Siegfried Lang

Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Giessen, Hesse, Germany

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Publications (78)310.65 Total impact

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · International journal of cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity with its world-wide growing prevalence is an established cardiovascular risk factor with increased morbidity and mortality. However, the phenomena, that mild to moderate obesity seems to represent a protective effect on diseases has been termed the “obesity paradox”.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background To comparatively evaluate long-term prognostic values of fibrotic biomarkers galectin-3, gremlin-1 and osteopontin in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) suspected of acute heart failure (AHF). Methods Patients with acute dyspnea or peripheral edema were enrolled in the ED. Biomarkers were measured and added to prognostic models including 11 conventional risk factors plus NT-proBNP assessing state-of-the-art statistics of discrimination, calibration, reclassification and Cox regression analyses. Prognostic outcomes were long-term all-cause mortality (ACM) and AHF-related rehospitalization (AHF-RH) at 1 and 5 years. Results 401 patients including 122 AHF patients were enrolled (mean age 67 years, males 51%). During 5 years follow-up 129 patients (30%) died and 73 (18%) were re-hospitalized because of AHF. In multivariate analysis, galectin-3 (hazard ratios (HR) range 1.4-1.9; p = 0.03) and osteopontin (HR range 1.2-1.4; p = 0.001) remained associated with ACM overall and in the AHF population at 5 years, whereas gremlin-1 remained associated with AHF-RH at 1 year in AHF patients (HR 1.3; p = 0.002). ACM in whole cohort was best discriminated (AUC = 0.85, p = 0.0001), calibrated and re-classified (NRI + 0.50 to + 0.56, p = 0.0001) by galectin-3, whereas in AHF patients ACM was best discriminated by osteopontin (AUC range: 0.82-0.84, p = 0.0001; NRI + 0.34 to + 0.38, p < 0.1) and AHF-RH at 1 year by gremlin-1 (AUC range: 0.82-0.92, p = 0.0001; NRI + 0.59 to + 0.60, p = 0.006). Conclusions A panel of fibrotic biomarkers, including osteopontin, galectin-3 and gremlin-1, might be useful for long term risk-stratification of symptomatic ED patients being suspected of AHF.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International journal of cardiology

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International journal of cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Bleeding events after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) are associated with patients' age, gender, and the presence of chronic kidney disease, antithrombotic treatment, as well as arterial access site. Patients being treated by PCI using radial access site are associated with an improved prognosis. However, the safety of femoral closure devices has never been compared to radial compression devices following PCI. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the safety of femoral closure compared to radial compression devices in patients treated by PCI envisaging access site bleedings as well as short- and long-term prognostic outcomes. Methods: The Femoral Closure versus Radial Compression Devices Related to Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (FERARI) study is a single-center observational study comparing 400 consecutive patients undergoing PCI either using radial compression devices (TR Band™) or femoral closure devices (Angio-Seal™) at the corresponding access site. The primary outcome consists of the occurrence of vascular complications at the arterial access site, including major bleedings as defined by common classification systems. Secondary outcomes consist of the occurrence of adverse cardiac events, including all-cause mortality, target lesion revascularization, and target vessel revascularization during 30 days and 12 months of follow-up. Results: Study enrollment was initiated in February 2014. The enrollment phase is expected to last until May 2015. Conclusions: The FERARI study intends to comparatively evaluate the safety and prognostic outcome of patients being treated by radial or femoral arterial closure devices following PCI during daily clinical practice.