[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the imaging and histopathological findings and provide an overview of a recently described and rare cause of bone sclerosis.
Five cases of intra-osseous hibernoma of bone that presented over the last year. The imaging and histopathology is reviewed.
All cases were identified in asymptomatic middle-aged to elderly adults as incidental findings with bone sclerosis in the axial skeleton. MRI showed lesions that were T1 hypointense to subcutaneous fat and hyperintense to skeletal muscle and one showed contrast enhancement. Glucose avidity was demonstrated on FDGPET in both cases tested and isotope bone scan performed in three cases showed strong positivity in two, but uptake was inconspicuous in one case.
Intra-osseous hibernoma is a rare cause of sclerotic bone lesions, predominating in the axial skeleton of middle-aged and elderly adults. They have a non-aggressive appearance on CT and on MRI are T1 hypointense to subcutaneous fat and hyperintense to skeletal muscle. They are usually T2 hyperintense and may show peripheral contrast enhancement. They may show increased glucose avidity on FDGPET and may or may not be positive on isotope bone scans. We suspect that with ever-increasing use of a variety of imaging techniques, particularly in a setting of staging for malignant disease, more such cases will come to light. This diagnosis should be added to the differential diagnosis of sclerotic bone lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Intradural-extramedullary spinal tumors and extradural osteosarcomas are both rare entities. Only one case of primary intradural-extramedullary osteosarcoma of the spine has been previously reported. This is the second reported case. PURPOSE: To describe a case of primary intradural-extramedullary osteosarcoma of the spine associated with rapid clinical deterioration. STUDY DESIGN: Case report of a 70-year-old woman who presented with a constellation of neurologic symptoms. METHODS: Review of patient files, radiographic studies, surgical images, histopathology, and relevant literature. RESULTS: The patient underwent tumor debulking but exhibited rapid, postsurgical, functional deterioration and died within 6 weeks. This case and the only previous case of its kind both occurred in individuals with a remote history of iophendylate (Myodil) myelogram. CONCLUSIONS: Primary intradural-extramedullary extraosseous osteosarcoma of the spine is an exceedingly rare entity with no established management approach. Iophendylate myelography may be implicated in the etiology of this tumor type.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The retention of foreign bodies after surgery is rare, but carries significant morbidity and mortality as well as financial and legal implications. Such retained items cause a foreign-body reaction, which in the case of cotton-based materials are called gossypibomas. We present the case of an 84-year-old woman with a pseudotumor secondary to a retained dressing gauze roll, presenting 5 months after resection of a gluteal sarcoma, which had raised concerns of local recurrence. We also outline the imaging modalities that may assist in diagnosis of a retained foreign body, and suggest the MRI "row of dots" sign as a useful radiological feature associated with gossypiboma. Awareness of the imaging appearances of retained foreign bodies allows the inclusion of this possibility in differential diagnosis of a mass in patients with a surgical history.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Skeletal Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The histological features of periprosthetic tissues are related to the bioreactivity of particles generated by the prosthesis. This study analyzed synovial-like pseudocapsules collected from 21 patients with alumina ceramic-on-ceramic hip arthroplasties and correlated histological features with wear of the ceramic bearings, duration of implantation and clinical factors such as neck-to-rim impingement. A histopathological classification system was developed for this purpose. The pseudocapsules were viable, with few foreign body type giant cells and occasional lymphocytes. This differs from tissues in polyethylene containing hip arthroplasties which often have extensive foreign body type inflammatory changes or from metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties in which extensive necrosis is common. Soft-tissue inflammation was not associated with failure of the hip arthroplasties, and may be clinically insignificant in alumina-on-alumina total hip arthroplasties.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · The Journal of arthroplasty
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periosteal osteosarcomas are rare and usually affect the meta-diaphyseal region of long bones. We present a case of a periosteal osteosarcoma of the clavicle, a highly unusual site and representing one of only two such cases documented in the English literature. This case illustrates the diagnostic dilemmas in the classification of such tumors, particularly in small biopsy specimens from unusual locations. It emphasizes the importance of radiological and pathological correlation.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Skeletal Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia is developing a series of protocols as an educational tool to assist pathologists in the reporting of relevant information for specific cancer specimens. The protocol for the management of soft tissue tumour resections has recently been released, and this document elaborates the relevant literature on which that protocol drew. Sarcoma is uncommon but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and its management is complex. Diagnostic errors are not uncommon and these can have disastrous effects on patient outcome. Sophisticated ancillary testing is often an important adjunct to diagnosis and prognostication. Referral to a specialist sarcoma unit is indicated for both adult and paediatric sarcoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A tissue biopsy is usually a critical aspect in guiding appropriate initial management in patients with musculoskeletal tumours. We have previously outlined the role of intra-operative frozen section in both the determination of adequacy of a biopsy and for its diagnostic utility. In this article, the options and techniques for intra-operative pathological evaluation, namely frozen section, fine needle aspiration cytology and touch imprint cytology are reviewed. Frozen section examination may be applicable in the following Sections, including (1) at core biopsy, (2) at surgical margins, (3) at confirming diagnosis prior to definitive treatment or to evaluate tumour spread, and (4) at establishing a diagnosis of a metastasis prior to intramedullary nailing. There are also situations in which frozen section is inappropriate. Pitfalls associated with frozen sections are also highlighted. There are also cost implications, which we have quantified, of performing frozen sections. In our experience that the use of intra-operative pathological evaluation reduces the non-diagnostic rate of bone and soft tissue sarcoma biopsies, eliminates the need for re-biopsy hence alleviating stress, and is a useful addition to the armamentarium in evaluating musculoskeletal tumours.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most common cause of long-term failure of total hip arthroplasty is osteolysis and aseptic loosening secondary to wear debris. Combinations of hard materials such as ceramic-on-ceramic generate smaller volumes of particulate wear debris than traditional combinations such as metal-on-polyethylene. We describe 2 cases where osteolysis arose in hips with third-generation alumina ceramic-on-ceramic couplings. Periarticular tissue in both cases contained titanium wear debris due to impingement of the neck of the titanium femoral component against the rim of the titanium shell and ceramic debris from edge loading wear (stripe wear) of the ceramic. It is not clear whether the titanium debris, the ceramic debris, or both caused the osteolysis. These cases illustrate that the risk of osteolysis persists, even with third-generation alumina ceramics.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · The Journal of arthroplasty
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case of epithelioid and spindle cell haemangioma of bone occurring in the proximal femur is presented. The tumour had typical microscopic features with a striking lobular pattern comprising spindled and epithelioid areas with admixed inflammatory cells. The case represents only the eighth reported example of this rare tumour, which appears to fit in the spectrum of epithelioid haemangioma. This is the first case to involve the proximal portion of a long bone. A review of the classification and features of similar vascular tumours of bone is presented.
No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Skeletal Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most appropriate protocol for the biopsy of musculoskeletal tumours is controversial, with some authors advocating CT-guided core biopsy. At our hospital the initial biopsies of most musculoskeletal tumours has been by operative core biopsy with evaluation by frozen section which determines whether diagnostic tissue has been obtained and, if possible, gives the definitive diagnosis. In order to determine the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of this protocol we have undertaken a retrospective audit of biopsies of musculoskeletal tumours performed over a period of two years. A total of 104 patients had biopsies according to this regime. All gave the diagnosis apart from one minor error which did not alter the management of the patient. There was no requirement for re-biopsy. This protocol was more labour-intensive and 38% more costly than CT-guided core biopsy (AU$1804 vs AU$1308). However, the accuracy and avoidance of the anxiety associated with repeat biopsy outweighed these disadvantages.
Preview · Article · Oct 2006 · The Bone & Joint Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A highly unusual variant of an intraneural ganglion of the common peroneal nerve in a 30-year-old male is presented. There was extrusion of the contents of the cyst into the substance of the nerve, dissecting between the fibres and expanding the nerve in such a way that it mimicked an intraneural tumour clinically, radiologically and histologically. A comprehensive review of the entity is undertaken.
No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Skeletal Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myopericytoma (MPC) is a recently proposed term to describe a group of tumours that originate from perivascular myoid cells and show a range of histological growth patterns. Only a small number of series describing MPC have been reported. MPC is frequently misdiagnosed as a sarcoma.
To document the clinical and histopathological findings of a series of MPCs, to describe the range of growth patterns and morphological spectrum, and to compare MPC with myofibroma (MF).
Fourteen patients with features of MPC and/or MF were identified from the archival files of the department of anatomical pathology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia.
There were six female and eight male patients. The mean and median patient ages were 37 and 35.5 years, respectively. The tumours were located in the skin, subcutis, or superficial soft tissues of the distal extremities (13 patients) or the head and neck region (one patient), and showed a spectrum of morphological appearances. They were divided into two groups based upon the predominant growth pattern corresponding to MPC (seven cases) and MF (seven cases). The feature most suggestive of MPC was the presence of a concentric perivascular arrangement of plump spindle shaped cells. The presence of a zonation/biphasic appearance was most characteristic of MF.
MPC exhibits a spectrum of growth patterns that overlap with MF. Tumours can be designated as MPC or MF depending on the predominant growth pattern.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Clinical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telomeres of tumor cells may be maintained by telomerase or by alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The standard ALT assay requires Southern analysis of high molecular weight genomic DNA. We aimed to establish and validate an ALT assay suitable for archived paraffin-embedded tumors and to use it to examine the prevalence and clinical significance of ALT in various types of tumors that are often telomerase negative.
To assay for ALT, we detected ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies (APBs) by combined PML immunofluorescence and telomere fluorescence in situ hybridization. APBs are PML nuclear domains containing telomeric DNA and are a known hallmark of ALT in cell lines. The APB assay concurred with the standard ALT assay in 62 of 62 tumors and showed that 35% of 101 soft tissue sarcomas (STS), 47% of 58 osteosarcomas (especially younger patients), 34% of 50 astrocytomas, and 0% of 17 papillary thyroid carcinomas were ALT positive (ALT+). The prevalence of ALT varied greatly among different STS subtypes: malignant fibrous histiocytomas, 77%; leiomyosarcomas, 62%; liposarcomas, 33%; synovial sarcomas, 9%; and rhabdomyosarcomas, 6%. ALT correlated with survival in glioblastoma multiforme and occurred more often in lower-grade astrocytomas, but ALT+ and ALT- sarcomas were equally aggressive in terms of grade and clinical outcome.
The APB assay for ALT is suitable for paraffin-embedded tumors. It showed that a substantial proportion of STS, osteosarcomas, and astrocytomas, but not papillary thyroid carcinomas use ALT. APB positivity correlated strongly with survival of patients with astrocytomas.
No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parachordoma is a rare soft tissue tumor that morphologically resembles chordoma of the axial skeleton but occurs in a peripheral site. A recent study reported immunohistochemical differences between chordoma and parachordoma. While both tumors were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 8/18 (as recognized by the antibody Cam5.2), S100 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), only the chordoma was positive for CK7, CK20, CK 1/5/10/14 (as recognized by the antibody 34betaE12) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). It has since been suggested that tumors indistinguishable from chordoma that involve the periphery should be termed chordoma periphericum and that these tumors are distinct from parachordoma. In the current study, the clinical, radiological, pathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of a chordoma-like tumor involving the deep soft tissues of the lower leg of a 69-year-old woman are presented. Microscopically, the tumor had a pseudolobulated growth pattern and consisted of sheets, nests and cords of epithelioid cells, some with a physaliferous appearance, separated by abundant myxoid stroma. The tumor cells were positive for CK 8/18, EMA and S100, showed focal staining for CK7, and were negative for CK20, CK 1/5/10/14 and CEA. On the basis of these results a diagnosis of parachordoma was favored. For comparison, an immunohistochemical analysis of five axial chordomas was also performed. The chordomas showed positivity for CK 8/18 (5 of 5 cases), EMA (5 of 5 cases), S100 (5 of 5 cases), CK 1/5/10/14 (1 of 5 cases) and CK7 (1 of 5 cases). Stains for CK20 and CEA were negative in all five chordomas. The results of the present study suggest that the expression of antigens for CK 1/5/10/14, CK7, CK20 and CEA in chordoma might not be as common as what has been previously reported. The results also suggest that parachordoma might not be easily distinguished immunohistochemically from axial chordoma (and therefore also from so-called chordoma periphericum).
No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Pathology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoblastoma-like osteosarcoma is a rare variant of osteosarcoma occurring in this instance in a highly unusual location: the lateral femoral condyle of a 13-year-old girl. The radiological features were non-aggressive and, although slightly unusual, were most suggestive of chondroblastoma.
No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Skeletal Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic fibromyxolipoma (DFML) is an uncommon, recently described, benign soft tissue lesion that shares many clinical and pathological features with myxoid variants of spindle cell lipoma (SCL). As described, DFML is distinguished from SCL by the presence of dendritic cytoplasmic processes, abundant keloidal collagen and a prominent, often plexiform vascular pattern. We describe the first known reported case of an intramuscular DFML that occurred in the right shoulder region of a 73-year-old man. The tumor displayed the typical histopathological features of DFML but also included foci of chondroid metaplasia, a previously unreported finding. This report also discusses the differential diagnosis, particularly distinguishing DFML from SCL and myxoid liposarcoma. In view of the similarities in many clinical and pathological features between SCL and DFML, we speculate that DFML probably represents an unusual variant of myxoid SCL.
No preview · Article · May 2003 · Pathology International