Kuo Zhang

Beijing Hospital, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (40)124.01 Total impact

  • Kuo Zhang · Guigao Lin · Jinming Li
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    ABSTRACT: In the past few years, interest in the development of digital PCR (dPCR) as a direct nucleic acid amplification technique for clinical viral diagnostics has grown. The main advantages of dPCR over qPCR include: quantification of nucleic acid concentrations without a calibration curve, comparable sensitivity, superior quantitative precision, greater resistance to perturbations by inhibitors, and increased robustness to the variability of the target sequence. In this review, we address the application of dPCR to viral nucleic acid quantification in clinical applications and for nucleic acid quantification standardization. Further development is required to overcome the current limitations of dPCR in order to realize its widespread use for viral load measurements in clinical diagnostic applications.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Irinotecan is widely used in the treatment of solid tumors, especially in colorectal cancer and lung cancer. Molecular testing for UGT1A1 genotyping is increasingly required in China for optimum irinotecan administration. In order to determine the performance of laboratories with regard to the whole testing process for UGT1A1 to ensure the consistency and accuracy of the test results, the National Center for Clinical Laboratories conducted an external quality assessment program for UGT1A1*28 genotyping in 2015. The panel, which comprised of four known mutational samples and six wild-type samples, was distributed to 45 laboratories that test for the presence of UGT1A1*28 polymorphisms. Participating laboratories were allowed to perform polymorphism analysis by using their routine methods. The accuracy of the genotyping and reporting of results was analyzed. Other information from the individual laboratories, including the number of samples tested each month, accreditation/certification status, and test methodology, was reviewed. Forty-four of the 45 participants reported the correct results for all samples. There was only one genotyping error, with a corresponding analytical sensitivity of 99.44% (179/180 challenges; 95% confidence interval: 96.94-99.99%) and an analytical specificity of 100% (270/270 challenges; 95% confidence interval: 98.64-100%). Both commercial kits and laboratory development tests were commonly used by the laboratories, and pyrosequencing was the main methodology used (n = 26, 57.8%). The style of the written reports showed large variation, and many reports showed a shortage of information. In summary, the first UGT1A1 genotyping external quality assessment result demonstrated that UGT1A1 genotype analysis of good quality was performed in the majority of pharmacogenetic testing centers that were investigated. However, greater education on the reporting of UGT1A1 genetic testing results is needed.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
  • Kuo Zhang · Lunan Wang · Guigao Lin · Jinming Li
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: In the present study, we aimed to determine whether signal-to-cutoff (S/Co) ratios of reactive anti-HCV samples could be used as a basis for avoiding the need for supplemental testing in our study population. Methods: We analyzed 901 anti-HCV-positive sera from 8 institutions in China. The Ortho VITROS anti-HCV assay and Monolisa Plus anti-HCV version 2 were used as screening assays to detect anti-HCV antibodies. Recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) and quantitative tests for HCV RNA were performed to validate confirmed HCV infection status. Results: Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses demonstrated that 41.5% (114/275) of true-positive samples with S/Co ratios ≤3.0 would be missed and the negative predictive value was 63.9 and 87.06%, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RIBA as supplemental testing, respectively. 29.8% (90/302) of those who tested positive by RIBA samples were missed when only RT-PCR was used as supplemental testing. Conclusions: We determined that very low anti-HCV levels (S/Co ≤3.0), as determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay, was not an appropriate marker to preclude the need for supplemental testing in our study population. A screening strategy employing a secondary HCV antibody assay using different HCV antigens from the first assay as the supplemental testing method should be studied further. The immunoblot assay, as a supplemental testing method, is still necessary.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Intervirology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is one of the most widely used tumor markers worldwide. CEA immunoassays often yield different results. The objective of the present study was to investigate the current state of harmonization among CEA tests. Methods: A total of 94 individual serum samples were divided into 3 subsets and measured in triplicate using 4 assays, Abbott Architect i2000SR, Beckman Access DXI800, Roche Cobas e601, and Siemens Advia Centaur XP. The standards from each manufacturer and the 1st International Reference Preparation (IRP) 73/601 of the World Health Organization were measured as unknowns in parallel with the patient samples using the 4 assays. The results of an external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for CEA were also analyzed. Results: A perfect correlation was not observed between any 2 assays, and the values obtained using the 4 assays were different for the detection of 94 individual patient serum samples. No consistency was detected in the CEA results evaluated by various assays for EQA