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Clinical Medicine Insights: Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study aims to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of endocan in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock on a medical intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: 150 patients suspected for at least severe sepsis were enrolled on a medical ICU. On days 1, 3, and 8, plasma levels of endocan, procalcitonin (PCT), and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured. Follow-up on all-cause mortality was performed after 30 days and 6 months. Results: Endocan correlated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) (P < .006). Endocan was higher in patients with at least severe sepsis compared with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis patients (P = .0006) on days 1, 3, and 8. With a minimum sensitivity of 70%, uniform cutoff levels were set for ≥ sepsis at 1.8 ng/mL, for ≥ severe sepsis at 2.6 ng/mL, for ≥ septic shock at 2.9 ng/mL. On day 1, endocan levels of the fourth quartile were significantly associated with 30-days and 6-months mortality compared to lower levels. After adjustment in Cox regressions, endocan still revealed prognostic value. Conclusions: Endocan showed diagnostic capacity to diagnose patients with severe sepsis and septic shock and revealed prognostic information for 30-days and 6-months all-cause mortality.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of critical care
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate diagnostic and long-term prognostic values of hFABP compared to NT-proBNP and troponin I (TnI) in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) suspected of acute heart failure (AHF). 401 patients with acute dyspnea or peripheral edema, 122 suffering from AHF, were prospectively enrolled and followed up to 5 years. hFABP combined with NT-proBNP versus NT-proBNP alone was tested for AHF diagnosis. Prognostic value of hFABP versus TnI was evaluated in models predicting all-cause mortality (ACM) and AHF related rehospitalization (AHF-RH) at 1 and 5 years, including 11 conventional risk factors plus NT-proBNP. Additional hFABP measurements improved diagnostic specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of sole NT-proBNP testing at the cutoff <300 ng/l to "rule out" AHF. Highest hFABP levels (4th quartile) were associated with increased ACM (hazard ratios (HR): 2.1-2.5; p = 0.04) and AHF-RH risk at 5 years (HR 2.8-8.3, p = 0.001). ACM was better characterized in prognostic models including TnI, whereas AHF-RH was better characterized in prognostic models including hFABP. Cox analyses revealed a 2 % increase of ACM risk and 3-7 % increase of AHF-RH risk at 5 years by each unit increase of hFABP of 10 ng/ml. Combining hFABP plus NT-proBNP (<300 ng/l) only improves diagnostic specificity and PPV to rule out AHF. hFABP may improve prognosis for long-term AHF-RH, whereas TnI may improve prognosis for ACM. identifier: NCT00143793 .
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid (UA), and total bilirubin (TB) are associated with coronary artery disease and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We retrospectively included 1167 patients with STEMI who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and routine blood sampling. The study cohort consisted of 803 patients (73.1% male, mean age 62.5 ± 13.4 years). In men, the levels of CRP, TB, and UA were significantly higher in the MACE than in the non-MACE group (P < .05). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis shows that CRP (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53-0.66; P = .014) and TB (AUC: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.51-0.65; P = .019) are significantly associated with MACE but not UA (AUC: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.42-0.76; P = .083). Logistic regression revealed CRP (odds ratio [OR] 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00-1.01; P = .006) and TB (OR 2.03; 95% CI: 1.12-3.40; P = .007) as an independent predictor for MACE. In women, none of the biomarkers was associated with MACE by ROC analysis or logistic regression analysis. This study demonstrated that high CRP and TB serum levels have a prognostic association with in-hospital MACE in male patients with STEMI. © The Author(s) 2015.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Angiology
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    ABSTRACT: -Antiarrhythmic management of atrial fibrillation (AF) remains a major clinical challenge. Mechanism-based approaches to AF therapy are sought to increase effectiveness and to provide individualized patient care. K2P3.1 (TASK-1) two-pore-domain K(+) (K2P) channels have been implicated in action potential regulation in animal models. However, their role in the pathophysiology and treatment of paroxysmal and chronic AF patients is unknown. -Right and left atrial tissue was obtained from patients with paroxysmal (p) or chronic (c)AF and from sinus rhythm (SR) controls. Ion channel expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Membrane currents and action potentials were recorded using voltage- and current-clamp techniques. K2P3.1 subunits exhibited predominant atrial expression, and atrial K2P3.1 transcript levels were highest among functional K2P channels. K2P3.1 mRNA and protein levels were increased in cAF. Enhancement of corresponding currents in the right atrium resulted in shortened action potential duration at 90% of repolarization (APD90) compared to patients in SR. By contrast, K2P3.1 expression was not significantly affected in pAF subjects. Pharmacological K2P3.1 inhibition prolonged APD90 in atrial myocytes from cAF patients to values observed among SR subjects. -Enhancement of atrial-selective K2P3.1 currents contributes to APD shortening in cAF patients, and K2P3.1 channel inhibition reverses AF-related APD shortening. These results highlight the potential of K2P3.1 as a novel drug target for mechanism-based AF therapy.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Circulation
