival were tumor growth type, tumor size > 5 cm, perineural invasion, and lymph node metastasis. According to the 7th AJCC staging system, the prognostic contrast was marginal in stage T2-4 tumors without lymph node metastasis (p > 0.8). With our redefined staging system with tumor growth types and risk factors including tumor number and perineural/lymphovascular invasion, clear prognostic contrast was achieved among T1-3 stages (p = 0.000).
Growth type of IHCC seems to be essential for determining tumor stage. Although the stratification of the 7th AJCC IHCC staging system seems reasonably established, refinements and further validation could improve prognostic predictability.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic liver disease (MLD) often progresses to life-threatening conditions. This study intends to describe the outcomes of liver transplantation (LTx) for MLD at a living donor-dominant transplantation center where potentially heterozygous carrier grafts are employed.
We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 54 patients with MLD who underwent LTx between November 1995 and February 2012 at Asan Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. The cumulative graft and patient survival rates were analyzed according to patient age, and living or deceased donor LTx. Recurrence of the original disease was also investigated.
The post-transplant cumulative patient survival rates at one, five, and 10 years were 90.7%, 87.5% and 87.5%, and the graft survival rates were 88.8%, 85.5%, and 85.5%, respectively. There were no differences in the patient survival rates according to the recipient age, human leukocyte antigen matching, and living or deceased donor LTx. There were also no differences in the patient survival rates between the MLD and the non-MLD groups for children. Recurrence of the original metabolic disease was not observed in any patient during the follow-up period.
Our results suggest that the living donor-dominant transplantation program is well-tolerated in MLD without recurrence of the original MLD using all types of transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is a condition in which multiple gas-filled mural cysts develop in the gastrointestinal tract. Although its exact etiology remains obscure, PI is rarely observed in liver transplant (LT) recipients.
In 317 cases of adult living donor LT (LDLT) performed during 2011, PI developed in three patients during the 3 year follow-up.
Of these three patients, the two who demonstrated PI at 6 weeks and 2 months after LT, respectively, were asymptomatic and showed no signs of secondary complications. Diagnosis was made incidentally using abdominal radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans. PI was identified in the right ascending colon with concomitant pneumoperitoneum. These two patients received supportive care and maintained a regular diet. Follow-up CT scans demonstrated spontaneous resolution of PI with no complications. The third patient was admitted to the emergency room 30 months after LDLT. His symptoms included poor oral intake and intermittent abdominal pain with no passage of gas. Abdominal radiography and CT scans demonstrated PI in the entire small bowel, with small bowel dilatation, pneumoperitoneum, and pneumoretroperitoneum, but no peritonitis. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension but no tenderness or rebound tenderness. After 1 week of conservative treatment, including bowel rest and antibiotics therapy, PI and pneumoperitoneum resolved spontaneously without complications.
We suggest that adult LDLT recipients who develop asymptomatic or symptomatic PI with no signs of secondary complications can be successfully managed with conservative treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to 7th AJCC TNM staging system, gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) with lymph node (LN) metastasis is classified as N1 or N2; thus making the stage IIIB (N1) or IVB (N2). Stage IIIB consists of N1 status with wide coverage of T1-3, but T3N1 group often showed poorer outcomes than T1-2N1 groups. This study intended to assess post-resection prognosis of T3N1 versus other stage III subgroups.
We selected 103 patients from our institutional database of GBC who underwent R0 resection between July 1996 and June 2009 and whose GBC was confined to stage T3N0, T1-3N1 or T1-3N2. These patients were stratified into five groups, namely, T3N0 (n=26), T1N1 (n=13), T2N1 (n=35), T3N1 (n=20) and T1-3N2 (n=9), and were followed for ≥5 years or until death.
Surgical procedures were minor liver resection (n=53), minor liver resection with bile duct resection (n=23), major liver resection (n=12), major liver resection with bile duct resection (n=5), and hepatopancreatoduodenectomy (n=12). Mean follow-up period was 57.2±68.5 months. Overall 5-year survival rate based on all-cause death and cancer-associated death, respectively, was 57.7% and 60.6% in T3N0, 15.4% and 15.4% in T1N1 (n=13), 28.6% and 28.6% in T2N1 (n=35), 5.0% and 5.7% in T3N1 (n=20), and 22.2% and 22.2% in T1-3N2. The survival outcome of T3N1 group was the poorest among the four stage III groups and was comparable to that of stage IVB (p=0.53).
The prognosis of T3N1 GBC is unusually poor even after R0 resection, thus we suggest extensive LN dissection may be necessary in patients with T3 tumors for accurate prognostic evaluation and radical removal of potential nodal micrometastasis. Further validation of this result is necessary in large patient populations from multiple centers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is characterized by a large number of liver cysts scattered throughout the liver parenchyma. We herein intend to present the beneficial effect of palliative fenestration treatment on quality of life in a patient with symptomatic PCLD. A 48-year-old female patient had been followed up for 5 years for both polycystic liver and kidney diseases at another institution. During follow-up for last 1 year, we recognized that she had barely maintained her ability of function in daily activities due to progressive worsening of fatigue and dyspnea on exertion. The patient finally underwent surgical fenestration treatment. Multiple cysts in the enlarged liver were opened and the cyst walls were excised with electrocautery. No surgical complication occurred and the patient was discharged 10 days after the open fenestration surgery. The total liver volume was 3,870 ml before surgery and 3,125 ml at 1 week after surgery, showing a volume reduction of 19.3%. After surgery, her performance status improved significantly. In the present case, significant improvement in quality of life and daily activity performance was achieved after open fenestration treatment over 18 months of follow-up without disease recurrence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
This study analyzed the patient survival outcomes following the resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metachronous adrenal metastasis (MAM) in patients who had undergone liver resection or liver transplantation (LT).
Clinical results were analyzed retrospectively in 26 patients with MAM-HCC who underwent adrenalectomy.
The mean interval between initial surgery and adrenalectomy was significantly shorter in the resection group than in the LT group (18.3 ± 14.4 vs. 42.6 ± 13.8 months, p < 0.001). Of 19 resected patients, four had adrenal metastases on the right side, 12 on the left side and three bilaterally, with a mean tumor diameter of 3.6 ± 1.5 cm. Ten of these patients underwent open surgery and nine underwent laparoscopic surgery; all patients experienced recurrences within 18 months and 20.3% survived 5 years after adrenalectomy. Of 7 patients who underwent LT, four had adrenal metastases on the right side and three on the left side, with a mean tumor diameter of 3.4 ± 1.8 cm. Six of these patients underwent open surgery and one underwent laparoscopic surgery. Five-year recurrence and patient survival rates after adrenalectomy were 28.6 and 85.7%, respectively.
Adrenalectomy is indicated in patients with isolated MAM-HCC. Comparisons with other locoregional treatment modalities and multicenter studies with additional patients are needed to validate the role of adrenalectomy.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Digestive surgery