Mark A Espeland

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (217)1213.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background. Independent predictors of preserved cognitive functioning and factors associated with maintaining high preserved cognitive function in women ≥80 years remain elusive. Methods. Two thousand two hundred twenty-eight women with a mean age of 85 years who participated in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study were classified as cognitively normal (n = 1,905, 85.5%), mild cognitive impairment (n = 88, 3.9%), dementia (n = 121, 5.4%) or other cognitive impairment (n = 114, n = 5.1%) by central adjudication. Global cognitive functioning was assessed using telephone interview for cognitive status-modified in those women who did not meet cognitive impairment criteria. Differences between women grouped by cognitive status with respect to each potential risk factor were assessed using chi-squared tests and t-tests. Backward stepwise logistic regression was used to select factors that were independently associated with cognitive status. Results. Factors associated with preserved cognitive functioning were younger age, higher education, and family incomes, being non-Hispanic white, better emotional wellbeing, fewer depressive symptoms, more insomnia complaints, being free of diabetes, and not carrying the apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele. Cognitively normal women who demonstrated sustained high preserved cognition were younger, more educated, and endorsed better self-reported general health, emotional wellbeing, and higher physical functioning. Conclusions. Addressing sociodemographic disparities such as income inequality, and targeting interventions to improve depressive symptoms and vascular risk factors, including diabetes, may play an important role in preserving cognition among women who survive to 80 years of age. Person-centered approaches that combine interventions to improve physical, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning may promote maintenance of high preserved cognitive health in the oldest-old.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of the study: A comparison of longitudinal global cognitive functioning in women Veteran and non-Veteran participants in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Design and methods: We studied 7,330 women aged 65-79 at baseline who participated in the WHI Hormone Therapy Trial and its ancillary Memory Study (WHIMS). Global cognitive functioning (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MSE]) in Veterans (n = 279) and non-Veterans (n = 7,051) was compared at baseline and annually for 8 years using generalized linear modeling methods. Results: Compared with non-Veterans, Veteran women were older, more likely to be Caucasian, unmarried, and had higher rates of educational and occupational attainment. Results of unadjusted baseline analyses suggest 3MSE scores were similar between groups. Longitudinal analyses, adjusted for age, education, ethnicity, and WHI trial assignment revealed differences in the rate of cognitive decline between groups over time, such that scores decreased more in Veterans relative to non-Veterans. This relative difference was more pronounced among Veterans who were older, had higher educational/occupational attainment and greater baseline prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., angina, stroke). Implications: Veteran status was associated with higher prevalence of protective factors that may have helped initially preserve cognitive functioning. However, findings ultimately revealed more pronounced cognitive decline among Veteran relative to non-Veteran participants, likely suggesting the presence of risks that may impact neuropathology and the effects of which were initially masked by Veterans' greater cognitive reserve.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · The Gerontologist
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic studies have identified a glutamate-ammonia ligase gene (GLUL) polymorphism associated with cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality among people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We sought to determine whether GLUL rs10911021 is associated prospectively with adjudicated cardiovascular composite end points among overweight/obese individuals with T2D and whether a lifestyle intervention resulting in weight loss could diminish this association. Look AHEAD is a randomized, controlled trial to determine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), including weight loss and physical activity, relative to diabetes support and education, on cardiovascular outcomes. Look AHEAD participants included in this report were 3,845 overweight/obese individuals with T2D who provided consent for genetic analyses. Over a median of 9.6 years of follow-up, the risk (C) allele for GLUL rs10911021 was significantly associated with the primary composite end point of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for angina among individuals with no history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline using additive genetic models (hazard ratio 1.17(95% CI 1.01-1.36]; P = 0.032). Results appeared more consistent in recessive models and among individuals with no known history of CVD at baseline; ILI did not alter these associations. These results extend the association of GLUL rs10911021 to incident CVD morbidity and mortality in the setting of T2D.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: In Brief This article reports on an investigation of whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) would reduce gastrointestinal symptoms over 4 years of follow-up for participants in the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial compared to a diabetes support and education (DSE) group. Look AHEAD is a randomized, multicenter trial comparing overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes treated with ILI versus DSE. ILI, and weight loss in general, had beneficial effects on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, with some variability in the strength of the effect depending on the specific symptom and time course. Potential modifiers were analyzed, yet ILI retained an association with improvement in GI symptoms.