[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deregulation of mTOR and IGF pathways is frequent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), thus mTOR and IGF1R represent suitable therapeutic targets in HCC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mTOR inhibitors (mTORi) and OSI-906, blocker of IGF1R/IR, on HCC cell proliferation, viability, migration and invasion, and alpha-fetoprotein (α-FP) secretion. In HepG2 and HuH-7 we evaluated, the expression of mTOR and IGF pathway components; the effects of Sirolimus, Everolimus, Temsirolimus and OSI-906 on cell proliferation; the effects of Sirolimus, OSI-906, and their combination, on cell secretion, proliferation, viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion and migration. Moreover, intracellular mechanisms underlying these cell functions were evaluated in both cell lines. Our results show that HepG2 and HuH-7 present with the same mRNA expression profile with high levels of IGF2. OSI-906 inhibited cell proliferation at high concentration, while mTORi suppressed cell proliferation in a dose-time dependent manner in both cell lines. The co-treatment showed an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and viability. This effect was not related to induction of apoptosis, but to G0/G1 phase block. Moreover, the co-treatment prevented the Sirolimus-induced AKT activation as escape mechanism. Both agents demonstrated to be differently effective in inhibiting α-FP secretion. Sirolimus, OSI-906, and their combination, blocked cell migration and invasion in HuH-7. These findings indicate that, co-targeting of IGF1R/IR and mTOR pathways could be a novel therapeutic approach in the management of HCC, in order to maximize antitumoral effect and to prevent the early development of resistance mechanisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both oxidative stress and polycystic ovary syndrome have been involved in several aspects of female reproduction. In this retrospective observational study, the outcome of controlled ovarian stimulation and follicular microenvironment of twenty-five women affected by PCOS (Group A) have been explored, evaluating the effects of myo-inositol in association with antioxidant activities (FT500 Plus®). Twenty-five untreated-PCOS women (Group B) with similar characteristics served as control group. Although there was no difference in ovarian volume at time zero, this parameter was significantly smaller at the 5-month follow-up in the Group A (11.1 ± 0.9 versus 13.5 ± 1; P = 0.0001). Group A showed a significant increase in the number of MII oocytes (6.3 ± 2.5 versus 4.5 ± 2; P = 0.03) and glutathione peroxidase activity in follicular fluid (15.4 ± 6.2 versus 11 ± 2.2; P = 0.04). FT500 Plus® may be considered in PCOS patient for improving oocyte quality.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Reproductive Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
In a 10-week proof-of-concept study (LINC 1), the potent oral 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor osilodrostat (LCI699) normalized urinary free cortisol (UFC) in 11/12 patients with Cushing's disease. The current 22-week study (LINC 2; NCT01331239) further evaluated osilodrostat in patients with Cushing's disease.
Phase II, open-label, prospective study of two patient cohorts. Follow-up cohort: 4/12 patients previously enrolled in LINC 1, offered re-enrollment if baseline mean UFC was above ULN. Expansion cohort: 15 newly enrolled patients with baseline UFC > 1.5 × ULN. In the follow-up cohort, patients initiated osilodrostat twice daily at the penultimate efficacious/tolerable dose in LINC 1; dose was adjusted as needed. In the expansion cohort, osilodrostat was initiated at 4 mg/day (10 mg/day if baseline UFC > 3 × ULN), with dose escalated every 2 weeks to 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg/day until UFC ≤ ULN. Main efficacy endpoint was the proportion of responders (UFC ≤ ULN or ≥50 % decrease from baseline) at weeks 10 and 22.
Overall response rate was 89.5 % (n/N = 17/19) at 10 weeks and 78.9 % (n/N = 15/19) at 22 weeks; at week 22, all responding patients had UFC ≤ ULN. The most common AEs observed during osilodrostat treatment were nausea, diarrhea, asthenia, and adrenal insufficiency (n = 6 for each). New or worsening hirsutism (n = 2) and/or acne (n = 3) were reported among four female patients, all of whom had increased testosterone levels.