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The European Society of Cardiology guidelines for pulmonary embolism (PE) published in 2008 and updated in 2014 recommend a risk stratification including risk scores like Wells and the Geneva score. The utility and practicability of these scores are controversially discussed. Recently, in a trauma cohort and in spinal surgery patients, no correlation between Wells Score and PE diagnosis was found. The aim of the study was the evaluation of Wells and Geneva scores in patients presenting with chest pain, dyspnoea or syncope in an emergency department. Patients and methods: We retrospectively examined 326 patients suspected of PE, including assessment, according to Wells and Geneva scores. Results: PE was detected in 13.5 %. The average Wells score was 1.0, the average Geneva score 3.9. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses showed for both scores a high significant area under the curve (Wells score 0.68; Geneva score 0.64). The association between the scores and the diagnosis of PE was calculated with logistic regression analysis and showed high significant odds ratios (OR) for both scores (Wells score 1.38; Geneva score 1.24). There was no significant difference between the area under the curve (AUC) of Wells score and Geneva score. Conclusion: The utility of Wells and Geneva scores for the evaluation of patients suspected of PE in an emergency patient cohort.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · In vivo (Athens, Greece)
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Patients with acute alcohol intoxication present a serious and still growing problem for pre- and intra-hospital emergency services. Data on the clinical risk assessment of alcohol-intoxicated patients are sparse. The aim of the present work was, therefore, to collect and assess relevant risk parameters. Materials and Methods: At the Mannheim University Hospital, the medical records of 844 alcohol-intoxicated Emergency Department patients were retrospectively studied and evaluated. Results: The patients with alcohol intoxications were predominantly males with an average age of 45 years. Mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.28%. The rate of haemodynamic, respiratory or metabolic complications in these patients was low. In 43% of cases, there was moderately to severely impaired consciousness. About half of the patients were treated on an outpatient basis. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate a low clinical risk for alcohol-intoxicated patients. Nevertheless, it is necessary to provide a defined monitoring standard in order to also be prepared for the few potential complications of alcohol intoxication and the possible differential diagnoses of impaired consciousness. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · In vivo (Athens, Greece)
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of presepsin in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock during the first week of ICU treatment.Methods In total, 116 patients with suspected severe sepsis or septic shock were included during the first 24 hours of ICU treatment. Blood samples for biomarker measurements of presepsin, procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin 6 (IL-6), C reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBC) were drawn at days 1, 3 and 8. All patients were followed up for six months. Biomarkers were tested for diagnosis of severe sepsis, septic shock and sepsis at days 1, 3 and 8, and for all-cause mortality prognosis at 30 days and 6 months. Diagnostic and prognostic capacities were tested by determining diagnostic cutoff levels, goodness criteria, C-statistics and multivariable Cox regression models.ResultsPresepsin increased significantly from the lowest to most severe sepsis groups at days 1, 3 and 8 (test for linear trend P <0.03). Presepsin levels revealed valuable diagnostic capacity to diagnose severe sepsis and septic shock at days 1, 3 and 8 (range of diagnostic area under the curves (AUC) 0.72 to 0.84, P = 0.0001) compared to IL-6, PCT, CRP and WBC. Goodness criteria for diagnosis of sepsis severity were analyzed (¿sepsis, cutoff = 530 pg/ml; ¿severe sepsis, cutoff = 600 pg/ml; ¿septic shock, cutoff = 700 pg/ml; P <0.03). Presepsin levels revealed significant prognostic value for 30 days and 6 months all-cause mortality (presepsin: range of AUC 0.64 to 0.71, P <0.02). Patients with presepsin levels of the 4th quartile were 5 to 7 times more likely to die after six months than patients with lower levels. The prognostic value for all-cause mortality of presepsin was comparable to that of IL-6 and better than that of PCT, CRP or WBC.Conclusions Presepsin reveals valuable diagnostic capacity to differentiate sepsis severity compared to PCT, IL-6, CRP, WBC. Additionally, presepsin and IL-6 reveal prognostic value with respect to 30 days and 6 months all-cause mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock throughout the first week of ICU treatment.Trial NCT01535534. Registered 14 February 2012.