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Clinical Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: In older women, higher levels of estrogen may exacerbate the increased risk for cognitive impairment conveyed by diabetes. We examined whether the effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on cognitive impairment incidence differs depending on type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: The Women's Health Initiative randomized clinical trials assigned women to HT (0.625 mg/day conjugated equine estrogens with or without [i.e., unopposed] 2.5 mg/day medroxyprogesterone acetate) or matching placebo for an average of 4.7-5.9 years. A total of 7,233 women, ages 65-80 years, were classified according to type 2 diabetes status and followed for probable dementia and cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment or dementia). Results: Through a maximum of 18 years of follow-up, women with diabetes had increased risk of probable dementia (hazard ratio [HR] 1.54 [95% CI 1.16-2.06]) and cognitive impairment (HR 1.83 [1.50-2.23]). The combination of diabetes and random assignment to HT increased their risk of dementia (HR 2.12 [1.47-3.06]) and cognitive impairment (HR 2.20 [1.70-2.87]) compared with women without these conditions: interactions P = 0.09 and P = 0.08. These interactions appeared to be limited to women assigned to unopposed conjugated equine estrogens. Conclusions: These analyses provide additional support to a prior report that higher levels of estrogen may exacerbate risks that type 2 diabetes poses for cognitive function in older women. The role estrogen plays in suppressing non-glucose based energy sources in the brain may explain this interaction.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Diabetes care
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidence suggests that physical activity benefits cognition, but results from randomized trials are limited and mixed. To determine whether a 24-month physical activity program results in better cognitive function, lower risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, or both, compared with a health education program. A randomized clinical trial, the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study, enrolled 1635 community-living participants at 8 US centers from February 2010 until December 2011. Participants were sedentary adults aged 70 to 89 years who were at risk for mobility disability but able to walk 400 m. A structured, moderate-intensity physical activity program (n = 818) that included walking, resistance training, and flexibility exercises or a health education program (n = 817) of educational workshops and upper-extremity stretching. Prespecified secondary outcomes of the LIFE study included cognitive function measured by the Digit Symbol Coding (DSC) task subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (score range: 0-133; higher scores indicate better function) and the revised Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT-R; 12-item word list recall task) assessed in 1476 participants (90.3%). Tertiary outcomes included global and executive cognitive function and incident MCI or dementia at 24 months. At 24 months, DSC task and HVLT-R scores (adjusted for clinic site, sex, and baseline values) were not different between groups. The mean DSC task scores were 46.26 points for the physical activity group vs 46.28 for the health education group (mean difference, -0.01 points [95% CI, -0.80 to 0.77 points], P = .97). The mean HVLT-R delayed recall scores were 7.22 for the physical activity group vs 7.25 for the health education group (mean difference, -0.03 words [95% CI, -0.29 to 0.24 words], P = .84). No differences for any other cognitive or composite measures were observed. Participants in the physical activity group who were 80 years or older (n = 307) and those with poorer baseline physical performance (n = 328) had better changes in executive function composite scores compared with the health education group (P = .01 for interaction for both comparisons). Incident MCI or dementia occurred in 98 participants (13.2%) in the physical activity group and 91 participants (12.1%) in the health education group (odds ratio, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.80 to 1.46]). Among sedentary older adults, a 24-month moderate-intensity physical activity program compared with a health education program did not result in improvements in global or domain-specific cognitive function. Identifier: NCT01072500.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: To examine whether the effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on brain volumes in women aged 65-79 years differs depending on type 2 diabetes status during postintervention follow-up of a randomized controlled clinical trial. The Women's Health Initiative randomized clinical trials assigned women to HT (0.625 mg/day conjugated equine estrogens with or without 2.5 mg/day medroxyprogesterone acetate) or placebo for an average of 5.6 years. A total of 1,402 trial participants underwent brain MRI 2.4 years after the trials; these were repeated in 699 women 4.7 years later. General linear models were used to assess the interaction between diabetes status and HT assignment on brain volumes. Women with diabetes at baseline or during follow-up who had been assigned to HT compared to placebo had mean decrement in total brain volume of -18.6 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] -29.6, -7.6). For women without diabetes, this mean decrement was -0.4 (95% CI -3.8, 3.0) (interaction p = 0.002). This interaction was evident for total gray matter (p < 0.001) and hippocampal (p = 0.006) volumes. It was not evident for changes in brain volumes over follow-up or for ischemic lesion volumes and was not influenced by diabetes duration or oral medications. For women aged 65 years or older who are at increased risk for brain atrophy due to type 2 diabetes, prescription of postmenopausal HT is associated with lower gray matter (total and hippocampal) volumes. Interactions with diabetes and insulin resistance may explain divergent findings on how estrogen influences brain volume among older women. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Neurology

