Gianluigi Condorelli

University of Milan, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (146)1000.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In first part of this experiment, biocompatibility of the newly developed electroactive polyurethane/siloxane films containing aniline tetramer moieties was demonstrated with proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Here we further assessed the cytocompatibility of the prepared samples with HL1-cell line, the electrophysiological properties and the patch clamp recording of the seeded cells over the selected electroactive sample. Presence of electroactive aniline tetramer in the structure of polyurethane/siloxane led to the increased expression of cardiac-specific genes of HL-1 cells involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling. Our results showed that expression of Cx43, TrpT-2, and SERCA genes was significantly increased in conductive sample compared to tissue culture plate and the corresponding non-conductive analogous. The prepared materials were not only biocompatible in terms of cellular toxicity, but did not alter the intrinsic electrical characteristics of HL-1 cells. Embedding the electroactive moiety into the prepared films improved the properties of these polymeric cardiac construct through the enhanced transmission of electrical signals between the cells. Based on morphological observation, calcium imaging and electrophysiological recordings, we demonstrated the potential applicability of these materials for cardiac tissue engineering. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue-engineered cardiac patch aims at regenerating an infarcted heart by improving cardiac function and providing mechanical support to the diseased myocardium. In order to take advantages of electroactivity, a new synthetic method was developed for the introduction of an electroactive oligoaniline into the backbone of prepared patches. For this purpose, a series of electroactive polyurethane/siloxane films containing aniline tetramer (AT) was prepared through sol-gel reaction of trimethoxysilane functional intermediate polyurethane prepolymers made from castor oil and poly(ethylene glycol). Physicochemical, mechanical and electrical conductivity of samples were evaluated and the recorded results were correlated to their structural characteristics. The optimized films were proved to be biodegradable and have tensile properties suitable for cardiac patch application. The embedded AT moieties in the backbone of the prepared samples preserved their electroactivity with the electrical conductivity in the range of 10 (-4) S/cm. The prepared films were compatible with proliferation of C2C12 and had potential for enhancing myotube formation even without external electrical stimulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A
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    Yao Dai · Gianluigi Condorelli · Jawahar L Mehta
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    ABSTRACT: Scavenger receptors which recognize modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by oxidation or acetylation are a group of receptors on plasma membrane of macrophages and other cell types. These receptors by facilitating modified LDL uptake are a primary step in the intracellular accumulation of modified LDL and formation of fatty streak. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) are a group of functional RNA nucleotides that are not translated into protein, and include microRNAs (miRs), snoRNAs, siRNAs, snRNAs, exRNAs, piRNAs and the long ncRNAs (lncRNAs). Recently, ncRNAs have received much attention due to their effects in a variety of disease states such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cancers. A host of ncRNAs, such as miRs and lncRNAs, have been found to be involved in the regulation of scavenger receptors and the inflammatory cascade and subsequently atherosclerosis. Here we review this important area to create interest in this growing field among researchers and clinicians alike.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Cardiovascular Research

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
  • Leonardo Elia · Gianluigi Condorelli
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    ABSTRACT: Next-generation sequencing has greatly improved our knowledge of the mammalian transcriptome, identifying thousands of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which are RNAs that rather than translating for proteins, have regulatory functions. Perhaps unsurprisingly, dysregulation of individual ncRNAs has been associated with the development of pathologies, including of the cardiovascular system. The best-characterized group of ncRNAs is represented by the short, highly conserved RNAs named microRNAs (miRNAs). This ncRNA species, which principally exerts an inhibitory action on gene expression, has been implicated in many cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, the complexity of action of other types of ncRNA, such as long ncRNAs, has somewhat hampered the study of their role in cardiovascular pathologies. A detailed characterization of the mechanism of action of these different ncRNA species would be conducive to a better understanding of the cellular processes underlying cardiovascular disease and may lead to the development of innovative therapeutic strategies. Here, we give an overview of the current knowledge on the function of ncRNAs and their roles in cardiovascular disease development, concentrating mainly on microRNAs and long ncRNAs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
  • Elena Cavarretta · Gianluigi Condorelli

