[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although membrane-bound dehydrogenases isolated from Gluconobacter sp. (mainly PQQ-dependent alcohol and fructose dehydrogenase) have been used for preparing diverse forms of bioelectronic interfaces for almost 2 decades, it is not an easy task to interpret an electrochemical behaviour correctly. Recent discoveries regarding redox properties of membrane-bound dehydrogenases along with extensive investigations of direct electron transfer (DET) or direct bioelectrocatalysis with these enzymes are summarized in this review. The main aim of this review is to draw general conclusions about possible electronic coupling paths of these enzymes on various interfaces via direct electron transfer or direct bioelectrocatalysis. A short overview of the metabolism and respiration chain in Gluconobacter relevant to interfacial electrochemistry is given. Biosensor devices based on DET or direct bioelectrocatalysis using membrane-bound dehydrogenases from Gluconobacter sp. are described briefly with the emphasis given on practical applications of preparing enzymatic biofuel cells. Moreover, interfacial electrochemistry of Gluconobacter oxydans related to the construction of microbial biofuel cells is also discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel and selective microbial amperometric biosensors that use Gluconobacter oxydans cells to monitor the bacterial bioconversion of glycerol (Gly) to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) are described. Two different mediators, ferricyanide and flexible polyvinylimidazole osmium functionalized polymer (Os-polymer), were employed to prepare two different microbial biosensors, both of which gave high detection performance. The good operational stabilities of both types of biosensor were underlined by the ability to detect 1,3-PD throughout 140 h of continuous operation. Both microbial biosensor systems showed excellent selectivity for 1,3-PD in the presence of a high excess of glycerol [selectivity ratios (1,3-PD/Gly) of 118 or 245 for the ferricyanide and Os-polymer systems, respectively]. Further, the robustness of each microbial biosensor was highlighted by the high reliability of 1,3-PD detection achieved (average RSD of standards<2%, and well below 4% for samples). The biosensor implementing the Os-polymer mediator exhibited high selectivity towards 1,3-PD detection and allowed moderate sample throughput (up to 12 h-1) when integrated into a flow system. This system was used to monitor the concentration of 1,3-PD during a real bioprocess. Results from biosensor assays of 1,3-PD in bioprocess samples taken throughout the fermentation were in a very good agreement with results obtained from reference HPLC assays (R2=0.999).
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacteria belonging to the genus Acetobacter and Gluconobacter, and enzymes isolated from them, have been extensively used for biosensor construction in the last decade. Bacteria used as a biocatalyst are easy to prepare and use in amperometric biosensors. They contain multiple enzyme activities otherwise not available commercially. The range of compounds analyzable by Gluconobacter biosensors includes: mono- and poly-alcohols, multiple aldoses and ketoses, several disaccharides, triacylglycerols, and complex parameters like utilizable saccharides or biological O2 demand. Here, the recent trends in Gluconobacter biosensors and current practical applications are summarized.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · Biotechnology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycerokinase from Cellulomonas sp. was used to develop biosensor based on flow calorimetry for quantitative analysis of glycerol during bioconversion process. An automatic flow injection analysis device with the glycerol biosensor was built and tested during growth on glycerol of 1,3-propanediol-producing bacteria. The biosensor exhibited an extreme storage and operational stability enabling us to use it for more than 2 years without significant loss of sensitivity. No interference with 1,3-propanediol and fermentation medium was observed. The linear range of glycerol concentration up to 70 mM was extended by developed automatic dilution technique with the aim of automatic online monitoring of microbial process. The analytical system was able to monitor the bioconversion process in a fully automatic way during the whole run with sampling frequency of one sample per 10 min.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An on-line cell disruption system for at-line monitoring of the intracellular concentration of recombinant human superoxide dismutase (rhSOD) in a genetically modified Escherichia coli strain, HMS174(DE3) (pET11a/rhSOD), in bioreactor cultivations is described. The sampled bacteria were disrupted on-line by rapid mixing with a nonionic detergent. The recombinant protein content of the lysed bacterial sample was quantitated by a subsequent surface plasmon resonance biosensor with a specific monoclonal antibody. Extraction efficiency of the monitoring system was optimized with respect to the flow rate ratio of the cell suspension and the detergent at relevant cell densities with the aim to attain rapid monitoring. Monitoring was demonstrated for a shake flask culture and a glucose-limited fed-batch cultivation. The results are compared with a traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method showing a correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.97. Extraction efficiency of rhSOD reached 95-99% at a total processing time of 1.8-2.6 min and a contact time of 0.8-1.4 min. The possibility of extending the monitoring system to other intracellular proteins is discussed.