samples, individual patient samples, the standards from each manufacturer, and the WHO IRP 73/601. Conclusions: Harmonization of the CEA results obtained using the 4 immunoassays has not yet been achieved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In May 2015, an imported case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection occurred in China, so rapid and reliable diagnosis of suspected cases was necessary. Objectives: An external quality assessment (EQA) program for the molecular detection of MERS-CoV was organized by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories (NCCL). Study design: MS2 virus-like particles (VLPs) encapsulating specific RNA sequences of MERS-CoV were prepared as positive specimens. The assessment panel, which comprised of three negative and seven positive samples with different concentrations of VLPs, was distributed to 56 laboratories from 16 provinces, municipalities, or autonomous regions for molecular detection. Results: Among the received data sets, three employed an in-house-developed real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay and the others applied various commercial rRT-PCR kits. Overall, the majority of laboratories (46/56, 82.1%) could achieve 100% accuracy for MERS-CoV detection, but three laboratories (5.4%) still had room for improvement. Consequently, all negative samples were identified correctly, reaching 100% specificity. The false-negative rate was 3.1%, and most of the false-negative results were obtained from samples with relatively low concentration, indicating an urgent need to improve detection in weak-positive specimens. Conclusions: The majority of participants possessed reliable diagnostic capacity for the detection of MERS-CoV. Moreover, EQA is indispensable because it can help enhance the diagnostic capability for the surveillance of MERS-CoV infections and allow comparison of the results among different laboratories.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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    Guigao Lin · Kuo Zhang · Jinming Li
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    ABSTRACT: More than 240 million people around the world are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Nucleos(t)ide analogs and interferon are the only two families of drugs to treat HBV currently. However, none of these anti-virals directly target the stable nuclear covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), which acts as a transcription template for viral mRNA and pre-genomic RNA synthesis and secures virus persistence. Thus, the fact that only a small number of patients treated achieve sustained viral response (SVR) or cure, highlights the need for new therapies against HBV. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 gene editing system can specifically target the conserved regions of the HBV genome. This results in robust viral suppression and provides a promising tool for eradicating the virus. In this review, we discuss the function and application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system as a novel therapy for HBV.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Viral nucleic acids are unstable when improperly collected, handled, and stored, resulting in decreased sensitivity of currently available commercial quantitative nucleic acid testing kits. Using known unstable hepatitis C virus RNA, we developed a real-time quantitative RT-PCR method based on a new primer design strategy to reduce the impact of nucleic acid instability on nucleic acid testing. The performance of the method was evaluated for linearity, limit of detection, precision, specificity, and agreement with commercial hepatitis C virus assays. Its clinical application was compared to that of two commercial kits-Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP/CTM) and Kehua. The real-time quantitative RT-PCR method delivered a good performance, with a linearity of R(2) = 0.99, a total limit of detection (genotypes 1 to 6) of 42.6 IU/mL (32.84 to 67.76 IU/mL), a CV of 1.06% to 3.34%, a specificity of 100%, and a high concordance with the CAP/CTM assay (R(2) = 0.97), with a means ± SD value of -0.06 ± 1.96 log IU/mL (-0.38 to 0.25 log IU/mL). The method was superior to commercial assays in detecting unstable hepatitis C virus RNA (P < 0.05). This real-time quantitative RT-PCR method can effectively eliminate the influence of RNA instability on nucleic acid testing. The principle of primer design strategy may be applied to the detection of other RNA or DNA viruses.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD
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    ABSTRACT: Several Chinese commercial real-time PCR kits for Zaire ebolavirus have been developed after the Ebola outbreak and used by Chinese medical teams in West Africa. In order to know the essential performance indicators of these kits, analytical sensitivity and precision were evaluated with virus-like particle (VLP)-encapsulated EBOV RNA. The limit of detection (LOD) and the precision were completed with a series of VLPs. The maximum and minimum of LOD was acquired by ZJ BioTech and Daan gene, respectively. For precision, all of the detection results were <5% except the maximum 5.17%. Among them, Puruikang, Daan gene, Sansure, ZJ BioTech, and Huada demonstrated superior reproducibility. Overall, the requirements of LOD <1000 copies/mL and coefficient of variation <5% could be satisfied by all kits except Kehua. Meanwhile, it is feasible for VLPs as a substitute of positive samples in assay evaluation.