Christine Blattner

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Carlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Are you Christine Blattner?

Claim your profile

Publications (44)207.02 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Understanding of stem cell-surface interactions and, in particular, long-term maintenance of stem cell pluripotency on well-defined synthetic surfaces is crucial for fundamental research and biomedical applications of stem cells. Here we show that synthetic surfaces possessing hierarchical micro-nano roughness promote long-term self-renewal (>3 weeks) of mESCs as monitored by the expression levels of the pluripotency markers Oct4, Nanog and alkaline phosphatase. On the contrary, culturing of mESCs on either smooth or nano-rough polymer surfaces leads to their fast differentiation. Moreover, we show that regular passaging of mESCs on the hierarchical micro-nano rough polymer surface leads to an increased homogeneity and percentage of pluripotent stem cell colonies as compared to mESCs grown on fibroblast feeder cells. Immunostaining revealed the absence of focal adhesion markers on all polymer substrates studied. However, only the micro-nano rough surfaces elicited the formation of actin-positive cell protrusions, indicating an alternative anchorage mechanism involved in the maintenance of stem cell pluripotency.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Nano Letters
  • Source
    Christine Blattner
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: P53 is most well-known for its tumor suppressive function in differentiated cells. Its activities in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are, however, less well understood. For many years it was thought that p53 is not active at all in ESCs and unable to elicit a DNA damage response in this cell type. In the last few years, it emerged that p53 may have some functions in ESCs. Nevertheless, it remained a mystery how its activity is controlled in ESCs. A recent report demonstrates that p53 activity is regulated by a novel RNA-containing negative feedback loop that promotes apoptosis specifically in ESCs. This study not only demonstrates unequivocally that p53 is active in ESCs, it further illustrates a novel mechanism of gene regulation-by protein coding RNAs.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Cell and Bioscience
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: P53 is an important tumor suppressor that, upon activation, induces growth arrest and cell death. Control of p53 is thus of prime importance for proliferating cells, but also for cancer therapy, where p53 activity contributes to the eradication of tumors. Mdm2 functionally inhibits p53 and targets the tumor suppressor protein for degradation. In a genetic screen, we identified TRIM25 as a novel regulator of p53 and Mdm2. TRIM25 increased p53 and Mdm2 abundance by inhibiting their ubiquitination and degradation in 26 S proteasomes. TRIM25 co-precipitated with p53 and Mdm2 and interfered with the association of p300 and Mdm2, a critical step for p53 polyubiquitination. Despite the increase in p53 levels, p53 activity was inhibited in the presence of TRIM25. Downregulation of TRIM25 resulted in an increased acetylation of p53 and p53-dependent cell death in HCT116 cells. Upon genotoxic insults, TRIM25 dampened the p53-dependent DNA damage response. The downregulation of TRIM25 furthermore resulted in massive apoptosis during early embryogenesis of medaka, which was rescued by the concomitant downregulation of p53, demonstrating the functional relevance of the regulation of p53 by TRIM25 in an organismal context.Oncogene advance online publication, 2 March 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.21.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Oncogene
  • Source
    H Yan · V Solozobova · P Zhang · O Armant · B Kuehl · G Brenner-Weiss · C Blattner
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since it was found that p53 is highly expressed in murine embryonic stem cells, it remained a mystery whether p53 is active in this cell type. We show that a significant part of p53 is localised in the nucleus of murine embryonic stem cells and that the majority of this nuclear p53 is bound to DNA. According to its nuclear localisation, we show that p53 alters the transcriptional program of stem cells. Nevertheless, the anti-proliferative activity of p53 is compromised in stem cells, and this control is due, at least in part, to the high amount of MdmX that is present in embryonic stem cells and bound to p53. Instead of the anti-proliferative activity that p53 has in differentiated cells, p53 controls transcription of pro-proliferative genes in embryonic stem cells including c-myc and c-jun. The impeded anti-proliferative activity of p53 and the induction of certain proto-oncogenes by p53 in murine embryonic stem cells can explain why stem cells proliferate efficiently despite having high levels of p53.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Cell Death & Disease
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The p53 tumor suppressor protein is mainly regulated by alterations in the half-life of the protein, resulting in significant differences in p53 protein levels in cells. The major regulator of this process is Mdm2, which ubiquitinates p53 and targets it for proteasomal degradation. This process can be enhanced or reduced by proteins that associate with p53 or Mdm2 and several proteins have been identified with such an activity. Furthermore, additional ubiquitin ligases for p53 have been identified in recent years. Nevertheless, our understanding of how p53 abundance and Mdm2 activity are regulated remains incomplete. Here we describe a cell culture based overexpression screen to identify evolutionarily conserved regulators of the p53/Mdm2 circuit. The results from this large-scale screening method will contribute to a better understanding of the regulation of these important proteins.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The p53 tumor suppressor protein is mainly regulated by alterations in the half-life of the protein, resulting in significant differences in p53 protein levels in cells. The major regulator of this process is Mdm2, which ubiquitinates p53 and targets it for proteasomal degradation. This process can be enhanced or reduced by proteins that associate with p53 or Mdm2 and several proteins have been identified with such an activity. Furthermore, additional ubiquitin ligases for p53 have been identified in recent years. Nevertheless, our understanding of how p53 abundance and Mdm2 activity are regulated remains incomplete. Here we describe a cell culture based overexpression screen to identify evolutionarily conserved regulators of the p53/Mdm2 circuit. The results from this large-scale screening method will contribute to a better understanding of the regulation of these important proteins. Expression screening was based on co-transfection of H1299 cells with pools of cDNA’s from a Medaka library together with p53, Mdm2 and, as internal control, Ror2. After cell lysis, SDS-PAGE/WB analysis was used to detect alterations in these proteins. More than one hundred hits that altered the abundance of either p53, Mdm2, or both were identified in the primary screen. Subscreening of the library pools that were identified in the primary screen identified several potential novel regulators of p53 and/or Mdm2. We also tested whether the human orthologues of the Medaka genes regulate p53 and/or Mdm2 abundance. All human orthologues regulated p53 and/or Mdm2 abundance in the same manner as the proteins from Medaka, which underscores the suitability of this screening methodology for the identification of new modifiers of p53 and Mdm2. Despite enormous efforts in the last two decades, many unknown regulators for p53 and Mdm2 abundance are predicted to exist. This cross-species approach to identify evolutionarily conserved regulators demonstrates that our Medaka unigene cDNA library represents a powerful tool to screen for these novel regulators of the p53/Mdm2 pathway.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · BMC Biotechnology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor p53 regulates the expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression, senescence and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the effect of single point mutations in the oligomerization domain (OD) on tetramerization, transcription, ubiquitylation and stability of p53. As predicted by docking and molecular dynamics simulations, p53 OD mutants show functional defects on transcription, Mdm2-dependent ubiquitylation and 26S proteasome-mediated degradation. However, mutants unable to form tetramers are well degraded by the 20S proteasome. Unexpectedly, despite the lower structural stability compared to WT p53, p53 OD mutants form heterotetramers with WT p53 when expressed transiently or stably in cells wild type or null for p53. In consequence, p53 OD mutants interfere with the capacity of WT p53 tetramers to be properly ubiquitylated and result in changes of p53-dependent protein expression patterns, including the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and PUMA under basal and adriamycin-induced conditions. Importantly, the patient derived p53 OD mutant L330R (OD1) showed the more severe changes in p53-dependent gene expression. Thus, in addition to the well-known effects on p53 stability, ubiquitylation defects promote changes in p53-dependent gene expression with implications on some of its functions.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Molecular oncology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor p53 regulates the expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression, senescence and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the effect of single point mutations in the oligomerization domain (OD) on tetramerization, transcription, ubiquitylation and stability of p53. As predicted by docking and molecular dynamics simulations, p53 OD mutants show functional defects on transcription, Mdm2-dependent ubiquitylation and 26S proteasome-mediated degradation. However, mutants unable to form tetramers are well degraded by the 20S proteasome. Unexpectedly, despite the lower structural stability compared to WT p53, p53 OD mutants form heterotetramers with WT p53 when expressed transiently or stably in cells wild type or null for p53. In consequence, p53 OD mutants interfere with the capacity of WT p53 tetramers to be properly ubiquitylated and result in changes of p53-dependent protein expression patterns, including the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and PUMA under basal and adriamycin-induced conditions. Importantly, the patient derived p53 OD mutant L330R (OD1) showed the more severe changes in p53-dependent gene expression. Thus, in addition to the well-known effects on p53 stability, ubiquitylation defects promote changes in p53-dependent gene expression with implications on some of its functions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Molecular Oncology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Human Papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins have the capacity to target several of their cellular interacting partners for proteasome mediated degradation, and recent proteomic analyses suggest a close involvement of E6 with the cellular proteasome machinery. In this study we have performed an extensive analysis of the capacity of different E6 oncoproteins to interact with specific proteasome components. We demonstrate that multiple subunits of the proteasome can be bound by different HPV E6 oncoproteins. Furthermore, whilst most of these interactions appear independent of the E6AP ubiquitin ligase, the association of E6 with the major ubiquitin-accepting proteasome subunit, S5a, does require the presence of E6AP. One consequence of the interaction between E6/E6AP and S5a is enhanced ubiquitination of this proteasome subunit. These results suggest a complex interplay between E6 and the proteasome, only some aspects of which are dependent upon the E6AP ubiquitin ligase.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Virology
  • Source