Osilodrostat treatment reduced UFC in all patients; 78.9 % (n/N = 15/19) had normal UFC at week 22. Treatment with osilodrostat was generally well tolerated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context:
The somatostatin analogues octreotide LAR and lanreotide Autogel have been evaluated for the treatment of acromegaly in numerous clinical trials, with considerable heterogeneity in reported biochemical response rates. This review examines and attempts to account for these differences in response rates reported in the literature.
PubMed was searched for English-language studies of a minimum duration of 24 weeks that evaluated ≥10 patients with acromegaly treated with octreotide LAR or lanreotide Autogel from 1990 to March 2015 and reported GH and/or IGF-1 data as the primary objective of the study.
Of the 190 clinical trials found, 18 octreotide LAR and 15 lanreotide Autogel studies fulfilled the criteria for analysis. It is evident from the protocols of these studies that multiple factors are capable of impacting on reported response rates. Prospective studies reporting an intention-to-treat analysis that evaluated medically naïve patients and used the composite endpoint of both GH and IGF-1 control were associated with lower response rates. The use of non-composite biochemical control endpoints, heterogeneous patient populations, analyses that exclude treatment non-responders, assay variability and prior responsiveness to medical therapy are just a few of the factors identified that likely contribute to higher success rates.
The wide range of reported response rates with somatostatin analogues may be confusing and could lead to misinterpretation by both the patient and the physician in certain situations. Understanding the factors that potentially drive the variation in response rates should allow clinicians to better gauge treatment expectations in specific patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In nearly all cases, acromegaly is caused by excess GH from a pituitary adenoma, resulting in elevated circulating levels of GH and, subsequently, IGF-1. Treatment goals are to eliminate morbidity and restore the increased mortality to normal rates. Therapeutic strategies aim to minimize tumor mass and normalize GH and IGF-1 levels. Somatostatin analogues are the medical treatment of choice in acromegaly, as first-line or post-surgical therapy, and have proven efficacy in pituitary tumor volume reduction (TVR).
Here we review the effects of somatostatin analogue therapy on pituitary tumor volume in patients with acromegaly.
TVR with somatostatin analogues may be mediated by direct anti-proliferative effects via activation of somatostatin receptors, or by indirect effects, such as angiogenesis inhibition, and is more pronounced when they are administered as first-line therapy. Various studies of first-line treatment with octreotide LAR have shown significant TVR in ≥73 % of patients. First-line treatment with lanreotide Autogel has shown evidence of TVR, although more studies are needed. In a recent randomized, double-blind, 12-month trial in 358 medical-treatment-naïve acromegaly patients, significant TVR was achieved by 81 % of patients administered pasireotide LAR and 77 % administered octreotide LAR. Pre-operative somatostatin analogue therapy may also induce TVR and improve post-operative disease control compared with surgery alone. TVR is progressive with prolonged treatment, and decreased IGF-1 levels may be its best predictor, followed by age and degree of GH decrease. However, TVR does not always correlate with degree of biochemical control.
Somatostatin analogues (first- or second-line treatment) are the mainstay of medical therapy and, as first-line medical therapy, are associated with significant pituitary TVR in most patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
In patients with acromegaly, somatostatin analogs (SSA) represent the first choice medical treatment. The long-acting SSA have been found to be effective in controlling growth hormone and IGF-I levels in a high percentage of patients, resulting in an improvement in the quality of life; moreover, these peptide analogs have a proven safety record and are generally well tolerated.
The most commonly reported adverse events include injection-site discomfort and erythema, gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, biliary sludge or gallstones, and abnormal glucose metabolism. Most SSA-related adverse events are transient and of mild-to-moderate intensity, and the prevalence of such effects markedly and progressively decreases during treatment, so that treatment discontinuations due to adverse events are rare and commonly related to GI disturbances. Cholelithiasis represents the most serious complication of SSA, but is generally asymptomatic, and has been reported in 3 - 56% of patients. Whereas the effect of SSA on glucose metabolism is still controversial, several pieces of evidence have confirmed a modest and transient negative impact on glucose homeostasis. Also the novel SSA pasireotide has shown a safety profile as expected for a SSA, except for the degree of hyperglycemia.
On the basis of these findings, a close and careful monitoring of gallbladder ultrasound and glucose levels is recommended in patients receiving SSA for medical treatment of acromegaly.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Kallmann syndrome (KS), congenital hypogonadism is associated with olfactory impairment. To evaluate flavor perception-related disability in KS patients, 30 patients with KS, 12 with normosmic hypogonadism (nIHH), 24 with acquired anosmia (AA), and 58 healthy controls entered the study. All participants completed questionnaires concerning dietary habits, olfaction-related quality of life (QoL), and self-determined olfactory, flavor, and taste abilities prior to undergoing standardized olfactometry and gustometry. Each subject underwent flavor testing, using orally administered aqueous aromatic solutions, identifying 21 different compounds by choosing each out of 5 alternative items. Flavor score (FS) was calculated as the sum of correct answers (range 0-21). Flavor perception by self-assessment was similar between KS, nIHH, and controls, and was mostly reduced only in AA. FS was similar between KS (5.4 ± 1.4) and AA (6.4 ± 1.9), and lower than in nIHH (16.2 ± 2.4, p < 0.001) and controls (16.8 ± 1.7, p < 0.0001). FS showed strong reproducibility, and correlated with olfactory scores in the overall population. KS and AA patients identified aromatics eliciting trigeminal stimulation better than pure odorants. Olfaction-related QoL was more impaired in AA than in KS. We report significant flavor impairment in KS. This contrasts with routine clinic evidence; KS patients, in contrast with AA, do not complain of flavor perception impairment, perhaps owing to the congenital nature of the dysfunction. Flavor perception impairment should be considered a specific KS disability, because of important detrimental effects on physical and mental health and on QoL. KS patients should also be advised of this impairment in order to prevent accidental and life-threatening events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome (ECS) can be a diagnostic challenge with the hormonal source difficult to find. This study analyzes the accuracy of imaging studies in ECS localization.
Systematic review of medical literature for ECS case series providing individual patient data on at least one conventional imaging technique (CT/MRI) and one of (111)In-pentetreotide (OCT), (131)/(123)I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG-PET), (18)F-fluorodopa (F-DOPA-PET), (68)Ga-DOTATATE-PET/CT or (68)Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT scan ((68)Ga-SSTR-PET/CT). Evidence Summary: The analysis comprised 231 patients (female 50.2%; 42.6±17 years). Overall, 52.4% had 'overt' (121/231), 18.6% 'occult' and 29% 'covert' ECS. Tumors were located in the lung (55.3%), mediastinum-thymus (7.9%), pancreas (8.5%), adrenal glands (6.4%), gastrointestinal tract (5.4%), thyroid (3.7%) and other sites (12.8%), and primary tumors were mostly bronchial neuroendocrine tumors [NETs] (54.8%), pancreatic-NETs (8%), mediastinum-thymus-NETs (6.9%) gastrointestinal NETs (5.3%), pheochromocytoma (6.4%), neuroblastoma (3.2%), and medullary thyroid carcinoma (3.2%). Tumors were localized by CT in 66.2% (137/207), MRI in 51.5% (53/103), OCT in 48.9% (84/172), FDG-PET in 51.7% (46/89), F-DOPA-PET in 57.1% (12/21), MIBG in 30.8% (4/13), (68)Ga-SSTR-PET/CT in 81.8% (18/22) of cases. Molecular imaging discovered 79.1% (53/67) of tumors unidentified by conventional radiology, with OCT the most commonly used, revealing the tumor in 64%, followed by FDG-PET in 59.4%. F-DOPA-PET was used only in 7 coverts (sensitivity 85.7%). Notably, (68)Ga-SSTR-PET/CT had 100% sensitivity among covert cases.
Nuclear medicine improves the sensitivity of conventional radiology when tumor site identification is problematic. OCT offers a good availability/reliability ratio and FDG-PET was proven useful; (68)Ga-SSTR-PET/CT use was infrequent, despite offering the highest sensitivity.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In GSDIa, glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); in GSDIb, G6P levels are reduced in ER. G6P availability directly modulates the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1), an ER-bound enzyme playing a key role in the development of the metabolic syndrome (MS).
To evaluate the prevalence of MS and Insulin Resistance (IR) in GSDIa and GSDIb patients.
This was a prospective study. All the enrolled patients were followed at the Department of Pediatrics "Federico II" University of Naples for 10 years. Clinical and biochemical parameters of MS and the presence of IR were recorded. The results were correlated with the biochemical parameters of GSDI-related metabolic control. 10 GSDIa patient (median age 12.10 ± 1.50), 7 GSDIb patients (median age 14.90 ± 2.20 were enrolled in the study. They were compared to 20 and 14 age and sex matched controls, respectively. 10 GSDIa patients (median age 24.60 ± 1.50) and 6 GSDIb patients (median age 25.10 ± 2.00) completed the 10-year-follow-up. At the end of the study the patients' data were compared to 10 and 6 age and sex matched controls, respectively.
At study entry, 20 % GSDIa patients had MS and 80 % showed 2 criteria for MS. GSDIa patients showed higher HOMA-IR than controls and GSDIb patients (p < 0.001, p < 0.05), respectively. Baseline ISI was lower in GSDIa than controls (p < 0.001). QUICKI was significantly lower in GSDIa than in controls (p < 0.001). At the end of the study 70 % of GSDIa patients had MS and 30 % showed 2 criteria for MS. HOMA-IR was higher in GSDIa than controls (p < 0.01). Baseline ISI was higher in GSDIb than controls (p < 0.005) and GSD1a (p < 0.05). QUICKI was lower in GSD1a patients than in controls (p < 0.03). VAI was higher in GSDIa patients than controls (p < 0.001) and GSDIb patients (p = 0.002).
Our data showed high prevalence of IR and MS in GSDIa patients. We speculate a possible role of 11βHSD1 modulation by G6P availability. We suggest a routine metabolic assessment in GSDIa patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cushing's disease (CD), or pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS), is a severe endocrine disease caused by a corticotroph pituitary tumor, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The first-line treatment for CD is pituitary surgery, which is followed by disease remission in around 75%, and relapse in around 15%, of patients during the ten-year period after surgery. Patients with persistent or recurrent CD require additional treatments, including pituitary radiotherapy, adrenal surgery and/or medical therapy. Pituitary radiotherapy is effective in controlling cortisol excess in a large percentage of patients, but it is associated with a considerable risk of hypopituitarism. Adrenal surgery is followed by a rapid and definitive control of cortisol excess nearly in the totality of patients, but it induces adrenal insufficiency. Medical therapy has recently acquired a more important role compared to the past, due to the recent employment of novel compounds able to control cortisol secretion or action. Currently, medical therapy is used as a presurgical treatment, particularly for severe disease, or as post-surgical treatment, in case of failure or incomplete surgical tumor resection, or as bridging therapy before, during and after radiotherapy while waiting for disease control or, in selected cases, as primary therapy, mainly when surgery is not an option. The adrenal-directed drug ketoconazole is the most commonly used drug, mainly because of its rapid action, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, mifepristone, is highly effective in controlling clinical comorbidities, mainly glucose intolerance, thus being a useful treatment for CD when it is associated with diabetes mellitus. Pituitary-directed drugs have the advantage of acting at the site responsible for CD, the pituitary tumor. Among this group of drugs, the dopamine agonist cabergoline and the somatostatin analogue pasireotide result in disease remission in a consistent subgroup of patients with CD. Recently, pasireotide has been approved for the treatment of CD when surgery has failed or when surgery is not an option, and mifepristone has been approved for the treatment of CS when associated with impairment of glucose metabolism in case of lack of a surgical indication. Recent experience suggests that the combination of different drugs may be able to control cortisol excess in a great majority of patients with CD.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Endocrine reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the association of 25(OH)D levels with coronary heart disease (CHD) in 698 consecutive type 2 diabetic outpatients. 698 consecutive type 2 diabetic outpatients (25.2 % men, age 66 ± 9 years) and 100 (90 % men, age 65 ± 13 years) age-matched non-diabetic volunteers were enrolled. 25(OH)D assay and the main cardiovascular risk factors were explored. 25(OH)D concentration was 22 ± 10 ng/ml in control subjects and 18.23 ± 10 ng/ml in diabetic patients (p < 0.01). The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (90 vs. 83 %, p < 0.01). Diabetic subjects with hypovitaminosis D had higher prevalence of high values of A1C (p < 0.01), BMI (p < 0.01), LDL cholesterol (p < 0.01), triglycerides (p < 0.01), and glycemia (p < 0.01) than their vitamin D-sufficient counterparts. 25(OH)D and HDL cholesterol were lower (p < 0.01), while BMI (p < 0.01), age (p < 0.01), systolic (p < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.01), diabetes duration (p < 0.01), A1C (p < 0.01), glycemia (p < 0.01), fibrinogen (p < 0.01), triglycerides (p < 0.01), and total (p < 0.01) and LDL cholesterol (p < 0.01) were higher in diabetic subjects with CHD than diabetic subjects without CHD. At the logistic regression analysis, the association of vitamin D with CHD was lost, while sex (p = 0.026), diabetes duration (p = 0.023), and age (p = 0.024) were the most powerful predictors of CHD. The current study demonstrates that 25(OH)D does not have a direct effect on CHD but may have an indirect effect mediated by cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes duration, age, and sex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS), a rare endocrine disorder characterized by cortisol hypersecretion, is associated with psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders. Major depression, mania, anxiety, and neurocognitive impairment are the most important clinical abnormalities. Moreover, patients most often complain of impairment in quality of life, interference with family life, social, and work performance. Surprisingly, after hypercortisolism resolution, despite the improvement of the overall prevalence of psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders, the brain volume loss at least partially persists and it should be noted that some patients may still display depression, anxiety, panic disorders, and neurocognitive impairment. This brief review aimed at describing the prevalence of psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders and their characterization both during the active and remission phases of CS. The last section of this review is dedicated to quality of life, impaired during active CS and only partially resolved after resolution of hypercortisolism.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Frontiers in Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PurposeThe aim of this prospective study was to measure the thickness of the circumpapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (cpRNFL) and the ganglion cell complex (GCC) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a cohort of consecutive de novo patients with pituitary macroadenomas without chiasmal compression.Patients and methodsTwenty-two consecutive patients with pituitary macroadenoma without chiasmal compression (16 men, 6 women, aged 45.2±14.6 years, 43 eyes) entered the study between September 2011 and June 2013. Among them, 31.8% harboured a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma, 27.3% a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma, 27.3% a corticotrophin-secreting pituitary adenoma, and 13.6% a non-secreting pituitary tumour. Eighteen subjects (nine females, nine males, mean age 36.47±6.37 years; 33 eyes) without pituitary adenoma, with normal ophthalmic examination, served as controls. In both patients and controls, cpRNFL and GCC thicknesses were measured by SD-OCT.ResultsPatients were significantly older (P=0.02) than controls. Best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, colour fundus photography, and automatic perimetry test were within the normal range in patients and controls. Conversely, cpRNFL (P=0.009) and GCC (P<0.0001) were significantly thinner in patients than in controls. The average GCC (r=0.306, P=0.046) significantly correlated with the presence of arterial hypertension. OCT parameters did not differ significantly between patients with a tumour volume above the median and those with a tumour volume below the median.Conclusion
Pituitary macroadenomas, even in the absence of chiasmal compression, may induce GCC and retinal nerve fibre layer thinning. SD-OCT may have a role in the early diagnosis and management of patients with pituitary tumours.Eye advance online publication, 27 March 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.35.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Eye (London, England)