Nam Sang Cheung

The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong

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Publications (85)

  • Yann Wan Yap · Roxana M. Llanos · Sharon La Fontaine · [...] · Nam Sang Cheung
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction, ubiquitin-proteasomal system impairment and excitotoxicity occur during the injury and death of neurons in neurodegenerative conditions. The aim of this work was to elucidate the cellular mechanisms that are universally altered by these conditions. Through overlapping expression profiles of rotenone-, lactacystin- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-treated cortical neurons, we have identified three affected biological processes that are commonly affected; oxidative stress, dysfunction of calcium signalling and inhibition of the autophagic-lysosomal pathway. These data provides many opportunities for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative conditions, where mitochondrial dysfunction, proteasomal inhibition and excitotoxicity are evident.
    Article · Aug 2015 · Neurochemical Research
  • Yann Wan Yap · Roxana M. Llanos · Sharon La Fontaine · [...] · Nam Sang Cheung
    Dataset · Aug 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutaredoxin1 (GRX1) is a glutathione (GSH)-dependent thiol oxidoreductase. The GRX1/GSH system is important for the protection of proteins from oxidative damage and in the regulation of protein function. Previously we demonstrated that GRX1/GSH regulates the activity of the essential copper-transporting P1B-Type ATPases (ATP7A, ATP7B) in a copper-responsive manner. It has also been established that GRX1 binds copper with high affinity and regulates the redox chemistry of the metallochaperone ATOX1, which delivers copper to the copper-ATPases. In this study, to further define the role of GRX1 in copper homeostasis, we examined the effects of manipulating GRX1 expression on copper homeostasis and cell survival in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). GRX1 knockout led to cellular copper retention (especially when cultured with elevated copper) and reduced copper tolerance, while in GRX1-overexpressing cells challenged with elevated copper, there was a reduction in both intracellular copper levels and copper-induced reactive oxygen species, coupled with enhanced cell proliferation. These effects are consistent with a role for GRX1 in regulating ATP7A-mediated copper export, and further support a new function for GRX1 in neuronal copper homeostasis and in protection from copper-mediated oxidative injury.
    Full-text Article · May 2014 · Biology of Metals
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between the two age-related diseases namely, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is gaining much attention in research because of the alarming forecast on both increasing incidence and economic burden. Recent research studies have identified some of the existing links, between AD and T2DM, such as the dysfunctional glucose metabolism and insulin signaling, stress and inflammation, defective protein processing and the role of advanced glycation end products. It is, therefore, crucial to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms to identify the common linking mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of both AD and T2DM. Genome wide association studies may lead to identification of novel targets and provide clues for possible interventional strategies to limit the progression of these two age-related diseases. Hence, the purpose of the present review is to provide an update, on the various possible linking cellular and molecular mechanisms, including our experience on the use of high throughput applications to investigate the molecular mechanisms underneath the neurodegeneration in animal models. Besides, using this knowledge-driven approach, we discuss how the current technological advancements can effectively be used to identify possible associations between these age-related diseases.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2013 · CNS & neurological disorders drug targets
  • Minghui Jessica Chen · Jian Ming Jeremy Ng · Zhao Feng Peng · [...] · Nam Sang Cheung
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excitotoxicity, induced by the aberrant rise in cytosolic Ca(2+) level, is a major neuropathological process in numerous neurodegenerative disorders. It is triggered when extracellular glutamate (Glu) concentration reaches neuropathological levels resulting in dysregulation and hyper-activation of ionotropic glutamate receptor subtype (iGluRs). Even though all three members of the iGluRs, namely N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPAR) and kainate (KAR) receptors are implicated in excitotoxicity, their individual contributions to downstream signaling transduction have not been explored. In this study, we report a comprehensive description of the recruitment of cellular processes in neurons upon iGluR activation during excitotoxicity through temporal (5h, 15h and 24h) global gene profiling of AMPA, KA, NMDA and Glu excitotoxic models. DNA microarray analyses of mouse primary cortical neurons treated with these four pharmacological agonists are further validated via real-time PCR. Bi-model analyses against Glu model demonstrate that NMDARs and KARs play a more pivotal role in Glu-mediated excitotoxicity, with a higher degree of global gene profiling overlaps, as compared to that of AMPARs. Comparison of global transcriptomic profiles reveals aberrant calcium ion binding and homeostasis, organellar (lysosomal and endoplasmic reticulum) stress, oxidative stress, cell cycle re-entry and activation of cell death processes as the main pathways that are significantly modulated across all excitotoxicity models. Singular profile analyses demonstrate substantial transcriptional regulation of numerous cell cycle proteins. For the first time, we show that iGluR activation forms the basis of cell cycle re-activation, and together with oxidative stress fulfill the "two-hit" hypothesis that accelerates neurodegeneration.
    Article · Jan 2013 · Neurochemistry International
  • Yann Wan Yap · Minghui Jessica Chen · Zhao Feng Peng · [...] · Nam Sang Cheung
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are currently considered two key mechanisms contributing to pathobiology in neurodegenerative conditions. The current study investigated the temporal molecular events contributing to programmed cell death after treatment with the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. Microarray analysis was performed using cultured neocortical neurons treated with 10 nM rotenone for 8, 15, and 24h. Genes showing at least ± 1.2-fold change in expression at one time point were considered significant. Transcriptomic analysis of the 4178 genes probes revealed major changes to nine biological processes, including those eliciting mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of calcium signaling, increased expression of apoptotic genes, and downplay of chaperones/co-chaperones, ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy. These data define targets for intervention where mitochondrial complex I dysfunction plays a substantial role, most notably Parkinson's disease.
    Article · Nov 2012 · Neurochemistry International
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have shown similarities between the histopathological characteristics of NPC and Alzheimer's disease (AD) including amyloid and tau pathologies. While dysfunction in insulin signaling was widely detected in AD brain, the function of insulin signaling proteins has not been examined in NPC disease. In this study, we have examined the expression and phosphorylation of proteins linked to the insulin signaling pathway in the brain of 9 weeks old NPC(nih) mice. Our results showed lower expression of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) in the NPC(nih) mice, and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) expression was almost non-detectable in this NPC mouse model. This reduction was associated with the loss of expression for the regulatory p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p85/PI3K). Interestingly, the impairment was observed to link to a greater reduction of Akt phosphorylation at residue T308 than S473. This aberrant Akt phosphorylation could be contributing to lower GSK3β phosphorylation detected in the NPC(nih) mouse brain. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting impaired insulin signaling in the brain of a NPC mouse model.
    Article · Jul 2012 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
  • M. Whiteman · J.S. Armstrong · N.S. Cheung · [...] · B. Halliwell
    Article · Apr 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Axotomized neurons have the innate ability to undergo regenerative sprouting but this is often impeded by the inhibitory central nervous system environment. To gain mechanistic insights into the key molecular determinates that specifically underlie neuronal regeneration at a transcriptomic level, we have undertaken a DNA microarray study on mature cortical neuronal clusters maintained in vitro at 8, 15, 24 and 48 hrs following complete axonal severance. A total of 305 genes, each with a minimum fold change of ±1.5 for at least one out of the four time points and which achieved statistical significance (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.05), were identified by DAVID and classified into 14 different functional clusters according to Gene Ontology. From our data, we conclude that post-injury regenerative sprouting is an intricate process that requires two distinct pathways. Firstly, it involves restructuring of the neurite cytoskeleton, determined by compound actin and microtubule dynamics, protein trafficking and concomitant modulation of both guidance cues and neurotrophic factors. Secondly, it elicits a cell survival response whereby genes are regulated to protect against oxidative stress, inflammation and cellular ion imbalance. Our data reveal that neurons have the capability to fight insults by elevating biological antioxidants, regulating secondary messengers, suppressing apoptotic genes, controlling ion-associated processes and by expressing cell cycle proteins that, in the context of neuronal injury, could potentially have functions outside their normal role in cell division. Overall, vigilant control of cell survival responses against pernicious secondary processes is vital to avoid cell death and ensure successful neurite regeneration.
    Article · Apr 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of Rho kinase (ROCK) have potential for management of neurological disorders by inhibition of glial scarring. Since astrocytes play key roles in brain physiology and pathology, we determined changes in the astrocytic transcriptome produced by the ROCK inhibitor Fasudil to obtain mechanistic insights into its beneficial action during brain injury. Cultured murine astrocytes were treated with Fasudil (100 µM) and morphological analyses revealed rapid stellation by 1 h and time-dependent (2-24 h) dissipation of F-actin-labelled stress fibres. Microarray analyses were performed on RNA and the time-course of global gene profiling (2, 6, 12 and 24 h) provided a comprehensive description of transcriptomic changes. Hierarchical clustering of differentially expressed genes and analysis for over-represented gene ontology groups using the DAVID database focused attention on Fasudil-induced changes to major biological processes regulating cellular shape and motility (actin cytoskeleton, axon guidance, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signalling and tight junctions). Bioinformatic analyses of transcriptomic changes revealed how these biological processes contributed to changes in astrocytic motility and cytoskeletal reorganisation. Here genes associated with extracellular matrix were also involved, but unexpected was a subset of alterations (EAAT2, BDNF, anti-oxidant species, metabolic and signalling genes) indicative of adoption by astrocytes of a pro-survival phenotype. Expression profiles of key changes with Fasudil and another ROCK inhibitor Y27632 were validated by real-time PCR. Although effects of ROCK inhibition have been considered to be primarily cytoskeletal via reduction of glial scarring, we demonstrate additional advantageous actions likely to contribute to their ameliorative actions in brain injury.
    Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced glucose utilization is likely to precede the onset of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Similar aberrant glucose metabolism can also be detected in the brain of several AD mouse models. Although the cause of this metabolic defect is not well understood, it could be related to impaired insulin signaling that is increasingly being reported in AD brain. However, the temporal relationship between insulin impairment and amyloid-β (Aβ) biogenesis is unclear. In this study using female AβPPsw/PS1ΔE9 mice, we found that the level of Aβ40 was fairly constant in 6- to 15-month-old brains, whereas Aβ42 was only significantly increased in the 15-month-old brain. In contrast, increased levels of IRβ, IGF-1R, IRS1, and IRS-2, along with reduced glucose and insulin content, were detected earlier in the 12-month-old brains of AβPPsw/PS1ΔE9 mice. The reduction in brain glucose content was accompanied by increased GLUT3 and GLUT4 levels. Importantly, these changes precede the significant upregulation of Aβ42 level in the 15-month-old brain. Interestingly, reduction in the p85 subunit of PI3K was only apparent in the 15-month-old AβPPsw/PS1ΔE9 mouse brain. Furthermore, the expression profile of IRβ, IRS-2, and p85/PI3K in AβPPsw/PS1ΔE9 was distinct in wild-type mice of a similar age. Although the exact mechanisms underlining this connection remain unclear, our results suggest a possible early role for insulin signaling impairment leading to amyloid accumulation in AβPPsw/PS1ΔE9 mice.
    Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
  • Zhao Feng Peng · Minghui Jessica Chen · Jayapal Manikandan · [...] · Nam Sang Cheung
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide is implicated in the pathogenesis of various neuropathologies characterized by oxidative stress. Although nitric oxide has been reported to be involved in the exacerbation of oxidative stress observed in several neuropathologies, existent data fail to provide a holistic description of how nitrergic pathobiology elicits neuronal injury. Here we provide a comprehensive description of mechanisms contributing to nitric oxide induced neuronal injury by global transcriptomic profiling. Microarray analyses were undertaken on RNA from murine primary cortical neurons treated with the nitric oxide generator DETA-NONOate (NOC-18, 0.5 mM) for 8–24 hrs. Biological pathway analysis focused upon 3672 gene probes which demonstrated at least a ±1.5-fold expression in a minimum of one out of three time-points and passed statistical analysis (one-way anova, P < 0.05). Numerous enriched processes potentially determining nitric oxide mediated neuronal injury were identified from the transcriptomic profile: cell death, developmental growth and survival, cell cycle, calcium ion homeostasis, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, mitochondrial homeostasis, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and GSH and nitric oxide metabolism. Our detailed time-course study of nitric oxide induced neuronal injury allowed us to provide the first time a holistic description of the temporal sequence of cellular events contributing to nitrergic injury. These data form a foundation for the development of screening platforms and define targets for intervention in nitric oxide neuropathologies where nitric oxide mediated injury is causative.
    Article · Jan 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced glucose utilization is likely to precede the onset of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Similar aberrant glucose metabolism can also be detected in the brain of several AD mouse models. Although the cause of this metabolic defect is not well understood, it could be related to impaired insulin signaling that is increasingly being reported in AD brain. However, the temporal relationship between insulin impairment and amyloid-β (Aβ) biogenesis is unclear. In this study using female AβPPsw/PS1ΔE9 mice, we found that the level of Aβ40 was fairly constant in 6- to 15-month-old brains, whereas Aβ42 was only significantly increased in the 15-month-old brain. In contrast, increased levels of IRβ, IGF-1R, IRS1, and IRS-2, along with reduced glucose and insulin content, were detected earlier in the 12-month-old brains of AβPPsw/PS1ΔE9 mice. The reduction in brain glucose content was accompanied by increased GLUT3 and GLUT4 levels. Importantly, these changes precede the significant upregulation of Aβ42 level in the 15-month-old brain. Interestingly, reduction in the p85 subunit of PI3K was only apparent in the 15-month-old AβPPsw/PS1ΔE9 mouse brain. Furthermore, the expression profile of IRβ, IRS-2, and p85/PI3K in AβPPsw/PS1ΔE9 was distinct in wild-type mice of a similar age. Although the exact mechanisms underlining this connection remain unclear, our results suggest a possible early role for insulin signaling impairment leading to amyloid accumulation in AβPPsw/PS1ΔE9 mice.
    Article · Jan 2012
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Axotomized neurons have the innate ability to undergo regenerative sprouting but this is often impeded by the inhibitory central nervous system environment. To gain mechanistic insights into the key molecular determinates that specifically underlie neuronal regeneration at a transcriptomic level, we have undertaken a DNA microarray study on mature cortical neuronal clusters maintained in vitro at 8, 15, 24 and 48 hrs following complete axonal severance. A total of 305 genes, each with a minimum fold change of ± 1.5 for at least one out of the four time points and which achieved statistical significance (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.05), were identified by DAVID and classified into 14 different functional clusters according to Gene Ontology. From our data, we conclude that post-injury regenerative sprouting is an intricate process that requires two distinct pathways. Firstly, it involves restructuring of the neurite cytoskeleton, determined by compound actin and microtubule dynamics, protein trafficking and concomitant modulation of both guidance cues and neurotrophic factors. Secondly, it elicits a cell survival response whereby genes are regulated to protect against oxidative stress, inflammation and cellular ion imbalance. Our data reveal that neurons have the capability to fight insults by elevating biological antioxidants, regulating secondary messengers, suppressing apoptotic genes, controlling ion-associated processes and by expressing cell cycle proteins that, in the context of neuronal injury, could potentially have functions outside their normal role in cell division. Overall, vigilant control of cell survival responses against pernicious secondary processes is vital to avoid cell death and ensure successful neurite regeneration.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
  • Minghui Jessica Chen · Zhao Feng Peng · Jayapal Manikandan · [...] · Nam Sang Cheung
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently the role of hydrogen sulphide (H(2) S) as a gasotransmitter stimulated wide interest owing to its involvement in Alzheimer's disease and ischemic stroke. Previously we demonstrated the importance of functional ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) by neurons is critical for H(2) S-mediated dose- and time-dependent injury. Moreover N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists abolished the consequences of H(2) S-induced neuronal death. This study focuses on deciphering the downstream effects activation of NMDAR on H(2) S-mediated neuronal injury by analyzing the time-course of global gene profiling (5, 15, and 24 h) to provide a comprehensive description of the recruitment of NMDAR-mediated signaling. Microarray analyses were performed on RNA from cultured mouse primary cortical neurons treated with 200 µM sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) or NMDA over a time-course of 5-24 h. Data were validated via real-time PCR, western blotting, and global proteomic analysis. A substantial overlap of 1649 genes, accounting for over 80% of NMDA global gene profile present in that of H(2) S and over 50% vice versa, was observed. Within these commonly occurring genes, the percentage of transcriptional consistency at each time-point ranged from 81 to 97%. Gene families involved included those related to cell death, endoplasmic reticulum stress, calcium homeostasis, cell cycle, heat shock proteins, and chaperones. Examination of genes exclusive to H(2) S-mediated injury (43%) revealed extensive dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. These data form a foundation for the development of screening platforms and define targets for intervention in H(2) S neuropathologies where NMDAR-activated signaling cascades played a substantial role.
    Article · May 2011 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
  • Source
    Minghui Jessica Chen · Connie H.Y. Wong · Zhao Feng Peng · [...] · Nam Sang Cheung
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient cerebral ischemia often results in secondary ischemic/reperfusion injury, the pathogenesis of which remains unclear. This study provides a comprehensive, temporal description of the molecular events contributing to neuronal injury after transient cerebral ischemia. Intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed to induce a 2-h ischemia with reperfusion. Microarray analysis was then performed on the infarct cortex of wild-type (WT) and glutathione peroxidase-1 (a major antioxidant enzyme) knockout (Gpx1(-/-)) mice at 8 and 24h postreperfusion to identify differential gene expression profile patterns and potential alternative injury cascades in the absence of Gpx1, a crucial antioxidant enzyme, in cerebral ischemia. Genes with at least ±1.5-fold change in expression at either time point were considered significant. Global transcriptomic analyses demonstrated that 70% of the WT-MCAO profile overlapped with that of Gpx1(-/-)-MCAO, and 28% vice versa. Critical analysis of the 1034 gene probes specific to the Gpx1(-/-)-MCAO profile revealed regulation of additional novel pathways, including the p53-mediated proapoptotic pathway and Fas ligand (CD95/Apo1)-mediated pathways; downplay of the Nrf2 antioxidative cascade; and ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction. Therefore, this comparative study forms the foundation for the establishment of screening platforms for target definition in acute cerebral ischemia intervention.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2011 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
  • Zhao Feng Peng · Minghui Jessica Chen · Jayapal Manikandan · [...] · Nam Sang Cheung
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide is implicated in the pathogenesis of various neuropathologies characterized by oxidative stress. Although nitric oxide has been reported to be involved in the exacerbation of oxidative stress observed in several neuropathologies, existent data fail to provide a holistic description of how nitrergic pathobiology elicits neuronal injury. Here we provide a comprehensive description of mechanisms contributing to nitric oxide induced neuronal injury by global transcriptomic profiling. Microarray analyses were undertaken on RNA from murine primary cortical neurons treated with the nitric oxide generator DETA-NONOate (NOC-18, 0.5 mM) for 8-24 hrs. Biological pathway analysis focused upon 3672 gene probes which demonstrated at least a ±1.5-fold expression in a minimum of one out of three time-points and passed statistical analysis (one-way anova, P < 0.05). Numerous enriched processes potentially determining nitric oxide mediated neuronal injury were identified from the transcriptomic profile: cell death, developmental growth and survival, cell cycle, calcium ion homeostasis, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, mitochondrial homeostasis, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and GSH and nitric oxide metabolism. Our detailed time-course study of nitric oxide induced neuronal injury allowed us to provide the first time a holistic description of the temporal sequence of cellular events contributing to nitrergic injury. These data form a foundation for the development of screening platforms and define targets for intervention in nitric oxide neuropathologies where nitric oxide mediated injury is causative.
    Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
  • Meng Shyan Choy · Minghui Jessica Chen · Jayapal Manikandan · [...] · Nam Sang Cheung
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of proteasome degradation pathway has been implicated in neuronal cell death leading to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. We and others demonstrated that treatment of cortical neurons with the proteasomal inhibitor lactacystin leads to apoptosis. We discovered by microarray analysis that lactacystin treatment modulates the expression of both potentially neuroprotective as well as pro-apoptotic genes in neurons. However, the significance of the genes which upon transcriptional modulation contributed to proteasomal inhibition-induced apoptosis, remained unidentified. By employing microarray analysis to decipher the time-dependent changes in transcription of these genes in cultured cortical neurons, we discovered different groups of genes were transcriptionally regulated in the early and late phase of lactacystin-induced cell death. In the early phase, several neuroprotective genes such as those encoding the proteasome subunits and ubiquitin-associated enzymes, as well as the heat-shock proteins (HSP) were up-regulated. However, the pro-apoptotic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated genes were also up-regulated at the early phase of lactacystin-induced neuronal cell death. In the late phase, genes encoding antioxidants and calcium-binding proteins were up-regulated while those associated with cholesterol biosynthesis were down-regulated. The data suggest that ER stress may participate in mediating the apoptotic responses induced by proteasomal inhibition. The up-regulation of the neuroprotective antioxidant genes and calcium-binding protein genes and down-regulation of the cholesterol biosynthesis genes in the later phase are likely consequences of stimulation of the pro-apoptotic signaling pathways in the early phase of lactacystin treatment.
    Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
  • Jenny Chew · Minghui Jessica Chen · Alan Yiu-Wah Lee · [...] · Nam Sang Cheung
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The involvement of cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) and p25, the proteolytic fragment of activator p35, has long been implicated in the development of neuron-fibrillary tangles (NFTs), a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Findings in this area over the past decade have been highly controversial and inconclusive. Here we report unprecedented detection of endogenous p10, the smaller proteolytic fragment of the Cdk5 activator p35 in treated primary cortical neurons that underwent significant apoptosis, triggered by proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin, and protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine (STS). p10 appeared exclusively in the detergent-resistant fraction made up of nuclear matrix, membrane-bound organelles, insoluble membrane proteins, and cytoskeletal components. Intriguingly, transient overexpression of p10 in neural cells induced apoptotic morphologies, suggesting that p10 may play an important role in mediating neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative diseases. We demonstrated for the first time that p10-mediated apoptosis occurred via a caspases-independent pathway. Furthermore, as p10 may contain the myristoylation signal for p35 which is responsible for binding p35 to several intracellular components and the membrane, all in all these novel results present that the accumulation of p10 to the detergent-insoluble fraction may be a crucial pathological event to triggering neuronal cell death.
    Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
  • Kevin Wai Yin Chong · Minghui Jessica Chen · Evelyn S.C. Koay · [...] · Nam Sang Cheung
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Massive neuronal apoptosis and accumulation of protein aggregates in the cortex and hippocampus of the brain are hallmarks of several neurodegenerative disorders, indicating ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) dysfunction. Lactacystin, a classical proteasome inhibitor, is used to simulate ubiquitin proteasome system dysfunction in neurons to mimic pathological features of neurodegenerative disorders. Based on Western blot analyses, we reported for the first time that annexin A3 (AnxA3) is not only endogenously expressed in mouse cortical neurons but also more importantly, by gene expression microarray and real-time RT-PCR that it is greatly transcriptional up-regulated to approximately 11- and 15-fold, respectively in murine primary cortical neurons with 1μM lactacystin for 24h. Up-regulation of AnxA3 expression occurred after 12-15h post-lactacystin treatment, which corresponded with the onset of neuronal injury, with approximately 25% of the neurons being non-viable by that time interval. Western blot analysis with anti-AnxA3 antibodies further validated that up-regulation of AnxA3 only occurs with onset of neuronal death, and not with the onset of proteasome inhibition, which occurs at 4.5h post-lactacystin treatment. Over-expression studies suggested AnxA3 might be involved in death promotion during lactacystin-mediated neuronal death, since caspase-3 activation was significantly stronger upon neuronal AnxA3 over-expression. We propose AnxA3 up-regulation may have significant relevance in the elucidation of neurodegenerative pathophysiology.
    Article · Nov 2010 · Neuroscience Letters

Publication Stats

3k Citations

Institutions

  • 2007
    • The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
      • State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience
      Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong
  • 2000
    • University of Vic
      Vic, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1999
    • IMSA Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands