Sudha Mudumana

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (7)64.23 Total impact

  • Alexandra V Terashima · Sudha P Mudumana · Iain A Drummond
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Early embryo patterning is orchestrated by tightly regulated morphogen gradients. The Nodal morphogen patterns the mesendoderm, giving rise to all endoderm and head and trunk mesoderm. High Nodal concentrations favor endoderm differentiation while lower promote mesoderm differentiation. Nodal signaling is controlled by both positive and negative feedback regulation to ensure robust developmental patterning. Results: Here we identify odd skipped related 1 (osr1), a zinc finger transcription factor, as a new element in Nodal feedback regulation affecting endoderm development. We show that osr1 expression in zebrafish germ ring mesendoderm requires Nodal signaling; osr1 expression was lost in embryos lacking Nodal signaling. Conversely, osr1 expression was ectopically induced by the activation of Nodal signaling. Furthermore we demonstrate that osr1 responds directly to Nodal signaling. Additionally, osr1 knockdown generated excess endoderm cells marked by sox32 expression while expression of osr1 mRNA was not affected in sox32-deficient embryos. Conclusions: Our findings identify osr1 as a Nodal-induced, negative feedback regulator of Nodal signaling that acts at the earliest stages of endoderm differentiation to limit the number of endoderm progenitors. As such, we propose that osr1 represents a novel network motif controlling the output of Nodal signaling to regulate mesendoderm patterning.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Developmental Dynamics
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    ABSTRACT: Odd-skipped related 1 (Osr1) encodes a zinc finger transcription factor required for kidney development. Osr1 deficiency in mice results in metanephric kidney agenesis, whereas knockdown or mutation studies in zebrafish revealed that pronephric nephrons require osr1 for proximal tubule and podocyte development. osr1-deficient pronephric podocyte progenitors express the Wilms' tumor suppressor wt1a but do not undergo glomerular morphogenesis or express the foot process junctional markers nephrin and podocin. The function of osr1 in podocyte differentiation remains unclear, however. Here, we found by double fluorescence in situ hybridization that podocyte progenitors coexpress osr1 and wt1a. Knockdown of wt1a disrupted podocyte differentiation and prevented expression of osr1. Blocking retinoic acid signaling, which regulates wt1a, also prevented osr1 expression in podocyte progenitors. Furthermore, unlike the osr1-deficient proximal tubule phenotype, which can be rescued by manipulation of endoderm development, podocyte differentiation was not affected by altered endoderm development, as assessed by nephrin and podocin expression in double osr1/sox32-deficient embryos. These results suggest a different, possibly cell- autonomous requirement for osr1 in podocyte differentiation downstream of wt1a. Indeed, osr1-deficient embryos did not exhibit podocyte progenitor expression of the transcription factor lhx1a, and forced expression of activated forms of the lhx1a gene product rescued nephrin expression in osr1-deficient podocytes. Our results place osr1 in a framework of transcriptional regulators that control the expression of podocin and nephrin and thereby mediate podocyte differentiation.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: odd-skipped related 2 (osr2) encodes a vertebrate ortholog of the Drosophila odd-skipped zinc-finger transcription factor. Osr2 in mouse is required for proper palate, eyelid, and bone development. Zebrafish knock-down experiments have also suggested a role for osr2, along with its paralog osr1, in early pectoral fin specification and pronephric development. Results: We show here that osr2 has a specific function later in development, independent of osr1, in the regulation of sox9a expression and promoting fin chondrogenesis. mRNA in situ hybridization demonstrated osr2 expression in the developing floorplate and later during organogenesis in the pronephros and gut epithelium. In the pectoral fin buds, osr2 was specifically expressed in fin mesenchyme. osr2 knock down in zebrafish embryos disrupted both three and five zinc finger alternatively spliced osr2 isoforms and eliminated wild-type osr2 mRNA. osr2 morphants exhibited normal pectoral fin bud specification but exhibited defective fin chondrogenesis, with loss of differentiated chondrocytes. Defects in chondrogenesis were paralleled by loss of sox9a as well as subsequent col2a1 expression, linking osr2 function to essential regulators of chondrogenesis. Conclusions: The zebrafish odd-skipped related 2 gene regulates sox9a and col2a1 expression in chondrocyte development and is specifically required for zebrafish fin morphogenesis.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Developmental Dynamics
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in polycystin1 (PKD1) account for the majority of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). PKD1 mutations are also associated with vascular aneurysm and abdominal wall hernia, suggesting a role for polycystin1 in extracellular matrix (ECM) integrity. In zebrafish, combined knockdown of the PKD1 paralogs pkd1a and pkd1b resulted in dorsal axis curvature, hydrocephalus, cartilage and craniofacial defects, and pronephric cyst formation at low frequency (10-15%). Dorsal axis curvature was identical to the axis defects observed in pkd2 knockdown embryos. Combined pkd1a/b, pkd2 knockdown demonstrated that these genes interact in axial morphogenesis. Dorsal axis curvature was linked to notochord collagen overexpression and could be reversed by knockdown of col2a1 mRNA or chemical inhibition of collagen crosslinking. pkd1a/b- and pkd2-deficient embryos exhibited ectopic, persistent expression of multiple collagen mRNAs, suggesting a loss of negative feedback signaling that normally limits collagen gene expression. Knockdown of pkd1a/b also dramatically sensitized embryos to low doses of collagen-crosslinking inhibitors, implicating polycystins directly in the modulation of collagen expression or assembly. Embryos treated with wortmannin or LY-29400 also exhibited dysregulation of col2a1 expression, implicating phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in the negative feedback signaling pathway controlling matrix gene expression. Our results suggest that pkd1a/b and pkd2 interact to regulate ECM secretion or assembly, and that altered matrix integrity may be a primary defect underlying ADPKD tissue pathologies.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Disease Models and Mechanisms
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue organization in epithelial organs is achieved during development by the combined processes of cell differentiation and morphogenetic cell movements. In the kidney, the nephron is the functional organ unit. Each nephron is an epithelial tubule that is subdivided into discrete segments with specific transport functions. Little is known about how nephron segments are defined or how segments acquire their distinctive morphology and cell shape. Using live, in vivo cell imaging of the forming zebrafish pronephric nephron, we found that the migration of fully differentiated epithelial cells accounts for both the final position of nephron segment boundaries and the characteristic convolution of the proximal tubule. Pronephric cells maintain adherens junctions and polarized apical brush border membranes while they migrate collectively. Individual tubule cells exhibit basal membrane protrusions in the direction of movement and appear to establish transient, phosphorylated Focal Adhesion Kinase-positive adhesions to the basement membrane. Cell migration continued in the presence of camptothecin, indicating that cell division does not drive migration. Lengthening of the nephron was, however, accompanied by an increase in tubule cell number, specifically in the most distal, ret1-positive nephron segment. The initiation of cell migration coincided with the onset of fluid flow in the pronephros. Complete blockade of pronephric fluid flow prevented cell migration and proximal nephron convolution. Selective blockade of proximal, filtration-driven fluid flow shifted the position of tubule convolution distally and revealed a role for cilia-driven fluid flow in persistent migration of distal nephron cells. We conclude that nephron morphogenesis is driven by fluid flow-dependent, collective epithelial cell migration within the confines of the tubule basement membrane. Our results establish intimate links between nephron function, fluid flow, and morphogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · PLoS Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The kidney and vasculature are intimately linked both functionally and during development, when nephric and blood/vascular progenitor cells occupy adjacent bands of mesoderm in zebrafish and frog embryos. Developmental mechanisms that underlie the differentiation of kidney versus blood/vascular lineages remain unknown. The odd skipped related1 (osr1) gene encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor that is expressed in the germ ring mesendoderm and subsequently in the endoderm and intermediate mesoderm, prior to the expression of definitive kidney or blood/vascular markers. Knockdown of osr1 in zebrafish embryos resulted in a complete, segment-specific loss of anterior kidney progenitors and a compensatory increase in the number of angioblast cells in the same trunk region. Histology revealed a subsequent absence of kidney tubules, an enlarged cardinal vein and expansion of the posterior venous plexus. Altered kidney versus vascular development correlated with expanded endoderm development in osr1 knockdowns. Combined osr1 loss of function and blockade of endoderm development by knockdown of sox32/casanova rescued anterior kidney development. The results indicate that osr1 activity is required to limit endoderm differentiation from mesendoderm; in the absence of osr1, excess endoderm alters mesoderm differentiation, shifting the balance from kidney towards vascular development.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Development
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    ABSTRACT: Nephrotic syndrome, a malfunction of the kidney glomerular filter, leads to proteinuria, edema and, in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, end-stage kidney disease. Using positional cloning, we identified mutations in the phospholipase C epsilon gene (PLCE1) as causing early-onset nephrotic syndrome with end-stage kidney disease. Kidney histology of affected individuals showed diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS). Using immunofluorescence, we found PLCepsilon1 expression in developing and mature glomerular podocytes and showed that DMS represents an arrest of normal glomerular development. We identified IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 as a new interaction partner of PLCepsilon1. Two siblings with a missense mutation in an exon encoding the PLCepsilon1 catalytic domain showed histology characteristic of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Notably, two other affected individuals responded to therapy, making this the first report of a molecular cause of nephrotic syndrome that may resolve after therapy. These findings, together with the zebrafish model of human nephrotic syndrome generated by plce1 knockdown, open new inroads into pathophysiology and treatment mechanisms of nephrotic syndrome.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · Nature Genetics