[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context:Mechanisms of thyroid physiology and cancer are principally studied in follicular cell lines. However, human thyroid-cancer lines were found to be heavily contaminated by other sources and only one supposedly normal-thyroid cell line, immortalized with SV40 antigen, is available. In primary culture, human follicular cultures lose their phenotype after passage. We hypothesized that loss of thyroid phenotype could be related to culture conditions in which human cells are grown in medium optimized for rodent culture (5H), including hormones with marked differences in affinity for the relevant rodent/human receptor.Objective:To define conditions which allows proliferation of primary human follicular thyrocytes for many passages without losing phenotype.Methods:Concentrations of hormones, transferrin, iodine, oligoelements, antioxidants, metabolites and ethanol were adjusted within normal homeostatic human serum ranges. Single cultures were identified by STRs. Human-rodent inter-species contamination was assessed.Results:We defined an 'h7H medium' enabling growth of human thyroid cultures for more than twenty passages maintaining thyrocyte phenotype. Thyrocytes proliferated and grouped as follicle-like structures (FLS); expressed Na+/I- symporter, pendrin, cytokeratins, thyroglobulin and thyroperoxidase, showed iodine-uptake and secreted thyroglobulin and FT3. Using these conditions, we generated a Bank of Thyroid Tumors in Culture (BANTTIC) from normal thyroids, Grave's hyperplasias, benign neoplasms (goiter, adenomas) and carcinomas.Conclusions:Using appropriate culture conditions is essential for phenotype maintenance in human thyrocytes. The BANTTIC generated under humanized h7H culture conditions will provide a much needed tool to compare similarly growing cells from normal versus pathological origins, and thus to elucidate molecular basis of thyroid disease.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Embryonic, adult, artificially reprogrammed, and cancer…- there are various types of cells associated with stemness. Do they have something fundamental in common? Are we applying a common name to very different entities? In this review, we will revisit the characteristics that define 'pluripotency', the main property of stem cells (SCs). For each main type of physiological (embryonic and adult) or synthetic (induced pluripotent) SCs, markers and functional behavior in vitro and in vivo will be described. We will review the pioneering work that has led to obtaining human SC lines, together with the problems that have arisen, both in a biological context (DNA alterations, heterogeneity, tumors, and immunogenicity) and with regard to ethical concerns. Such problems have led to proposals for new operative procedures for growing human SCs of sufficiently high quality for use as models of disease and in human therapy. Finally, we will review the data from the first clinical trials to use various types of SCs.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The stomach secretes a wide range of peptides with essential metabolic functions, and thereby plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Disulfide isomerase glucose-regulated protein 58 (GRp58) is a molecular chaperone member of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathway, which is a marker for human gastric cancer. Since GRp58 seems to be regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pattern shift, we used the 2DE gel methodology and peptide mass fingerprinting-protein identification by means of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We show that gastric mucosa GRp58 is dephosphorylated by fasting, and this effect is blunted when fasted rats are treated with leptin. Furthermore, we assessed the gene expression of GRp58 under different physiological settings known to be associated with energy homeostasis (fasting, leptin treatment and leptin deficiency). We found that intraperitoneal administration of leptin increases whereas leptin deficiency decreases GRp58 mRNA levels. However, GRp58 expression remains unchanged after fasting, indicating that leptin actions on GRp58 are no direct sensitivity to fasting. Dissection of the molecular pathways mediating the interactions between ER stress-related factors and nutrient availability, as well as their target genes, may open a new avenue for the study of obesity and other metabolic disorders.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · International Journal of Peptides
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our main objective was to search for mutations in candidate genes and for paired box gene 8-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PAX8-PPARgamma) rearrangement in a well-differentiated angioinvasive follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) causing hyperthyroidism. DNA and RNA were extracted from the patient's thyroid tumor, as well as 'normal' thyroid tissue, and from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of the patient, her daughter, and two siblings. Nuclear isolation was extracted from the patient's tumor, 'normal' thyroid tissue, PBLs, and uterine leiomyoma tissue. TSH receptor (TSHR), RAS, and BRAF genes were sequenced. We searched for PAX8-PPARgamma in thyroid, PBL, and uterine leiomyoma samples from the patient and family members. Proliferative effects of detected mutants on non-transformed human thyrocytes cultures. An activating TSHR mutation, M453T, was detected in the tumor. PAX8 (exons 1-8+10)-PPARgamma was found in all tested patient's tissues. A second rearrangement, PAX8 (exons 1-8)-PPARgamma, was detected in the patient's normal thyroid tissue. Under deprived medium condition, co-transfection of PAX8-PPARgamma and TSHR-M453T dramatically increased the number of thyrocytes, an effect that it was not observed with TSHR wild-type (WT); under complete medium conditions, co-transfection of PAX8-PPARgamma with either TSHR-M453T or TSHR-WT inhibited cell proliferation. We report a patient with hyperthyroidism due to a FTC bearing an activating TSHR mutation and PAX8-PPARgamma rearrangements. PAX8-PPARgamma was present as a mosaicism affecting tissues from endodermal and mesodermal origin. PAX8-PPARgamma and TSHR-M453T inhibited or promoted thyrocyte proliferation depending on medium conditions. The activating TSHR mutation could promote in vivo FTC development in PAX8-PPARgamma-positive thyrocytes under poor blood supply with deprivation of growth factors but restraint the tumor growth when growth factors are supplied.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Endocrine Related Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The RET receptor is a tyrosine kinase receptor implicated in kidney and neural development. In the adenopituitary RET and the co-receptor GFRa1 are expressed exclusively in the somatotrophs secreting GH. RET is implicated in a clever pathway to maintain at physiological levels the number of somatotrophs and the GH production. Thus, in absence of its ligand GDNF, RET induces apoptosis through massive expression of Pit-1 leading to p53 accumulation. In the presence of the ligand GDNF, RET activates its tyrosine kinase and promotes survival at the expense of reducing Pit-1 expression and downregulating GH. Recent data suggest that RET can also have a second role in pituitary plasticity through a second co-receptor GFRa2.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Frontiers of hormone research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, it has been shown that commercial human thyroid lines were in fact derived from colon, mammary carcinoma, or melanoma. Others have demonstrated the absence of a common pattern of gene expression between available thyroid cancer cell lines and tumors from patients. Thus, it is important to use several primary cells with a common pathological origin to achieve reproducible results, and it is necessary to find common methods for manipulation of protein expression in such various cultures. We have standardized a transfection method for efficient expression of exogenous proteins in human primary thyroid cultures. We compared lipid-based techniques with three electroporation systems (Electroporator PulseAgile [PA]-4000, Microporator MP-100, and Nucleofector II). Nucleofection was unquestionably the most efficient even for promoter regulation studies, and it was effective in cultures from different origins as normal thyroid, papillary carcinoma, or lymphoid node metastasis. We also standardized, through lentiviral infection, the short hairpin RNA downregulation of protein expression generating human thyrocytes with low levels of p27KIP1 as a model system.
No preview · Article · May 2010 · Analytical Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) is a recently discovered adipocytokine mainly secreted from visceral adipose tissue, which plays a main role in insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have investigated the regulation of vaspin gene expression in rat white adipose tissue (WAT) in different physiological (nutritional status, pregnancy, age and gender) and pathophysiological (gonadectomy, thyroid status and growth hormone deficiency) settings known to be associated with energy homeostasis and alterations in insulin sensitivity. We have determined vaspin gene expression by real-time PCR. Vaspin was decreased after fasting and its levels were partially recovered after leptin treatment. Chronic treatment with metformin increased vaspin gene expression. Vaspin mRNA expression reached the highest peak at 45 days in both sexes after birth and its expression was higher in females than males, but its levels did not change throughout pregnancy. Finally, decreased levels of growth hormone and thyroid hormones suppressed vaspin expression. These findings suggest that WAT vaspin mRNA expression is regulated by nutritional status, and leptin seems to be the nutrient signal responsible for those changes. Vaspin is influenced by age and gender, and its expression is increased after treatment with insulin sensitizers. Finally, alterations in pituitary functions modify vaspin levels. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating vaspin will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · The Journal of Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide W (NPW) is a recently identified neuropeptide that binds to G-protein-coupled receptor 7 (GPR7) and 8 (GPR8). In rodent brain, NPW mRNA is confined to specific nuclei in hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem. Expression of NPW mRNA has also been confirmed in peripheral organs such as stomach. Several reports suggested that brain NPW is implicated in the regulation of energy and hormonal homeostasis, namely the adrenal and thyroid axes; however the precise physiological role and regulation of peripheral NPW remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of nutritional status on the regulation of NPW in stomach mucosa. Our results show that in this tissue, NPW mRNA and protein expression is negatively regulated by fasting and food restriction, in all the models we studied: males, females and pregnant females. Next, we examined the effect of glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones on NPW mRNA expression in the stomach mucosa. Our data showed that NPW expression is decreased in this tissue after glucocorticoid treatment or hyperthyroidism. Conversely, hypothyroidism induces a marked increase in the expression of NPW in rat stomach. Overall, these data indicate that stomach NPW is regulated by nutritional and hormonal status.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Regulatory Peptides
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied two families from Galicia (northwest Spain) with Pendred syndrome (PS) and unusual thyroid phenotypes. In family A, the proposita had a large goiter and hypothyroxinemia but normal TSH and free T3 (FT3). In family B, some affected members showed deafness but not goiter.
Our objective was to identify the mutations causing PS and molecular mechanisms underlying the thyroid phenotypes.
Interventions included extraction of DNA and of thyroid tissue.
Propositi and 10 members of the two families participated in the study.
Main outcome measures included SLC26A4 gene analysis, deiodinase activities in thyroid tissue, and c.416-1G-->A effects on SLC26A4 splicing. In addition, a primary PS thyrocyte culture, T-PS2, was obtained from propositus B and compared with another culture of normal human thyrocytes, NT, by Western blotting, confocal microscopy, and iodine uptake kinetics.
Proposita A was heterozygous for c.578C-->T and c.279delT, presented with goiter, and had normal TSH and FT3 but low FT4 attributable to high type 1 and type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase activities in the goiter. Propositus B bore c.279delT and a novel mutation c.416-1G-->A; some deaf relatives were homozygous for c.416-1G-->A but did not present goiter. The c.279delT mutation was associated with identical haplotype in the two families. T-PS2 showed truncated pendrin retained intracellularly and high iodine uptake with low efflux leading to iodine retention.
c.279delT is a founder mutation in Galicia. Proposita A adapted to poor organification by increasing deiodinase activities in the goiter, avoiding hypothyroidism. Lack of goiter in subjects homozygous for c.416-1G-->A was due to incomplete penetrance allowing synthesis of some wild-type pendrin. Intracellular iodine retention, as seen in T-PS2, could play a role in thyroid alterations in PS.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma is a highly aggressive human cancer with very poor prognosis. Although there have been a few studies of candidate treatments, the fact that it is an infrequent tumor makes it very difficult to design clinical trials. A strong association has been observed between undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma and TP53 mutations in numerous molecular genetic and expression studies. Plitidepsin (Aplidin, PharmaMar, Madrid, Spain) is a novel anticancer compound obtained from a sea tunicate. This compound has been reported to induce apoptosis independently of TP53 status. We investigated the actions of plitidepsin in human thyroid cancer cells. In initial experiments using primary cultured cells from a differentiated (papillary) carcinoma, we found that 100 nmol/L plitidepsin induced apoptosis, whereas lower doses were cytostatic. Because our aim was to study the effects of plitidepsin at clinically relevant concentrations, subsequent experiments were done with a dosage regimen reflecting plasma concentrations observed in previously reported clinical trials: 100 nmol/L for 4 hours, followed by 10 nmol/L for 20 hours (4(100)/20(10) plitidepsin). This plitidepsin dosage regimen blocked the proliferation of a primary undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma culture obtained in our laboratory and of a commercial cell line (8305C) obtained from an undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma; however, it did not induce apoptosis. The proportion of cells in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle was greatly increased and the proportion in the S/G(2)-M phases greatly reduced, suggesting that plitidepsin blocks G(1)-to-S transition. Levels of the cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4/p21 complex proteins were decreased and, in line with this, the levels of unphosphorylated Rb1 increased. The decrease in cell cycle proteins correlated with hypoacetylation of histone H3. Finally, we did experiments to assess how rapidly tumor cells return to their initial pretreatment proliferative behavior after 4(100)/20(10) plitidepsin treatment. Cells from undifferentiated tumors needed more than 3 days to recover logarithmic growth, and after 7 days, cell number was still significantly lower than in control cultures. 4(100)/20(10) plitidepsin inhibited the growth in soft agar. Together, our data show that plitidepsin is able to block in vitro cell cycle progression at concentrations similar to serum concentrations observed in vivo, and that this effect is persistent for several days after plitidepsin removal. Whether plitidepsin will prove to be clinically useful in the treatment of undifferentiated thyroid cancers remains to be established. However, our results raise the possibility that plitidepsin might be effective alone or in combination with radiotherapy and/or other drug treatments.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2005 · Clinical Cancer Research