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2005 · Analytical Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to find disruption methods that allow fast and reproducible measurement of intracellular recombinant proteins with potential for on-line application. Production of rhSOD (recombinant human superoxide dismutase) by Escherichia coli was used as a model. Three methods of cell disruption, sonication, osmotic shock and chemical treatment using a non-ionic surfactant, were critically compared with respect to efficiency and reproducibility of the release of rhSOD. The release of the recombinant protein was monitored by (i) measurement of the protein content in cell-culture extracts using an SPR (surface plasmon resonance) biosensor, and (ii) assaying the enzyme activity with a colorimetric reagent using a spectrophotometer. Disruption by the non-ionic surfactant showed the best performance in terms of simplicity, reproducibility and efficiency of sample treatment. The surfactant did not interfere with the rhSOD binding to the antibody immobilized on the SPR chip or with the rhSOD activity assay. When comparing the two detection methods during monitoring of an E. coli cultivation, comparable results were obtained.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor was used to monitor the profiles of the heat-shock protein (DnaK) and the expression of a heterologous protein to map the dynamics of the cellular stress response in Escherichia coli. As expression system was used an E. coli strain overproducing human recombinant superoxide dismutase (rhSOD). Expression of DnaK showed complex patterns differing with strength of induction. The strong up-regulation of DnaK expression was observed in all cultivations which over-produced of rhSOD. Similar patterns were not observed in non-induced reference cultures. Differences in DnaK concentration profiles were correlated with induction strength. Presented data, carried out in shake flask and glucose limited fed-batch cultivation, show a good consistency with previously published transcriptional profiling results and provide complementary information to understand stress response related to overproduction of recombinant protein. The study also demonstrates the feasibility of using the SPR as a two channel protein array for monitoring of intracellular components.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2004 · Journal of Biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An application of a flexible polyvinylimidazole osmium functionalised polymer for efficient electrical wiring of whole Gluconobacter oxydans cells is described. The performance of the redox polymer as a mediator for intact bacterial cells was tested with glucose, ethanol and glycerol, typical substrates of the periplasmically localised PQQ-dependent membrane bound dehydrogenases. The efficiency of the electron transfer with the osmium redox polymer was compared with that of a soluble mediator (ferricyanide). Some basic bioelectrochemical characteristics, including Imax, Kmapp, inactivation constants and sensitivities were estimated for the mentioned substrates. The sensitivity profile for the tested substrates as well as the pH dependencies correspond well with the sensitivity profile for ferricyanide as soluble mediator. Significant stability differences for the substrates were found.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method for monitoring the concentration of the chaperone DnaK and its relation to physiological stress response in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain subjected to heat shock is described. The DnaK protein, an abundantly occurring representative of the heat-shock proteins, was used as a marker of physiological stress. The SPR biosensor instrument was used for label-free immunoaffinity detection directly in cell culture lysates using an anti-DnaK monoclonal IgG antibody immobilized on the sensor surface. The SPR method provides a fast response (<8 min) and a reproducible (RSD<2%), accurate (comparison to the direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and sensitive (LOD<1 nM) assay for determination of the DnaK level in cell culture lysates. The operational stability of the method was high compared to that of other SPR assays; the sensitivity decreased at only 2.7%/h. This allowed measurement of more than 220 samples per sensor surface. Storage stability was determined at 25 degrees C (100% after 17 h) and 10 degrees C (101% after 1 month). The method was validated by standard additions of DnaK (30, 60, and 120 nM) with recovery indices in the range 95.7-103.7%.