    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jul 2013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the 21st century, systems-wide analyses of biological processes are getting more and more realistic. Especially for the in depth analysis of signal transduction pathways and networks, various approaches of systems biology are now successfully used. The EU FP7 large integrated project SYBILLA (Systems Biology of T-cell Activation in Health and Disease) coordinates such an endeavor. By using a combination of experimental data sets and computational modelling, the consortium strives for gaining a detailed and mechanistic understanding of signal transduction processes that govern T-cell activation. In order to foster the interaction between systems biologists and experimentally working groups, SYBILLA co-organized the 15th meeting "Signal Transduction: Receptors, Mediators and Genes" together with the Signal Transduction Society (STS). Thus, the annual STS conference, held from November 7 to 9, 2011 in Weimar, Germany, provided an interdisciplinary forum for research on signal transduction with a major focus on systems biology addressing signalling events in T-cells. Here we report on a selection of ongoing projects of SYBILLA and how they were discussed at this interdisciplinary conference.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Cell Communication and Signaling
  • Source
    DP Lane · C Midgley · A Sparks · C Blattner · C Binden · S Laine

    Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Breast Cancer Research
  • Christine Blattner
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Comment on: Dolezelova P, et al. Cell Cycle 2012; 11:953-962.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A/p21 confers cell-cycle arrest in response to DNA damage and inhibits DNA replication through its direct interaction with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. Previously, we reported that in response to densely ionizing radiation CDKN1A rapidly is recruited to the sites of particle traversal, and that CDKN1A foci formation in response to heavy ions is independent of its transactivation by TP53. Here, we show that exposure of normal human fibroblasts to X-rays or to H2O2 also induces nuclear accumulations of CDKN1A. We find that CDKN1A foci formation in response to radiation damage is dependent on its dephosphorylation and on its direct physical interaction with PCNA. Live cell imaging analyses of ectopically expressed EGFP-CDKN1A and dsRed-PCNA show rapid recruitment of both proteins into foci after radiation damage. Detailed dynamic measurements reveal a slightly delayed recruitment of CDKN1A compared to PCNA, which is best described by bi-exponential curve fitting, taking the preceding binding of PCNA to DNA into account. We propose a regulatory role for CDKN1A in mediating PCNA function after radiation damage, and provide evidence that this role is distinct from its involvement in nucleotide excision repair and unrelated to double-strand break repair.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · DNA repair
  • Source
    Valeriya Solozobova · Christine Blattner
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: p53 is well known as a "guardian of the genome" for differentiated cells, in which it induces cell cycle arrest and cell death after DNA damage and thus contributes to the maintenance of genomic stability. In addition to this tumor suppressor function for differentiated cells, p53 also plays an important role in stem cells. In this cell type, p53 not only ensures genomic integrity after genotoxic insults but also controls their proliferation and differentiation. Additionally, p53 provides an effective barrier for the generation of pluripotent stem cell-like cells from terminally differentiated cells. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge about p53 activities in embryonic, adult and induced pluripotent stem cells.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2011
  • Source
    Volker Middel · Christine Blattner