    No preview · Article · May 2015 · European Heart Journal
  • Carolina M Greco · Gianluigi Condorelli
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    ABSTRACT: The regulatory networks governing gene expression in cardiomyocytes are under intense investigation, not least because dysregulation of the gene programme has a fundamental role in the development of a failing myocardium. Epigenetic modifications and functional non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are important contributors to this process. The epigenetic modifications that regulate transcription comprise post-translational changes to histones-the proteins around which DNA is wound-as well as modifications to cytosine residues on DNA. The most studied of the histone changes are acetylation and methylation. Histone acetylation is known to be important in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology, but the roles of other histone modifications and of cytosine methylation are only starting to be investigated. Understanding of the role of microRNAs has also seen major advancements, but the function of long ncRNAs is less well defined. Moreover, the connection between ncRNAs and epigenetic modifications is poorly understood in the heart. In this Review, we summarize new insights into how these two layers of gene-expression regulation might be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and failure, and how we are only beginning to appreciate the complexity of the interactive network of which they are part.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Nature Reviews Cardiology
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    Simon P R Romaine · Maciej Tomaszewski · Gianluigi Condorelli · Nilesh J Samani
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding, RNA molecules approximately 22 nucleotides in length which act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Individual miRNAs have been shown to regulate the expression of multiple genes. Conversely, the expression of individual genes can be regulated by multiple miRNAs. Consequently, since their discovery just over 20 years ago, miRNAs have been identified as key regulators of complex biological processes linked to multiple cardiovascular pathologies, including left ventricular hypertrophy, ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, hypertension and arrhythmias. Furthermore, since the finding that miRNAs are present in the circulation, they have been investigated as novel biomarkers, especially in the context of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure. While there is little convincing evidence that miRNAs can outperform traditional biomarkers, such as cardiac troponins, in the diagnosis of AMI, there is potential for miRNAs to complement existing risk prediction models and act as valuable markers of post-AMI prognosis. Encouragingly, the concept of miRNA-based therapeutics is developing, with synthetic antagonists of miRNAs (antagomiRs) currently in phase II trials for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. In the cardiovascular field, promising preclinical studies suggest that they could be useful in treating disorders ranging from heart failure to dyslipidaemia, although several challenges related to specificity and targeted delivery remain to be overcome. Through this review, we provide clinicians with a brief overview of the ever-expanding world of miRNAs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Heart (British Cardiac Society)
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    ABSTRACT: The miR-143/145 cluster is highly expressed in smooth muscle cells (SMCs), where it regulates phenotypic switch and vascular homeostasis. Whether it plays a role in neighboring endothelial cells (ECs) is still unknown. To determine whether SMCs control EC functions through passage of miR-143 and miR-145. We used co-cultures of SMCs and ECs under different conditions as well as intact vessels to assess the transfer of miR-143 and miR-145 from one cell type to another. Imaging of co-cultured cells transduced with fluorescent miRNAs suggested that miRNA transfer involves membrane protrusions known as tunneling nanotubes. Furthermore, we showed that miRNA passage is modulated by the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ pathway, since both a specific TGFβ inhibitor (SB431542) and an shRNA against TGFβ RII suppressed the passage of miR-143/145 from SMCs to ECs. Moreover, miR-143 and miR-145 modulated angiogenesis by reducing the proliferation index of ECs and their capacity to form vessel-like structures when cultured on matrigel. We also identified hexokinase II (HKII) and integrin beta 8 (ITGβ8)-two genes essential for the angiogenic potential of ECs-as targets of miR-143 and miR-145, respectively. The inhibition of these genes modulated EC phenotype, similarly to miR-143 and miR-145 overexpression in ECs. These findings were confirmed by ex vivo and in vivo approaches, in which it was shown that TGFβ and vessel stress, respectively, triggered miR-143/145 transfer from SMCs to ECs. Our results demonstrate that miR-143 and miR-145 act as communication molecules between SMCs and ECs to modulate the angiogenic and vessel stabilization properties of ECs.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Circulation Research
  • Michael V G Latronico · Gianluigi Condorelli
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    ABSTRACT: In this review, we summarize the basic principles underlying the therapeutic use of nonprotein coding (nc)RNAs, such as microRNA (miRNA) and long noncoding RNA, in the cardiovascular field, focusing, where possible, on recent advances that may lead to translation to the clinic for heart failure. The number of individual miRNAs associated with a given aspect of heart disease is increasing rapidly, as is the data on miRNA profiles in normal and diseased myocardium. Less is known on the role of long noncoding RNA, and to date only a few have been studied in the heart. Novel oligonucleotide-based therapies have started to trickle into the clinic, but strategies focusing on ncRNA are still in a clinical/preclinical trial phase. The discovery of functional ncRNAs is leading to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular physiology. Dysregulation of ncRNAs is being increasingly associated with many diseases affecting the heart and in certain instances may have a pathogenic role. Therapeutic intervention aimed at opposing ncRNA misexpression has been widely demonstrated to be effective in blunting disease in animal models, and may thus have potential in the clinical setting.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Current Opinion in Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Thiazide diuretics have been recommended as a first-line antihypertensive treatment, although the choice of 'the right drug in the individual essential hypertensive patient' remains still empirical. Essential hypertension is a complex, polygenic disease derived from the interaction of patient's genetic background with the environment. Pharmacogenomics could be a useful tool to pinpoint gene variants involved in antihypertensive drug response, thus optimizing therapeutic advantages and minimizing side effects. We looked for variants associated with blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide over an 8-week follow-up by means of a genome-wide association analysis in two Italian cohorts of never-treated essential hypertensive patients: 343 samples from Sardinia and 142 from Milan. TET2 and CSMD1 as plausible candidate genes to affect SBP response to hydrochlorothiazide were identified. The specificity of our findings for hydrochlorothiazide was confirmed in an independent cohort of essential hypertensive patients treated with losartan. Our best findings were also tested for replication in four independent hypertensive samples of European Ancestry, such as GENetics of drug RESponsiveness in essential hypertension, Genetic Epidemiology of Responses to Antihypertensives, NORdic DILtiazem intervention, Pharmacogenomics Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses, and Campania Salute Network-StayOnDiur. We validated a polymorphism in CSMD1 and UGGT2. This exploratory study reports two plausible loci associated with SBP response to hydrochlorothiazide: TET2, an aldosterone-responsive mediator of αENaC gene transcription; and CSMD1, previously described as associated with hypertension in a case-control study.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Hypertension
  • Thomas Thum · Gianluigi Condorelli
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    ABSTRACT: RNAs not encoding proteins have gained prominence over the last couple of decades as fundamental regulators of cellular function. Not surprisingly, their dysregulation is increasingly being linked to pathology. Here, we review recent reports investigating the pathophysiological relevance of this species of RNA for the cardiovascular system, concentrating mainly on recent findings on long noncoding RNAs and microRNAs in cardiac hypertrophy and failure. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Circulation Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background Lone atrial flutter (AFL) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are common and sometimes consequential cardiac conduction disorders with a strong heritability, as underlined by recent genome-wide association studies that identified genetic modifiers. Follow-up family-based genetic analysis also identified Mendelian transmission of disease alleles. Three affected members were exome-sequenced for the identification of potential causative mutations, which were subsequently validated by direct sequencing in the other 3 affected members. Taqman assay was then used to confirm the role of any mutation in an independent population of sporadic lone AFL/AF cases. Results The family cluster analysis provided evidence of genetic inheritance of AFL in the family via autosomal dominant transmission. The exome-sequencing of 3 family members identified 7 potential mutations: of these, rs58238559, a rare missense genetic variant in the ATP-binding cassette sub-family B, member 4 (ABCB4) gene was carried by all affected members. Further analysis of 82 subjects with sporadic lone AF, 63 subjects with sporadic lone AFL, and 673 controls revealed that the allele frequency for this variation was significantly higher in cases than in the controls (0.05 vs. 0.01; OR = 3.73; 95% CI = 1.16–11.49; P = 0.013). Conclusions rs58238559 in ABCB4 is a rare missense variant with a significant effect on the development of AFL/AF. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12863-015-0177-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · BMC Genetics