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2003 · Analytical Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A ferricyanide mediated microbial biosensor for ethanol detection was prepared by surface modification of a glassy carbon electrode. The selectivity of the whole Gluconobacter oxydans cell biosensor for ethanol determination was greatly enhanced by the size exclusion effect of a cellulose acetate (CA) membrane. The use of a CA membrane increased the ethanol to glucose sensitivity ratio by a factor of 58.2 and even the ethanol to glycerol sensitivity ratio by a factor of 7.5 compared with the use of a dialysis membrane. The biosensor provides rapid and sensitive detection of ethanol with a limit of detection of 0.85 microM (S/N=3). The selectivity of the biosensor toward alcohols was better compared to previously published enzyme biosensors based on alcohol oxidase or alcohol dehydrogenases. The biosensor was successfully used in an off-line monitoring of ethanol during batch fermentation by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with an initial glucose concentration of 200 g l(-1).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bi-enzymatic biosensor based on galactose oxidase (GalOD) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) using ferrocene as an efficient mediator was constructed. When a dependence of a working potential on the sensor performance was examined, an unusual behaviour was observed. With increasing of an applied working potential a lower concentration of substrate to attain full linear range was needed. A fully linear dependence from the first substrate addition was observed at and above the working potential of 150 mV. This activation of the biosensor response by an applied working potential very well corresponds with a formal potential of GalOD (156 mV). When a membrane prevented GalOD access to the electrode surface was applied, no activation effect of a working potential on the sensor performance was observed. Thus, it can be assumed that direct electron communication between GalOD and the electrode occurred.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2002 · Bioelectrochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study is concerning the construction of ferricyanide-mediated Gluconobacter oxydans cell ethanol biosensor. The size exclusion effect of a cellulose acetate membrane was used for elimination of glucose interferences during ethanol assays in real samples. A typical response time of the biosensor was 13 s with a high sensitivity of 3.5 microA mM(-1). The microbial biosensor exhibits a very low detection limit of 0.85 microM and a wide linear range from 2 to 270 microM. The operational stability was excellent. During 8.5 h of repetitive ethanol assays, no decrease in the sensor sensitivity was observed. The biosensor was successfully used in the off-line monitoring of ethanol fermentation with a good agreement with HPLC measurements (R(2)=0.998).
Full-text · Article · Jun 2002 · Bioelectrochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electropolymerized toluidine blue film deposited on the glassy carbon electrode show amperometrically detectable pH sensitivity. This feature of polytoluidine blue (PTOB) film was used for a construction of an amperometric urea biosensor. We have observed a linear shift of the formal redox potential with increasing pH value between 4 and 8 giving the slope of 81 mV(Delta) pH(-1). Polytoluidine blue film has had a significantly increased stability and higher electrochemical activity compared to the adsorbed monomeric dye. The polytoluidine blue urea biosensor has been operating at a working potential of -200 mV vs. SCE. The sensitivity of the biosensor was 980 nA mM(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor showed linearity in concentration range up to 0.8 mM with the detection limit of 0.02 mM (S/N=3).
Full-text · Article · Jun 2002 · Bioelectrochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevention of ferrocene leakage from an electrode by physical retention of mediator in a matrix of cellulose acetate membrane is reported. Five types of the cellulose acetate membranes were prepared, containing 1.8%, 5.3%, 8.5%, 20.0% of ferrocene and a membrane containing 1.8% of ferrocene and 0.05 % of Nafion in the matrix. Ferrocene embedded membranes were successfully applied in the construction of a fructose biosensor by immobilization of PQQ-dependent fructose dehydrogenase (FDH). The biosensor comprising a cellulose acetate membrane with 1.8% of ferrocene and 0.05% of Nafion had good stability characteristics, retained almost 40% of the initial response after 8 h of continuous use with an initial sensitivity of 226 nA mM(-1) and response time of 75 s.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2002 · Bioelectrochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immobilized whole cells of Enterobacter aerogenes were used as citrate-sensing biocatalyst. The cells efficiently metabolized citrate and the heat released enabled thermometric flow injection analysis (FIA) of citrate with a linear detection range between 0.2 and 6 mM. The immobilized cells were tested for operational stability over 200 runs. Some possible solutions to the problem of dealing with saccharidic substrates, such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, which may be present with the citrate and interfere with the determination, are also discussed.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1997 · Biotechnology Techniques