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, nucleic acid tests for detection of measles virus RNA have been widely applied in laboratories belonging to the measles surveillance system of China. An external quality assessment program was established by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories to evaluate the performance of nucleic acid tests for measles virus. The external quality assessment panel, which consisted of 10 specimens, was prepared using armored RNAs, complex of noninfectious MS2 bacteriophage coat proteins encapsulated RNA of measles virus, as measles virus surrogate controls. Conserved sequences amplified from a circulating measles virus strain or from a vaccine strain were encapsulated into these armored RNAs. Forty-one participating laboratories from 15 provinces, municipalities, or autonomous regions that currently conduct molecular detection of measles virus enrolled in the external quality assessment program, including 40 measles surveillance system laboratories and one diagnostic reagent manufacturer. Forty laboratories used commercial reverse transcription-quantitative PCR kits, with only one laboratory applying a conventional PCR method developed in-house. The results indicated that most of the participants (38/41, 92.7%) were able to accurately detect the panel with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Although a wide range of commercially available kits for nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used by the participants, only two false-negative results and one false-positive result were generated; these were generated by three separate laboratories. Both false-negative results were obtained with tests performed on specimens with the lowest concentration (1.2 × 104 genomic equivalents/mL). In addition, all 18 participants from Beijing achieved 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Overall, we conclude that the majority of the laboratories evaluated have reliable diagnostic capacities for the detection of measles virus.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Laboratories are increasingly requested to perform CYP2C19 genetic testing when managing clopidogrel therapy, especially in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. To ensure high quality molecular testing and ascertain that the referring clinician has the correct information for CYP2C19 genotype-directed antiplatelet therapy, a proficiency testing scheme was set up to evaluate the laboratory performance for the entire testing process. Proficiency panels of 10 cell samples encompassing the common CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms were distributed to 62 participating laboratories for routine molecular testing and the responses were analyzed for accuracy of genotyping and the reporting of results. Data including the number of samples tested, the accreditation/certification status, and test methodology of each individual laboratory were also reviewed. Fifty-seven of the 62 participants correctly identified the CYP2C19 variants in all samples. There were six genotyping errors, with a corresponding analytical sensitivity of 98.5% (333/338 challenges; 95% confidence interval: 96.5-99.5%) and an analytic specificity of 99.6% (281/282; 95% confidence interval: 98.0-99.9%). Reports of the CYP2C19 genotyping results often lacked essential information. In conclusion, clinical laboratories demonstrated good analytical sensitivity and specificity; however, the pharmacogenetic testing community requires additional education regarding the correct reporting of CYP2C19 genetic test results.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: In 2014, Ebola hemorrhagic fever broke out in West Africa. As contact between China and West Africa is frequent, the possibility that Ebola virus would enter China was high. Thus, an external assessment of the quality of Ebola virus detection was organized by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories in China. Virus-like particles encapsulating known sequences of epidemic strains of Ebola virus from 2014 were prepared as positive quality controls. The sample panel, which was composed of seven positive and three negative samples, was dispatched to 19 laboratories participating in this assessment of Ebola virus detection. Accurate detection was reported at 14 of the 19 participating laboratories, with a sensitivity of 91.43% and a specificity of 100%. Four participants (21.05%) reported false-negative results and were classified as "acceptable." One participant (5.26%) did not detect any positive samples and was thus classified as "improvable." Based on the results returned, the ability to detect weakly positive Ebola specimens should be improved. Furthermore, commercial assays and the standard primers offered by the Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were found to be most accurate and dependable for Ebola detection. A two-target detection approach is recommended for Ebola screening; this approach could reduce the probability of false-negative results. Additionally, standardization of operations and punctual adjustment of instruments are necessary for the control and prevention of Ebola virus.