    Full-text · Chapter · Sep 2011
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The incidence of cancer in patients with neurological diseases, who have been treated with LiCl, is below average. LiCl is a well-established inhibitor of Glycogen synthase kinase-3, a kinase that controls several cellular processes, among which is the degradation of the tumour suppressor protein p53. We therefore wondered whether LiCl induces p53-dependent cell death in cancer cell lines and experimental tumours. Here we show that LiCl induces apoptosis of tumour cells both in vitro and in vivo. Cell death was accompanied by cleavage of PARP and Caspases-3, -8 and -10. LiCl-induced cell death was not dependent on p53, but was augmented by its presence. Treatment of tumour cells with LiCl strongly increased TNF-α and FasL expression. Inhibition of TNF-α induction using siRNA or inhibition of FasL binding to its receptor by the Nok-1 antibody potently reduced LiCl-dependent cleavage of Caspase-3 and increased cell survival. Treatment of xenografted rats with LiCl strongly reduced tumour growth. Induction of cell death by LiCl supports the notion that GSK-3 may represent a promising target for cancer therapy. LiCl-induced cell death is largely independent of p53 and mediated by the release of TNF-α and FasL.Key words: LiCl, TNF-α, FasL, apoptosis, GSK-3, FasL.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Cell Communication and Signaling
  • Valeriya Solozobova · Christine Blattner
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite an increasing interest in the role of the p53 tumour suppressor protein in embryonic stem cells, not much is known about its regulation in this cell type. We show that the relatively high amount of p53 protein correlates with a higher amount of p53 RNA in ES cells compared to differentiated cells. Moreover, p53 RNA is more stable in embryonic stem cells and the p53 protein is more often transcribed. This is at least partly due to decreased expression of miRNA-125a and 125b in embryonic stem cells. Despite its cytoplasmic localisation, p53 is degraded in 26S proteasomes in embryonic stem cells. This process is controlled by Mdm2, the deubiquitinating enzyme Hausp and Ubc13. In contrast, the E3 ligase PirH2 appears to be less important for the control of p53 in embryonic stem cells. During differentiation, p53 protein and RNA levels are decreased which corresponds to increased expression of miRNA-125a and miRNA-125b.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Experimental Cell Research
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 targets the p53 tumor suppressor protein for proteasomal degradation. Mutating phosphorylation sites in the central domain of Mdm2 prevents p53 degradation, although it is still ubiquitylated, indicating that Mdm2 has a post-ubiquitylation function for p53 degradation. We show that Mdm2 associates with several subunits of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle in a ubiquitylation-independent manner. Mdm2 furthermore promotes the formation of a ternary complex of itself, p53, and the proteasome. Replacing phosphorylation sites within the central domain with alanines reduced the formation of the ternary complex. The C-terminus of Mdm2 was sufficient for interaction with the proteasome despite an additional proteasome binding site in the Mdm2 N-terminus. In addition to binding to the proteasome, the C-terminus of Mdm2 bound to the central domain, possibly competing with, and therefore blocking, Mdm2/proteasome interaction. We propose that Mdm2 facilitates, or at least enhances, the association of p53 with the proteasome and that phosphorylation of the central domain of Mdm2 regulates this process.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Source
    C Oberle · C Blattner
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Damage to the genetic material can affect cellular function in many ways. Therefore, maintenance of the genetic integrity is of primary importance for all cells. Upon DNA damage, cells respond immediately with proliferation arrest and repair of the lesion or apoptosis. All these consequences require recognition of the lesion and transduction of the information to effector systems. The accomplishment of DNA repair, but also of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis furthermore requires protein-protein interactions and the formation of larger protein complexes. More recent research shows that the formation of many of these aggregates depends on post-translational modifications. In this article, we have summarized the different cellular events in response to a DNA double strand break, the most severe lesion of the DNA.
    Preview · Article · May 2010 · Current Genomics

Publication Stats

2k Citations
207.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006-2015
    • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
      • Institute of Toxicology and Genetics
      Carlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1999-2012
    • University of Dundee
      • Institute for Medical Science and Technology (IMSaT)
      Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States