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Human Hypertension
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    ABSTRACT: LMNA/C mutations have been linked to the premature aging syndrome Hutchinson's progeria, dilated cardiomyopathy 1A, skeletal myopathies (such as the autosomal dominant variant of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy), Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder type 2B1, mandibuloacral dysplasia, autosomal dominant partial lipodystrophy, and axonal neuropathy. Atrioventricular block (AVB) can be associated with several cardiac disorders and it can also be a highly heritable, primitive disease. Results: DNA and medical histories were collected from (n=11) members of different generations of one family, the proband of which was implanted with a pacemaker for lone, type II AVB. Exome sequencing analysis was performed on three relatives with AVB, and the mutations therein identified validated in a further three AVB-affected family members. Conclusions: Screening for G613A in LMNA/C in patients with lone AVB and their relatives might prevent sudden death in families affected by AVB but without familiarity for DCM. Lone AVB is an age-related disease caused by mutations in LMNA/C gene rather than a complication of DCM.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Immunity & Ageing
  • Gianluigi Condorelli

    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) remains the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. As a result, novel therapies are still needed to protect the heart from the detrimental effects of acute ischaemia-reperfusion injury, in order to improve clinical outcomes in IHD patients. In this regard, although a large number of novel cardioprotective therapies discovered in the research laboratory have been investigated in the clinical setting, only a few of these have been demonstrated to improve clinical outcomes. One potential reason for this lack of success may have been the failure to thoroughly assess the cardioprotective efficacy of these novel therapies in suitably designed preclinical experimental animal models. Therefore, the aim of this Position Paper by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group Cellular Biology of the Heart is to provide recommendations for improving the preclinical assessment of novel cardioprotective therapies discovered in the research laboratory, with the aim of increasing the likelihood of success in translating these new treatments into improved clinical outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Cardiovascular Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background Exposure to subclinical levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) occurs commonly and is seemingly well tolerated. However, recurrent LPS exposure induces cardiac fibrosis over 2 to 3 months in a murine model, not mediated by the renin-angiotensin system. Subclinical LPS induces cardiac fibrosis by unique mechanisms. Methods In C57/Bl6 mice, LPS (10 mg/kg) or saline (control) were injected intraperitoneally once a week for 1–4 weeks. Mice showed no signs of distress, change in activity, appetite, or weight loss. Mice were euthanized after 3 days, 1, 2, or 4 weeks to measure cardiac expression of fibrosis-related genes and potential mediators (measured by QRT-PCR), including micro-RNA (miR) and NADPH oxidase (NOX). Collagen fraction area of the left ventricle was measured with picrosirius red staining. Cardiac fibroblasts isolated from adult mouse hearts were incubated with 0, 0.1, 1.0 or 10 ng/ml LPS for 48 hours. Results Cardiac miR expression profiling demonstrated decreased miR-29c after 3 and 7 days following LPS, which were confirmed by QRT-PCR. The earliest changes in fibrosis-related genes and mediators that occurred 3 days after LPS were increased cardiac expression of TIMP-1 and NOX-2 (but not of NOX-4). This persisted at 1 and 2 weeks, with additional increases in collagen Iα1, collagen IIIα1, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2, and periostin. There was no change in TGF-β or connective tissue growth factor. Collagen fraction area of the left ventricle increased after 2 and 4 weeks of LPS. LPS decreased miR-29c and increased NOX-2 in isolated cardiac fibroblasts. Conclusions Recurrent exposure to subclinical LPS induces cardiac fibrosis after 2–4 weeks. Early changes 3 days after LPS were decreased miR-29c and increased NOX2 and TIMP1, which persisted at 1 and 2 weeks, along with widespread activation of fibrosis-related genes. Decreased miR-29c and increased NOX2, which induce cardiac fibrosis in other conditions, may uniquely mediate LPS-induced cardiac fibrosis.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The miR-143/145 cluster regulates VSMC specific gene expression, thus controlling differentiation, plasticity and contractile function, and promoting the VSMC phenotypic switch from a contractile/non-proliferative to a migrating/proliferative state. More recently increased miR-145 expression was observed in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques from symptomatic patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the contribution of miR-143/145 during atherogenesis by generating mice lacking miR-143/145 on an Ldlr-deficient background. Ldlr-/- and Ldlr-/--miR-143/145-/- (DKO) were fed a Western diet (WD) for 16 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the lipid profile and the atherosclerotic lesions were assessed in both groups of mice. Absence of miR-143/145 significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque size and macrophage infiltration. Plasma total cholesterol levels were lower in DKO and FLPC analysis showed decreased cholesterol content in VLDL and LDL fractions. Interestingly miR-143/145 deficiency per se resulted in increased hepatic and vascular ABCA1 expression. Experiments with the luciferase coding sequence fused to the ABCA1 3'UTR, Western blotting, qRT-PCR and mimicMiR confirmed the direct regulation of ABCA1 expression by miR-145. In conclusion, miR-143/145 deficiency significantly reduces atherosclerosis in mice. Therapeutic inhibition of miR-145 might be useful for treating atherosclerotic vascular disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Thrombosis and Haemostasis

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,000.13 Total Impact Points


  • 2013-2015
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2012-2015
    • Istituto Clinico Humanitas IRCCS
      • Department of Cardiology
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2008-2014
    • Italian National Research Council
      • Institute of Biomedical Technologies ITB
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging
      Trondheim, Sor-Trondelag Fylke, Norway
  • 2005-2014
    • Clinica Mediterranea
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 2009-2012
    • INO - Istituto Nazionale di Ottica
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
    • University of Tuebingen
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2008-2012
    • IRCCS Multimedica
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2004-2012
    • University of California, San Diego
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Cardiology
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2011
    • Ospedale di San Raffaele Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2009-2011
    • Istituto di Cura e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Basilicata
      Rionero in Vulture, Basilicate, Italy
  • 2010
    • Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico San Raffaele Pisana
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2006
    • The American University of Rome
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2000-2006
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      • Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pathology Environmental
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2003-2005
    • University of Naples Federico II
      • Department of Biology
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
    • Istituto Superiore di Sanità
      • Department of Haematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2000-2004
    • Thomas Jefferson University
      • Kimmel Cancer Center
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2002
    • Salk Institute
      لا هویا, California, United States
  • 1997
    • Jefferson College
      Хиллсборо, Missouri, United States