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Critical care (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of GPIIb/IIIa inhibition with eptifibatide and tirofiban on the expression of cellular adhesion molecules on monocytes at different temperatures. Materials and methods: Circulation of blood from six volunteers was performed in an extracorporal circulation model at 36°C and 18°C for 30 min. The blood of each donor was prepared either with addition of eptifibatide or tirofiban, or was left untreated as control. CD54 and CD162 on monocytes was measured using flow cytometry. Results: Expression of CD11b was lower at 18°C compared to 36°C by 51% in the eptifibatide group (p=0.0043), by 29% in the tirofiban group (p=0.095) and by 34% in the control group (p=0.038). Expression of CD54 was not significantly different at 18°C compared to 36°C, neither with eptifibatide (p=0.29) nor tirofiban (p=0.48) nor in the control group (p=0.26). Expression of CD162 was lower at 18°C compared to 36°C by 40% using eptifibatide (p=0.0010), by 94% using tirofiban (p=0.0095) and by 34% in the control group (p=0.019). At 36°C and 18°C, no significant differences were found regarding the expression of CD11b, CD54 and CD162 between the eptifibatide-treated group, the tirofiban-treated group and the control group. Conclusion: GPIIb/IIIa inhibition with eptifibatide or tirofiban seems to have no effect on the expression of CD11b, CD54 and CD162 on monocytes during normothermia or hypothermia. Our results show that the beneficial effect induced by hypothermia on the extracorporal circulation-associated alteration of leukocyte function, with decreased expression of CD11b and CD162, seems not to be affected by additional treatment with eptifibatide or tirofiban.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · In vivo (Athens, Greece)
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    ABSTRACT: Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is a common technique used to protect vital organs during surgical interventions on the thoracic aorta or during surgery for complex congenital heart disease. Activated leukocytes are key mediators of inflammatory responses during ischemia. Intercellular crosstalk between leukocytes, platelets and endothelial cells is mediated by cell adhesion molecules. These molecules trigger complex cell-cell interaction mechanisms and initiate the release of proinflammatory molecules. One parameter that is known to have a significant impact on inflammatory cell activation and the production of proinflammatory markers is temperature. However, to the best of our knowledge, no data have yet been published on the effect of hypothermia on leukocyte surface markers during DHCA. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hypothermia on the expression of cell adhesion molecules on monocytes under DHCA conditions in vitro. Blood samples collected from 11 healthy volunteers were incubated in a well-established model simulating circulatory arrest at 36°C and 18°C for 30 min. The expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) molecule 11B (CD11b), CD54 and CD162 on monocytes was measured as the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) using flow cytometry. The expression level of CD11b on monocytes was significantly decreased following the incubation of the blood samples at 18°C compared with the level in blood samples incubated at 36°C (P<0.001). After 30 min of blood stasis in the circulatory arrest model, the expression level of CD162 on monocytes was significantly lower in the blood samples incubated at 18°C than in those incubated at 36°C (P<0.001). No association was identified between temperature and the surface expression of CD54 on monocytes following 30 min of stasis. These findings demonstrate that deep hypothermia decreases the expression of CD11b and CD162 on monocytes in an experimental setup simulating the conditions of DHCA. This may be the result of the inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial and leukocyte-platelet interactions, which may be a beneficial aspect of deep hypothermia that affects the inflammatory response and tissue damage during DHCA.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Experimental and therapeutic medicine