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  • No preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the putative adverse effects of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) on brain volumes in older women. We conducted a prospective study of 1403 community-dwelling older women without dementia enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), 1996-8. Structural brain MRI scans were performed at age of 71-89 years in 2005-6 to obtain volumetric measures of gray matter (GM) and normal-appearing white matter (WM). Given residential histories and air monitoring data, we used a spatiotemporal model to estimate cumulative PM2.5 exposure in 1999-2006. Multiple linear regression was employed to evaluate the associations between PM2.5 and brain volumes, adjusting for intracranial volumes and potential confounders. Older women with greater PM2.5 exposures had significantly smaller WM, but not GM volumes, independent of geographic region, demographics, socioeconomic status, lifestyles, and clinical characteristics including cardiovascular risk factors. For each inter-quartile increment (3.49 µg/m(3) ) of cumulative PM2.5 exposure, the average WM volume (95% confidence interval) was 6.23 (3.72-8.74) cm(3) in the total brain and 4.47 (2.27-6.67) cm(3) lower in the association areas, equivalent to 1-2 years of brain aging. The adverse PM2.5 effects on smaller WM volumes were present in frontal and temporal lobes and corpus callosum (all p-values <0.01). Hippocampal volumes did not differ by PM2.5 exposure. PM2.5 exposure may contribute to WM loss in older women. Future studies are needed to determine whether exposures result in myelination disturbance, disruption of axonal integrity, damages to oligodendrocytes, or other WM neuropathologies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 American Neurological Association.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Annals of Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: An estimated 65% of individuals demonstrate multidomain cognitive impairment poststroke, although little is known about the varying role of cognitive risk and protective factors in preischemic, peri-ischemic, and postischemic stroke phases. Longitudinal changes in global cognitive function after ischemic stroke are not well characterized, especially in older adults over age 80. We examined global cognitive function trajectories in these three phases across a mean follow-up of 8.12 (2.30) years in 159 female stroke survivors aged 65-79 at baseline using linear mixed models with change points. In separate models controlling for demographic variables, we tested the interaction of baseline risk and protective factors with stroke phase on global cognitive function. None of the prestroke global cognitive function means or trajectories differed significantly. At the time of ischemic stroke, higher body mass index (BMI), the presence of hypertension (HTN), low optimism, and higher physical function were all associated with significantly greater mean decreases in global cognition (all p's <.0.0001), but were not significantly different from the contrasting level (all p's >0.05). Higher BMI, the presence of HTN, low optimism, and higher physical function were in turn protective of global cognitive decline postischemic stroke (all contrasting p values <.01). Baseline factors may play either a risk or a protective role in global cognitive function depending on the phase of ischemic stroke.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Aging Neuropsychology and Cognition
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    ABSTRACT: Consistent evidence linking habitual sleep duration with risks of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia is lacking. We conducted a prospective study on 7444 community-dwelling women (aged 65-80 y) with self-reported sleep duration, within the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study in 1995-2008. Incident MCI/dementia cases were ascertained by validated protocols. Cox models were used to adjust for multiple sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, depression, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and other clinical characteristics. We found a statistically significant (P = .03) V-shaped association with a higher MCI/dementia risk in women with either short (≤6 hours/night) or long (≥8 hours/night) sleep duration (vs. 7 hours/night). The multicovariate-adjusted hazard for MCI/dementia was increased by 36% in short sleepers irrespective of CVD, and by 35% in long sleepers without CVD. A similar V-shaped association was found with cognitive decline. In older women, habitual sleep duration predicts the future risk for cognitive impairments including dementia, independent of vascular risk factors. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association
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    ABSTRACT: The Women's Health Initiative has collected data on the aging process of postmenopausal women for over two decades, including data on many women who have achieved age 80 years and older. However, there has not been any previous effort to characterize the 80+ cohort and to identify associated retention factors. We include all women at baseline of the Women's Health Initiative who would be at least 80 years of age as of September 17, 2012. We summarize retention rates during the study and across two re-enrollment campaigns as well as the demographic and health-related characteristics that predicted retention. Further, we describe the longitudinal change from baseline in the women identified as members of the 80+ cohort. Retention rates were lower during each of two re-enrollment periods (74% and 83% retained during re-enrollment periods 1 and 2, respectively) than during the first and second data collection periods (90% each). Women who were retained were more likely to be white, educated, and healthier at baseline. Women age 80 and older saw modest changes in body mass index and depression burden, despite lower physical activity and increased cardiovascular disease. The characteristics of women who were retained in the 80+ cohort differ in significant ways compared with their peers at baseline. Identifying the characteristics associated with attrition in older cohorts is important because aging and worsening health has a negative impact on study attrition. Strategies should be implemented to improve retention rates among less healthy older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and indicators of cognitive function. Randomized clinical trial (Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Trial). Eight US academic centers. A total of 1601 adults ages 70-89 years, sedentary, without dementia, and with functional limitations. Baseline ABI and interviewer- and computer-administered cognitive function assessments were obtained. These assessments were used to compare a physical activity intervention with a health education control. Cognitive function was reassessed 24 months later (interviewer-administered) and 18 or 30 months later (computer-administered) and central adjudication was used to classify individuals as having mild cognitive impairment, probable dementia, or neither. Lower ABI had a modest independent association with poorer cognitive functioning at baseline (partial r = 0.09; P < .001). Although lower baseline ABI was not associated with overall changes in cognitive function test scores, it was associated with higher odds for 2-year progression to a composite of either mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia (odds ratio 2.60 per unit lower ABI; 95% confidence interval 1.06-6.37). Across 2 years, changes in ABI were not associated with changes in cognitive function. In an older cohort sedentary individuals with dementia and with functional limitations, lower baseline ABI was independently correlated with cognitive function and associated with greater 2-year risk for progression to mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Frequent self-weighing is linked with weight management success, but concern has been raised about its possible association with unhealthy practices. This study examined the association of self-weighing with other weight control behaviors in a sample for whom frequent weighing might be questioned—namely, normal-weight or overweight (BMI of 21-29.9) young adults (age 18-35).Methods Participants (N = 583; mean [SD] age = 27.7 [4.4]; BMI = 25.4 [2.6]) entering the Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention (SNAP) completed objective measures of weight and physical activity and self-reported weight history, use of healthy and unhealthy weight control strategies, depressive symptoms, and dietary intake.ResultsDaily self-weighing was reported by 11% of participants, and 23% weighed several times per week. Frequent weighing was not associated with current BMI, gender, or age but was associated with being further below one's highest weight, history of dieting, and perceived difficulty maintaining weight. Frequent weighing was associated with healthy weight management strategies, but not with unhealthy practices or depressive symptoms.Conclusions In this sample, frequent self-weighing appears to be part of a constellation of healthy weight control behaviors used to counteract a perceived tendency toward weight gain. SNAP follow-up will determine whether frequent self-weighing helps prevent weight gain.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Obesity
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    ABSTRACT: CARdiovascular Outcome Trial of LINAgliptin Versus Glimepiride in Type 2 Diabetes (NCT01243424) is an ongoing, randomized trial in subjects with early type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular risk or established complications that will determine the long-term cardiovascular impact of linagliptin versus the sulphonylurea glimepiride. Eligible patients were sulphonylurea-naïve with HbA1c 6.5%-8.5% or previously exposed to sulphonylurea (in monotherapy or in a combination regimen <5 years) with HbA1c 6.5%-7.5%. Primary outcome is time to first occurrence of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or hospitalization for unstable angina. A total of 631 patients with primary outcome events will be required to provide 91% power to demonstrate non-inferiority in cardiovascular safety by comparing the upper limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval as being below 1.3 for a given hazard ratio. Hierarchical testing for superiority will follow, and the trial has 80% power to demonstrate a 20% relative cardiovascular risk reduction. A total of 6041 patients were treated with median type 2 diabetes duration 6.2 years, 40.0% female, mean HbA1c 7.2%, 66% on 1 and 24% on 2 glucose-lowering agents and 34.5% had previous cardiovascular complications. The results of CARdiovascular Outcome Trial of LINAgliptin Versus Glimepiride in Type 2 Diabetes may influence the decision-making process for selecting a second glucose-lowering agent after metformin in type 2 diabetes. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
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    ABSTRACT: The relative effectiveness of 3 approaches to blood pressure control-(i) an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) focused on weight loss, (ii) frequent goal-based monitoring of blood pressure with pharmacological management, and (iii) education and support-has not been established among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes who are appropriate for each intervention. Participants from the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) and the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) cohorts who met criteria for both clinical trials were identified. The proportions of these individuals with systolic blood pressure (SBP) <140mm Hg from annual standardized assessments over time were compared with generalized estimating equations. Across 4 years among 480 Look AHEAD and 1,129 ACCORD participants with baseline SBPs between 130 and 159mm Hg, ILI (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = [1.18-1.81]) and frequent goal-based monitoring with pharmacotherapy (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = [1.16-1.97]) yielded higher rates of blood pressure control compared to education and support. The intensive behavioral-based intervention may have been more effective among individuals with body mass index >30kg/m(2), while frequent goal-based monitoring with medication management may be more effective among individuals with lower body mass index (interaction P = 0.047). Among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes, both ILI and frequent goal-based monitoring with pharmacological management can be successful strategies for blood pressure control. identifiers NCT00017953 (Look AHEAD) and NCT00000620 (ACCORD). © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · American Journal of Hypertension
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Ankle-brachial index (ABI) and interartery systolic blood pressure differences, as markers of vascular disease, are plausible risk factors for deficits in cognitive function among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes.Methods The ABI and maximum interartery differences (MIAD) in systolic blood pressures were assessed annually for five years among 479 participants assigned to the control condition in a randomized clinical trial of a behavioral weight loss intervention. A battery of standardized cognitive function tests was administered 4 to 5 years later. Analyses of covariance were used to assess relationships that ABI, MIAD, and progression of ABI and MIAD had with cognitive function.ResultsThere was a curvilinear relationship between ABI and a composite index of cognitive function (p = 0.03), with lower ABI being associated with poorer function. In graded fashions, both greater MIAD and increases in MIAD over time also had modest relationships with poorer verbal memory (both p ≤ 0.05), processing speed (both p ≤ 0.05), and composite cognitive function (both p < 0.04). These relationships were independent of each other and remained evident after extensive covariate adjustment.Conclusions In overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes, lower ABI and larger interartery systolic blood pressure differences have modest, independent, graded relationships with poorer cognitive function 4–5 years later. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: We investigated (a) cross-sectional associations between cognitive activity, cognitive performance, and MRI measures and (b) longitudinal associations between cognitive activity and change in cognitive performance, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Method: Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) Extension participants who continued annual neuropsychological assessments by telephone and completed a concurrent questionnaire of cognitive activities and MRI scans were included (mean age = 81.4 years; N = 393). Cognitive performance was measured by tests of attention, working memory, verbal fluency, executive function, and memory. Cognitive activity was measured by self-reported participation in a variety of cognitive activities (e.g., reading books, playing games, computer activities; N = 11 items) during the previous 12 months. MRI measures included gray and white matter normal and white matter lesion volumes. Results: SEM demonstrated a significant association between cognitive activity and baseline cognitive performance but not change over 2-3 years. Gray and white matter was associated with cognitive performance but not cognitive activity. All effects remained significant after modeling covariates (age, education, depressive symptoms, WHIMS intervention assignment, and intracranial volume). Conclusions: Cognitive activity benefits current cognitive performance but is not associated with change over 2-3 years. Cognitive activity and MRI volumes are independently associated with cognitive performance, suggesting distinct cognitive and brain reserve constructs.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the relative impact of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) on use and costs of health care within the Look AHEAD trial. Research design and methods: A total of 5,121 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an ILI that promoted weight loss or to a comparison condition of diabetes support and education (DSE). Use and costs of health-care services were recorded across an average of 10 years. Results: ILI led to reductions in annual hospitalizations (11%, P = 0.004), hospital days (15%, P = 0.01), and number of medications (6%, P < 0.001), resulting in cost savings for hospitalization (10%, P = 0.04) and medication (7%, P < 0.001). ILI produced a mean relative per-person 10-year cost savings of $5,280 (95% CI 3,385-7,175); however, these were not evident among individuals with a history of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: Compared with DSE over 10 years, ILI participants had fewer hospitalizations, fewer medications, and lower health-care costs.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Diabetes Care

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,213.38 Total Impact Points


  • 1995-2015
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • • Department of Biostatistical Sciences
      • • Sticht Center on Aging
      • • Division of Public Health Sciences
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
    • Wake Forest University
      • • Department of Biostatistical Sciences
      • • Department of Public Health Sciences
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2013
    • Tulane University
      • School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
    • Brown University
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2005
    • Society for Clinical Trials
      Society Hill, New Jersey, United States
  • 2004
    • National Institute on Aging
      • Laboratory of Personality and Cognition (LPC)
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2003
    • Pennington Biomedical Research Center
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 2000
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      • Department of Medical Statistics
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998
    • University of Iowa
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • 1997
    • Stanford University
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 1988-1989
    • University Center Rochester
      • Department of Biostatistics
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 1987
    • Lund University
      • Department of Radiology
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 1985-1987
    • University of Rochester
      • School of Medicine and Dentistry
      Rochester, New York, United States