U C Schaller

Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (62)90.65 Total impact

  • M.M. Nentwich · U Pleyer · U.C. Schaller · V Klauß
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    ABSTRACT: Medical eye care in developing countries is very different from the situation in industrialized nations. In order to prevent rising numbers of blind people worldwide due to increased life expectancy and population growth, the global initiative Vision 2020 "The Right to Sight" was established in 1999. Coordinated initiatives are important as most causes of blindness are either preventable or curable (e.g. cataract surgery); however, due to a lack of resources eye care in developing countries cannot implement all necessary preventive and therapeutic measures at present. The epidemiology of causes of blindness and the situation of ophthalmic care are discussed. Because of increased mobility of people and goods (e.g. air travel and trucking), imported eye diseases are of increasing importance. The difference between travel medicine, which deals with the medical situation of travelers and international ophthalmology (i.e. diseases in tropical countries) is discussed and illustrated on the basis of several important disease patterns.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Der Ophthalmologe
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare quality of life (QoL) in patients with uveal melanoma after enucleation and stereotactic radiosurgery to that in an age-matched patient collective. Methods: QoL was assessed in a cross-sectional survey and compared among 32 uveal melanoma patients after enucleation, 48 patients after stereotactic radiosurgery (CyberKnife(®); Accuray(®) Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), and an age-matched control group of 35 patients, using the SF-12 Health Survey. Statistical analysis was performed with Fisher's exact test, Student's t test, one-way ANOVA analysis, Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney test), and ordered logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Results: There was no significant difference in QoL between patients treated by stereotactic radiosurgery and the age-matched control group. After enucleation, patients presented significantly lower values in Physical Functioning (PF), Role Physical (RP), and Role Emotional (RE) compared to the radiosurgery and control group. To control for the overall QoL lowering effect of visual loss, the QoL of the patients who underwent enucleation was compared with the QoL of patients suffering severe functional loss after CyberKnife radiosurgery in a subgroup analysis, which showed no statistically significant difference. The number of comorbidities had a significant impact on QoL in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Superior performance in PF, RP, and RE suggests that CyberKnife represents a suitable first-line therapy for uveal melanoma. In cases with painful amaurosis or vast tumor recurrence, enucleation can be performed with an acceptable QoL outcome.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to analyze the local efficacy and eye retention rate after frameless, image-guided robotic radiosurgery against uveal melanoma. A total of 217 patients, mostly with medium and large unilateral uveal melanomas (3% small, 62% medium, and 35% large) were treated. The median age was 64 years (range 21-95 years). All patients underwent a single-session procedure beginning with retrobulbar anesthesia, followed by MRI and computerized tomography scanning to generate the treatment plan. The tumor dose was 18-22 Gy (mean, 20.3 Gy) prescribed to the 70% isodose line. Follow-up occurred at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months and yearly thereafter with clinical, ultrasound, and MRI studies. The median follow-up time was 26.4 months. All patients were treated in the frameless setup within 3 h. The actuarial 3- and 5-year eye retention rates were 86.7 and 73%, respectively. Local control at 3 and 5 years was 87.4 and 70.8%, respectively. Serviceable vision was maintained in 30.9% of patients at last follow-up. Treatment-induced glaucoma developed in 33 patients at a median 20.8 months (range, 5.8-54.0 months). Other adverse effects were hemorrhage (26 patients) and macular edema (seven patients). Frameless, single-session, image-guided robotic radiosurgery is an effective and straightforward treatment option for patients with medium and large uveal melanoma that are otherwise difficult to treat.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Melanoma research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To statistically determine differences in microcirculation patterns between nevi and uveal melanomas and the influence of these patterns on metastatic potential in the long-term follow-up of 112 patients with melanocytic uveal tumours. In vivo markers indicating malignancy and metastatic potential have implications for treatment decision. Methods: Primary diagnosis and work-up included clinical examination, fundus photography, standardized A and B scan echography as well as evaluation of tumour microcirculation patterns via confocal fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Patient data were collected from the patient files, the tumour registry or personal contact. Statistical analysis was performed with spss 22.0 using chi-square, Fisher's exact test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results: Forty-three uveal melanocytic lesions remained untreated and were retrospectively classified as benign nevi, whereas 69 lesions were malignant melanomas (T1: 32, T2: 28, T3: 6 and T4: 3). 'Silent' and 'arcs without branching' were found significantly more often in nevi (p = 0.001 and p = 0.010), whereas 'parallel with cross-linking' and 'networks' were significantly more frequent in melanomas (p = 0.022 and p = 0.029). The microcirculation pattern 'parallel with cross-linking' proved significantly more frequent in patients who developed metastases (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Certain microcirculation patterns may guide us in differentiating uveal nevi from malignant melanomas. A non-invasive prognostic marker can be of great value for borderline lesions in which cytology is less likely taken. 'Parallel with cross-linking' did not only indicate malignancy, but it was also associated with later tumour metastasis.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Acta ophthalmologica
  • Martin M Nentwich · Ulrich C Schaller · Volker Klauss
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    ABSTRACT: In sub-Sahara Africa, the shortage of ophthalmologists is a major obstacle in the struggle of fighting preventable blindness. Migration of well-trained ophthalmologists has an additional negative effect on the low number of caregivers. However, to date, the reasons affecting migration of ophthalmologists have not been completely understood. The present study evaluates reasons reported by ophthalmologists for staying in their current work setting/country and potential reasons why they might consider migrating. In the years 2009-2011, after approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board, a questionnaire evaluating reasons for and against migration of ophthalmologists was distributed to the participants of 2-week courses in Ethiopia, Cameroon and Kenya providing continuing medical education in the field of ophthalmology. A total of 84 ophthalmologists participated in this survey. The main reasons for staying in their current region/country were good working conditions, commitment to help, possibility of further training, familial ties and general feeling of satisfaction. Professional development elsewhere and better income abroad were named as the main reasons for considering migration. Almost half of the survey participants reported good infrastructure, equipment, and consumables, which is encouraging. Programs aimed at continuing medical education of ophthalmologists to enable professional development may have an appropriate role in the establishment of an ophthalmic infrastructure which can meet patients' needs.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · International Ophthalmology
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    ABSTRACT: To assess quality of life in uveal melanoma patients within the first and second year after CyberKnife radiosurgery. Overall, 91 uveal melanoma patients were evaluated for quality of life through the Short-form (SF-12) Health Survey at baseline and at every follow-up visit over 2 years after CyberKnife radiosurgery. Statistical analysis was carried out using SF Health Outcomes Scoring Software and included subgroup analysis of patients developing secondary glaucoma and of patients maintaining a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of the treated eye of 0.5 log(MAR) or better. Analysis of variance, Greenhouse-Geisser correction, Student's t-test, and Fisher's exact test were used to determine statistical significance. Physical Functioning (PF) and Role Physical (RP) showed a significant decrease after CyberKnife radiosurgery, whereas Mental Health (MH) improved (P=0.007, P<0.0001 and P=0.023). MH and Social Functioning (SF) increased significantly (P=0.0003 and 0.026) in the no glaucoma group, MH being higher compared with glaucoma patients (P=0.02). PF and RP were significantly higher in patients with higher BCVA at the second follow-up (P=0.02). RP decreased in patients with BCVA<0.5 log(MAR) (P=0.013). Vitality (VT) increased significantly in patients whose BCVA could be preserved (P=0.031). Neither tumor localization nor size influenced the development of secondary glaucoma or change in BCVA. Although PF and RP decreased over time, MH improved continuously. Prevention of secondary glaucoma has a significant influence on both SF and MH, whereas preservation of BCVA affects VT. Emotional stability throughout follow-up contributes positively toward overall quality of life. CyberKnife radiosurgery may contribute to attenuation of emotional distress in uveal melanoma patients.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Melanoma research
  • A. Mueller · M. Nentwich · U. Schaller

    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · TumorDiagnostik & Therapie
  • A Klingenstein · AR Haug · C J Zech · U C Schaller
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the overall survival, safety, and efficacy of metastatic uveal melanoma patients after radioembolization as salvage therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients were treated with radioembolization of branches of the hepatic artery with resin-based yttrium-90 ((90)Y)-labelled microspheres. Twelve patients underwent a single application, and 1 patient underwent 4 interventions. Dosages from 644 to 2,450 MBq (mean activity 1,780) were applied. Treatment response was evaluated by way of liver magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) as well as whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)/CT with evaluation of percentage changes in SUV(max) before and at 2-3 months after therapy. Kaplan-Meier analysis was calculated to determine overall survival. RESULTS: Partial remission (PR) was observed in 8 (62 %), stable disease (SD) in 2 (15 %), and progressive disease (PD) in 3 (23 %) patients under terms of standard criteria and PR in 3 (23 %), SD in 3 (23 %), and PD in 7 (54 %) patients according to PET criteria. Neither RECIST nor PET criteria showed a significant difference in predicting overall survival (P = 0.12 and 0.11, respectively). Median survival time after radioembolization was 7 months. No acute toxicity with in-hospital morbidity was observed. One patient developed hepatomegaly, and 1 patient developed gastric ulceration. Throughout follow-up, progression of extrahepatic metastases was observed. CONCLUSION: Radioembolization may be a promising therapy in uveal melanoma patients with predominant hepatic metastases. At first follow-up, we observed PR or SD in 77 % patients under terms of standard criteria with an acceptable toxicity profile.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology
  • A Klingenstein · M Kufeld · B Wowra · A Muacevic · C Furweger · U C Schaller
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    ABSTRACT: Nilotinib is a second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor which is used in both first and second line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In the present work, the effects of nilotinib resistance on K562 cells were investigated at the molecular level using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Human K562 CML cells were exposed to step-wise increasing concentrations of nilotinib, and sub-clones of K562 cells resistant to 50_nM nilotinib were generated and referred to as K562/NIL-50 cells. Antiproliferative effects of nilotinib were determined by XTT cell proliferation assay. Changes in macromolecules in parental and resistant cells were studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. Nilotinib resistance caused significant changes which indicated increases in the level of glycogen and membrane/lipid order. The amount of unsaturated lipids increased in the nilotinib resistant cells indicating lipid peroxidation. The total amount of lipids did not change significantly but the relative proportion of cholesterol and triglycerides altered considerably. Moreover, the transcriptional status decreased but metabolic turn-over increased as revealed by the FT-IR spectra. In addition, changes in the proteome and structural changes in both proteins and the nucleus were observed in the K562/NIL-50 cells. Protein secondary structural analyses revealed that alpha helix structure and random coil structure decreased, however, anti-parallel beta sheet structure, beta sheet structure and turns structure increased. These results indicate that the FT-IR technique provides a method for analyzing drug resistance related structural changes in leukemia and other cancer types.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Technology in cancer research & treatment
  • Klingenstein A · Kufeld M · Wowra B · Muacevic A · Furweger C · U. C. Schaller
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of this study is to evaluate radiographic therapy response, clinical outcome and adverse effects of CyberKnife radiosurgery in patients suffering from orbital metastases. Sixteen orbital metastases originating from different solid cancers in fourteen patients were treated by single fraction CyberKnife radiosurgery. Radiographic response and clinical outcome were evaluated. The treated tumor volume ranged from 0.2 to 35 cm(3) (median 2.3 cm(3), mean 7.0 cm(3), SD ± 10.4 cm(3), CI 0.9-9.4 cm(3)). The prescription dose ranged from 16.5-21 Gy (median 18 Gy, mean 18.2 Gy, SD ± 1.2 Gy, CI 17.0-18.4 Gy). A no change situation was observed in nine lesions, partial remission in four as well as complete remission in one metastasis. Tumor growth was stabilized or regressive following CyberKnife therapy in 87% of the cases. Recurrence was observed in two cases (13%). Before therapy, three patients suffered from visual disturbance and five patients reported diplopia. Six patients had no initial symptoms. After therapy, one patient indicated improvement of the present visual deficit and two patients no change. Out of the two patients with persistent diplopia, two reported improvement after therapy and three no change. No progression of symptoms was noted in any of the cases. Fourteen out of sixteen treated lesions were stable or regressive following CyberKnife radiosurgery (87%). As no serious adverse effects were reported in this series, CyberKnife therapy was shown to be of great value for local management of orbital metastases.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Technology in cancer research & treatment
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    ABSTRACT: The serological marker melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) has been shown to be significantly higher in the serum of patients suffering from metastatic uveal melanoma than in progression-free patients. The objective of this study was to calculate a meaningful receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for MIA based on a large patient collective and to find an appropriate threshold value. MIA tumor marker levels of 503 outpatients suffering from uveal melanoma were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fifty-four patients had confirmed metastases and 449 patients showed no overt metastatic disease at the time the blood sample was taken. ROC analysis was performed and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Metastatic patients showed significantly higher MIA levels (median 11.69 ng/ml) than patients in the group without overt metastatic disease (median 6.97 ng/ml) (the Mann-Whitney test, P<0.001). The AUC was 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-0.91). The ROC resulting from our study can be applied for test comparison by means of AUC. The AUC value of 0.84 for MIA demonstrates the accurate performance of the test. On the basis of this ROC curve, we propose a MIA threshold value for uveal melanoma patients of 8.3 ng/ml (with a corresponding sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 77%, positive predictive value of 0.30 and negative predictive value of 0.97). In patients with higher MIA serum levels, further diagnostics should be initiated.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Melanoma research
  • I.W. Reiniger · A. Kampik · U.C. Schaller
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    ABSTRACT: Uveal melanomas typically metastasize to the liver. A sensitive and specific serological marker for metastatic disease would be of great value. The small globular protein-melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) is established as a marker for cutaneous melanoma. This study was performed to evaluate MIA as potential serological marker for early detection of metastatic disease in uveal melanoma. Method: In a prospective study, we collected serum samples of 390 patients with uveal melanoma. Serum samples were analysed by using a one-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify the MIA serum levels. All patients also underwent standardized A-scan echography to measure the maximum tumor height. Results: 31 (7.9 %) patients had proven metastatic disease. The mean serum concentration of MIA in these patients was 17.22 ng/ml, whereas in the 359 patients without metastasis, 6.74 ng/ml (p 0.001). Sixteen of the 31 patients presented with metastatic disease during follow-up. These patients showed a MIA of 6.49 ng/ml before and of 17.44 ng/ml after the development of metastasis (p = 0.001). Comparing different apical tumor thickness to MIA serum concentrations in patients without metastasis, no significant correlation was found. A correlation between local therapy and MIA serum concentrations could neither be seen. Conclusion: The statistically highly significant elevation of MIA serum levels in patients with metastatic disease from melanoma suggests a promising role as a serum marker for monitoring these patients.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Metastasis has been reported in the follow-up of up to 50% of uveal melanoma patients. Established oncological diagnostic modalities in tumor follow-up so far have limited sensitivity and specificity. The diagnostic value of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans in the follow-up of patients with metastatic uveal melanoma was assessed. Eleven patients with successfully treated and one patient with suspected uveal melanoma underwent combined PET/CT scan. The indication for PET/CT scan was heterogenous and ranged from suspected metastatic choroidal melanoma in conventional imaging (n=3) to exclusion of further organ involvement before local therapy of liver metastases (n=5) and restaging after local or systemic therapy of metastases (n=4). PET/CT scan showed vital metastases from uveal melanoma in all patients (n=12). Ten patients showed vital hepatic metastases (83%), five osseous (42%), four lymphatic (33%), two pulmonary (17%), one adrenal (8%) and one had muscular metastases (8%). Six patients showed multiple organ involvement (50%). In addition, PET/CT scan correctly identified a primary intraocular tumor and ruled out pulmonary metastatic involvement with suspicious intrapulmonary findings in a CT scan and chest X-ray in two patients. It could also confirm an equivocal intrahepatic finding in an MRI scan as a vital metastasis. PET/CT scan is a very sensitive and specific tool for the detection and localization of metastatic disease in patients with uveal melanoma, assessing both anatomical morphology and cell metabolism in one single examination. With novel therapeutic approaches in evolution, PET/CT scanning can be of great importance for therapy planning and monitoring.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Melanoma research
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical differentiation of choroidal pigmented lesions is sometimes difficult. Choroidal melanoma is the most prevalent primary neoplasia among malignant ocular tumors, and metastasis often occurs before the primary tumor is diagnosed. Therefore, early detection is essential. We investigated the imaging properties of clinically diagnosed melanocytic choroidal tumors using a nonmydriatic ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) with two laser wavelengths to distinguish benign from malignant lesions. Repeated standardized ultrasound (US) evaluation provided reference standard. In a consecutive series of 49 patients with clinically diagnosed melanocytic choroidal tumors in one eye, 29 had established melanoma (defined by proven growth on repeated US follow-up) and 20 had nevi (defined by no malignancy according to clinical, US, and growth characteristics for at least 2 years). All patients underwent clinical examination, undilated Optomap((R)) (Optos PLC, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland, UK) imaging, standardized US examination, and standard retinal photography. Measurements of the tumor base using the Optomap software were compared with US B-scan measurements. Imaging characteristics from the SLO images were correlated with the structural findings in the two patient groups. Measurements of tumor base correlated well between SLO and US with r = 0.61 (T-direction) and r = 0.51 (L-direction). On SLO imaging, typical malignant lesions appeared dark on the red laser channel and bright on the green laser channel. Based on those simple binary characteristics, a sensitivity of 76% at a specificity of 70% was obtained for a correct classification of lesions. When analogous to clinical examination lesion size, margin touching the optic disc, and existence of subretinal fluid were additionally considered, 90% sensitivity at 82% specificity was obtained. In this first, limited series, nonmydriatic SLO imaging with two laser wavelengths permitted to differentiate malignant ocular tumors from nonmalignant lesions with high diagnostic accuracy. Additional parameters may further enhance diagnostic properties, but larger patient series are required to validate our findings and prove the diagnostic properties.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Clinical Ophthalmology
  • Martin M Nentwich · Matthias Remy · Ulrich C Schaller
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    ABSTRACT: Ocular fat embolism syndrome in the complete absence of any cardiac defects is a rare phenomenon which is not commonly encountered in ophthalmic practice. We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with fat embolism syndrome and involvement of the retina after a tibial fracture without any cardiac defect.
    No preview · Article · May 2010 · International Ophthalmology
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    ABSTRACT: A 63-year-old woman presented with a 9-month history of painful amaurosis of the left eye caused by hemophthalmos. She was already undergoing chemotherapy for histopathologically proven liver metastases caused by an assumed melanoma. The location of the primary tumor was unknown. Whole-body FDG-PET/CT staging identified a lesion with characteristically malignant uptake in the region of the left eye as the primary tumor. After enucleation, a primary uveal melanoma was verified that expressed the serological marker melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA). FDG-PET/CT was able to successfully align hepatic metastases due to CUP with local ophthalmologic diagnostic findings and led to a correct diagnosis.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Der Ophthalmologe
  • A. Mueller · U. Schaller · A. Klingenstein · M. Nentwich

    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • A J Mueller · U C Schaller · A Klingenstein · M M Nentwich

    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • A. J. Mueller · U. C. Schaller · A. Klingenstein · M. M. Nentwich

    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • Source
    Kernt Marcus · Ulrich C Schaller · Stumpf Carmen · al et
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    ABSTRACT: Marcus Kernt, Ulrich C Schaller, Carmen Stumpf, Michael W Ulbig, Anselm Kampik, Aljoscha S NeubauerDepartment of Ophthalmology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, GermanyPurpose: Clinical differentiation of choroidal pigmented lesions is sometimes difficult. ­Choroidal melanoma is the most prevalent primary neoplasia among malignant ocular tumors, and metastasis often occurs before the primary tumor is diagnosed. Therefore, early detection is essential. We investigated the imaging properties of clinically diagnosed melanocytic choroidal tumors using a nonmydriatic ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) with two laser wavelengths to distinguish benign from malignant lesions. Repeated standardized ultrasound (US) evaluation provided reference standard.Methods: In a consecutive series of 49 patients with clinically diagnosed melanocytic ­choroidal tumors in one eye, 29 had established melanoma (defined by proven growth on repeated US follow-up) and 20 had nevi (defined by no malignancy according to clinical, US, and growth ­characteristics for at least 2 years). All patients underwent clinical examination, undilated Optomap? (Optos PLC, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland, UK) imaging, standardized US ­examination, and standard retinal photography. Measurements of the tumor base using the Optomap software were compared with US B-scan measurements. Imaging characteristics from the SLO images were correlated with the structural findings in the two patient groups.Results: Measurements of tumor base correlated well between SLO and US with r = 0.61 (T-direction) and r = 0.51 (L-direction). On SLO imaging, typical malignant lesions appeared dark on the red laser channel and bright on the green laser channel. Based on those simple binary characteristics, a sensitivity of 76% at a specificity of 70% was obtained for a correct classification of lesions. When analogous to clinical examination lesion size, margin touching the optic disc, and existence of subretinal fluid were additionally considered, 90% sensitivity at 82% specificity was obtained.Conclusions: In this first, limited series, nonmydriatic SLO imaging with two laser wavelengths permitted to differentiate malignant ocular tumors from nonmalignant lesions with high ­diagnostic accuracy. Additional parameters may further enhance diagnostic properties, but larger patient series are required to validate our findings and prove the diagnostic properties.Keywords: choroidal melanoma, nevus, imaging, ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthal­moscopy
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010

Publication Stats

483 Citations
90.65 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000-2014
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      • Eye Clinic
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2008-2011
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2004
    • University of Nairobi
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Nairoba, Nairobi Area, Kenya
  • 2002
    • University of California, San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2000-2002
    • University Hospital München
      München, Bavaria, Germany