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    ABSTRACT: As a mediator of ECM homeostasis, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) appears to be involved in adverse structural remodeling processes in the heart. However, the diagnostic and prognostic value of CTGF levels in acute heart failure (AHF) in addition to natriuretic peptide testing has not yet been evaluated. A total of 212 patients presenting with acute dyspnea and/or peripheral edema to the Emergency Department were evaluated. CTGF and NT-proBNP plasma levels were measured at the initial presentation. All patients were followed up to 1 and 5 years. The first endpoint tested was the diagnostic non-inferiority of combined CTGF plus NT-proBNP compared to NT-proBNP alone for AHF diagnosis. Afterwards, the additional diagnostic value of CTGF plus NT-proBNP was tested. CTGF levels were higher in NYHA class III/IV and AHA/ACC class C/D patients compared to lower class patients (p = 0.04). Patients with HFREF revealed highest CTGF levels (median 93.3 pg/ml, IQR 18.2-972 pg/ml, n = 48) compared to patients with a normal heart function (i.e., without HFREF and HFPEF) (median 25.9, IQR <1-82.2 pg/ml, n = 37) (p < 0.05), followed by patients with HFPEF (median 82.2 pg/ml, IQR 11.5-447 pg/ml, n = 32) as assessed by echocardiography. Finally, CTGF levels were higher in patients with AHF (median 77.3 pg/ml, IQR 22.5-1012 pg/ml, n = 66) compared to those without (p = 0.002). CTGF plus NT-proBNP was non-inferior to NT-proBNP testing alone for AHF diagnosis (AUC difference 0.01, p > 0.05). CTGF plus NT-proBNP improved the diagnostic capacity for AHF (accuracy 82 %, specificity 83 %, positive predictive value 66 %, net reclassification improvement +0.11) compared to NT-proBNP alone (p = 0.0001). CTGF levels were not able to differentiate prognostic outcomes after 1 and 5 years. Additional CTGF measurements might lead to a better discrimination of higher functional and structural heart failure stages and might identify patients of an increased risk for an acute cardiac decompensation.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Clinical Research in Cardiology

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · International journal of cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of osteopontin in patients with acute dyspnoea and/or peripheral oedema suspected of having acute congestive heart failure (aCHF). A total of 401 patients presenting with acute dyspnoea and/or peripheral oedema to the emergency department were prospectively enrolled and followed up for up to 5 years. Blood samples for biomarker measurements were collected on admission to the emergency department. Osteopontin combined with NT-proBNP vs. NT-proBNP alone for diagnosis of aCHF was tested. Additionally, osteopontin vs. NT-proBNP for prognostic outcomes (i.e. all-cause mortality, aCHF-related rehospitalization, and both in combination) was tested. The diagnostic and prognostic capacity of osteopontin was tested by C-statistics, reclassification indices, and multivariable Cox prediction models. Osteopontin plus NT-proBNP improved the diagnostic capacity for aCHF diagnosis [accuracy 76%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 72-80%; specificity 74%, 95% CI 69-79%, net reclassification improvement (NRI) +0.10] compared with NT-proBNP alone in the emergency department (P = 0.0001). Osteopontin independently predicted all-cause mortality and aCHF-related rehospitalization after 1 and 5 years. Compared with NT-proBNP, osteopontin was of superior prognostic value, specifically in aCHF patients and for the prognostic outcome of aCHF-related rehospitalization. Osteopontin improves aCHF diagnosis when combined with NT-proBNP. Osteopontin identifies aCHF patients with high 1- and 5-year mortality and rehospitalization risk, and adds prognostic value to NT-proBNP.Trial registrationNCT00143793.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2013 · European Journal of Heart Failure
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different hypothermic temperatures on the expression of cellular adhesion molecules on leukocytes. Circulation of blood from six volunteers was performed in an extracorporeal circulation model at 36°C, 28°C and 18°C for 30 minutes. Expression of CD11b, CD54 and CD162 on monocytes was measured using flow cytometry. Expression of CD11b significantly decreased at 18°C and at 28°C compared to 36°C. A significant reduction of CD162 expression was found at 18°C compared to 28°C and 36°C and at 28°C compared to 36°C. No association was found between temperature and expression of CD54. Expression of CD11b and CD162 on monocytes has a temperature-dependent regulation, with decreased expression during hypothermia, which may result in an inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial and leukocyte-platelet interaction. This beneficial effect may influence the extracorporeal circulation-related inflammatory response and tissue damage.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · In vivo (Athens, Greece)