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: This multicenter study was performed to evaluate the efficiency of a multiplex individual-donation nucleic acid amplification technology (ID-NAT) and discriminatory testing algorithm for detecting hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Chinese blood donors. A total of 1,205,796 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-nonreactive donations from 10 blood centers were tested by ID-NAT using the Ultrio assay. Multiplex Ultrio-reactive donations were tested in the discriminatory tests as well as in quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in supplemental electrochemiluminescence immunoassays for HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), hepatitis B e antigen, and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Meanwhile, a control group of 4317 Ultrio-nonreactive donations was tested for anti-HBc and anti-HBs. Of all donations, 2033 (0.17%) were reactive in the multiplex Ultrio assay. Among 1776 further tested samples, 548 (30.9%) were HBV discriminatory assay (dHBV)-reactive, while 1214 (68.4%) were nonreactive. Of 472 Ultrio+ and dHBV+ samples 86.2% were qPCR positive compared to 15.0% in 1046 Ultrio+ and dHBV- samples. The proportion of anti-HBc+ and anti-HBs- (potentially infectious) donations was higher in 409 Ultrio+ and dHBV+ than in 1028 Ultrio+ and dHBV- samples (51.3% vs. 31.1%, p < 0.001). The yield rate of Ultrio+, dHBV+, and qPCR+ donations was estimated at 1 in 2500, but at 1 in 1100 when all supplemental tests were taken into account assuming that 44% of detected donations by Ultrio were false reactive. A quarter of HBsAg-negative Ultrio+ and dHBV- donations in China are likely given by potentially infectious low-viral-load occult carriers. Although this has no implication for blood safety, the testing algorithm needs to be redesigned to more efficiently discriminate between true and false NAT reactivity. © 2015 AABB.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Transfusion
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Toxoplasmosis is typically diagnosed by serologic testing. External quality assessment (EQA) of clinical laboratories could ensure the accuracy and reliability of serological tests. We assessed the quality of toxoplasma serological assays in Chinese clinical laboratories by an EQA performed between 2004 and 2013 by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories. Methodology and findings: EQA panels were prepared and shipped at room temperature to participating laboratories that employed toxoplasma IgG and IgM serological detection. By 2013, 5,384 EQA test reports for toxoplasma-specific IgM and 2,666 reports for toxoplasma-specific IgG were collected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and chemical immunofluorescent assays were the most commonly used detection methods. The overall coincidence rates of negative samples were better than those of positive samples. The overall EQA score for toxoplasma-specific IgM detection ranged between 84.3% and 99.6%. The ratio of laboratories that achieved correct IgG detection ranged from 61.1% to 99.3%. However, the inter- and intra-assay variabilities were found to be considerable. The most common problem was failure to detect low titers of antibody. Conclusion: The EQA scheme showed an improvement in toxoplasma serological testing in China. However, further optimization of assay sensitivity to detect challenging samples remains a future challenge.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · PLoS ONE

  • No preview · Article · May 2015 · Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: With the rapid development of molecular diagnostic techniques, there is a growing need for quality controls and standards with favorable properties to monitor the entire detection process. In this study, we describe a novel method to produce armored hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA for use in nucleic acid tests, which was confirmed to be stable, homogeneous, noninfectious, nuclease resistant, and safe for shipping. We demonstrated that MS2 bacteriophage could successfully package double-stranded DNA of 1.3-, 3-, 3.5-, and 6.5-kb length into viral capsids with high reassembly efficiency. This is the first application of RNA bacteriophage MS2 as a platform to encapsulate double-stranded DNA, forming virus-like particles (VLPs) which were indistinguishable from native MS2 capsids in size and morphology. Moreover, by analyzing the interaction mechanism of pac site and the MS2 coat protein (CP), we found that in addition to the recognized initiation signal TR-RNA, TR-DNA can also trigger spontaneous reassembly of CP dimers, providing a more convenient and feasible method of assembly. In conclusion, this straightforward and reliable manufacturing approach makes armored DNA an ideal control and standard for use in clinical laboratory tests and diagnostics, possessing prospects for broad application, especially providing a new platform for the production of quality controls for DNA viruses.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we developed a novel microRNA (miRNA) delivery system based on bacteriophage MS2 virus-like particles (MS2 VLPs). In this current study, we used this system to transport miR-146a into human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and demonstrated the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis in precursors. Two cytokines, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) were used to induce osteoclastogenesis. MS2 VLPs were transfected into PBMCs. qRT-PCR was applied to measure expression levels of miR-146a and osteoclast (OC)-specific genes. Western blot (WB) was conducted to evaluate miR-146a downstream target proteins: epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). The formation and activity of OCs were assessed by cytochemical staining and bone resorption assay, respectively. In PBMCs treated with MS2-miR146a VLPs, qRT-PCR assays showed increased expression of miR-146a (p < 0.01) and decreased expression of all four OC-specific genes (p < 0.05). WB results indicated decreased expression of EGFR (p < 0.01) and TRAF6 (p < 0.05). The number of OCs decreased markedly and bone resorption assay demonstrated inhibited activity. This miR-146a delivery system could be applied to induce overexpression of miR-146a and to inhibit the differentiation and function of OCs.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
  • Kuo Zhang · Lunan Wang · Jinming Li

    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Clinical laboratory
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    ABSTRACT: Warfarin is the most commonly used oral anticoagulant in clinical practice. The cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) genotypes have been confirmed to be associated with warfarin dose requirements. Accurate genotyping results are of particular importance for the obtaining of reliable genotype-guided warfarin dosing information. This study aims to determine analytic performance of laboratories offering CYP2C9 and VKORC1 testing in China. A proficiency panel of 15 validated cell samples covering common CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphisms was provided to 31 participating laboratories and their genotyping results were evaluated. Fourteen data sets (45.2%) performed well with the entire panel of samples, and 17 data sets (54.8%) reported at least one genotyping error. For VKORC1 (-1639G>A), participating laboratories were 100% successful in detecting genotypes of GG, GA and AA. For CYP2C9, participants were greater than 90% successful in detecting genotypes of *1/*1, *1/*2, *1/*3, *2/*3, and *3/*3. However, 15 laboratories failed to detect rarely encountered variant genotype *2/*2. The poor performance of CYP2C9 genotyping may be due to the limitation of methodologies used for detecting CYP2C9*2 allele. The proficiency testing (PT) survey highlighted the need for improving genotyping accuracy for some laboratories in this field.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Background This study aimed at analyzing the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)–negative donations by cobas TaqScreen MPX test (Roche Molecular Systems) and discussing the meaning of a reactive minipool (MP) that does not resolve to an individual donation (ID)–reactive result.Study Design and Methods Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) was performed in 12 Chinese blood centers on 826,044 serologic negative donations in MPs of six. MP-reactive pools that were resolved to ID-reactive donations were confirmed by Roche TaqMan viral load assays. Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) results were also analyzed. Cycle threshold (Ct) values of reactive MPs were analyzed in relation to the probability of pool resolution.ResultsA total of 1267 of 137,674 pools were reactive, of which 839 donations were reactive by ID-NAT. The MP6 HBV NAT–yield rate lay between 1 in 1600 and 1 in 1000. At MP Ct values equal or below 37, the probability of pool resolution was approximately 80%. The prevalence of anti-HBc in ID-reactive donations was 81%. The proportion of reactive pools that could not be resolved was 36%. The prevalence of anti-HBc in donations implicated in nonresolved MPs was significantly higher than those in nonreactive MPs (48% vs. 37%, p = 0.016).Conclusion The anti-HBc data suggest that approximately 10% of nonresolved MPs contain HBV DNA from a low-viral-load occult carrier. We consider ID-NAT resolution testing in duplicate to minimize HBV transmission risk associated with transfusing nonreactive donations implicated in reactive MPs.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Transfusion
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    ABSTRACT: Background The participation of laboratories in external quality assessment (EQA) programs is required for the quality assurance of nucleic acid amplification of Chlamydia trachomatis. This study aimed to construct a new quality control (QC) material applicated in EQA of C. trachomatis PCR. Methods A QC material-HTB-SiHa cells transfected with a recombinant plasmid containing the cryptic plasmid sequence-was constructed for C. trachomatis PCR detection, and four different panels, each consisting of 4 positive samples with serial dilution of the constructed QC material and 1 negative sample, were distributed by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories among four groups of 275, 268, 317, and 304 participants across China from 2011 through 2012. A total of eight commercial kits were used for C. trachomatis PCR detection in participants. Results Nine laboratories reported false-positive results (0.9%). As the series dilution increased, the correct reporting of the data sets decreased; the lowest correct rate was 96.3% in the weakest positive samples (104 copies/mL). Eight laboratories reported false-positive results, and 42 laboratories reported false-negative results in the EQA detection of C. trachomatis. No significant differences were observed in the detection of the constructed C. trachomatis positive samples (97.9%, 98.5%, 100%, 98.5%; P=0.36) and negative samples (100%, 99.0%, 100%, 99.0%; P=0.764) using four commercial kits commonly used in China. Conclusions The results of the EQA study indicated that the constructed material provides a noninfectious, stable control material with sufficient volume for PCR detection of C. trachomatis.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Annals of Laboratory Medicine

Publication Stats

202 Citations
124.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010-2015
    • Beijing Hospital
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2008-2015
    • Peking Union Medical College Hospital
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2013-2014
    • Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • National Health and Family Planning Commission for the PRC
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2009-2014
    • Government of the People's Republic of China
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2011
    • University of Colorado
      • College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
      Denver, Colorado, United States