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    ABSTRACT: Emerging interest is seen in the paradox of defibrillator shocks for ventricular tachyarrhythmia and increased mortality risk. Particularly in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the prognostic importance of shocks is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome after shocks in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) or DCM and defibrillators (ICD) implanted for primary prevention. Data of 561 patients were analyzed (mean age 68.6±10.6 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 28.6±7.3%). During a median follow-up of 49.3 months, occurrence of device therapies and all-cause mortality were recorded. 74 out of 561 patients (13.2%) experienced ≥1 appropriate and 51 out of 561 patients (9.1%) ≥1 inappropriate shock. All-cause mortality was 24.2% (136 out of 561 subjects). Appropriate shock was associated with a trend to higher mortality in the overall patient population (HR 1.48, 95% CI 0.96-2.28, log rank p = 0.072). The effect was significant in ICM patients (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.00-2.59, log rank p = 0.049) but not in DCM patients (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.36-2.96, log rank p = 0.96). Appropriate shocks occurring before the median follow-up revealed a much stronger impact on mortality (HR for the overall patient population 2.12, 95% CI 1.24-3.63, p = 0.005). The effect was driven by ICM patients (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.41-4.37, p = 0.001), as appropriate shocks again did not influence survival of DCM patients (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.083-4.75, p = 0.65). Appropriate shocks occurring after the median follow-up and inappropriate shocks occurring at any time revealed no impact on survival in any of the groups (p = ns). Appropriate shocks are associated with reduced survival in patients with ICM but not in patients with DCM and ICDs implanted for primary prevention. Furthermore, the negative effect of appropriate shocks on survival in ICM patients is only evident within the first 4 years after device implantation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The adipokine leptin regulates energy expenditure, vascular function, bone and cartilage growth as well as the immune system and systemic inflammatory response. Several activating effects towards T cells, monocytes, endothelium cells and cytokine production have been reported suggesting a protective role of leptin in the setting of an acute systemic inflammation. However, the pathophysiological role of leptin during severe sepsis is currently not elucidated in detail. This study aims to investigate leptin expression in cultured human adipocytes within an inflammatory model and in patients suffering from severe sepsis and evaluates treatment effects of drotrecogin alpha (activated) (DAA), the recombinant form of human activated protein C. In an in-vitro inflammatory model of adipocyte cell-culture the effect of DAA on leptin mRNA expression was evaluated. Synthesis of mRNA was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Additionally, supernatants of these adipocytes as well as serum levels of adiponectin were measured in blood of 104 severe septic patients by ELISA-method. 26 patients were treated with DAA (DAA+), 78 patients were not treated with DAA (DAA-). Stimulation of human adipocytes with TNF alpha over 6 and 24 hours resulted in a significant decrease by 46% and 59% of leptin mRNA transcripts compared to un-stimulated controls (p < 0.05). Leptin levels of supernatants of adipocyte culture decreased by 25% and 23% (p < 0.05) after incubation with TNF alpha after 6 and 24 hours. Incubation with DAA at 50 ng/ml DAA and 5 μg/ml doubled mRNA expression significantly at 24 hours (p < 0.05) but not at 6 hours. From day 1 to day 3 of sepsis, leptin levels increased in DAA+ compared to DAA- patients (p<0.10). Leptin appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of a systemic inflammatory response during sepsis. Administration of DAA significantly increased leptin expression. The specific mechanism or even benefit of DAA towards leptin needs further ongoing research.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2012 · BMC Infectious Diseases

Publication Stats

1k Citations
310.65 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
      Giessen, Hesse, Germany
  • 2003-2015
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • • First Department of Medicine
      • • Faculty of Medicine Mannheim and Clinic Mannheim
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2004-2013
    • Universität Mannheim
      Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany