[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the long-term treatment of dantrolene on amyloid and tau neuropathology, brain volume, and cognitive function in aged triple transgenic Alzheimer (3xTg-AD) mice. Fifteen-month old 3xTg-AD mice and wild-type controls were treated with oral dantrolene (5 mg/kg) or vehicle control twice a week for 6 months. Learning and memory were examined using the Morris Water Maze at 21 and 22 months of age. After the behavioral testing, hippocampal and cortical brain volumes were calculated with magnetic resonance imaging and motor function was evaluated using the rotorod. The amyloid burden and tau neurofibrillary tangles in the hippocampus were determined using immunohistochemistry. We found that dantrolene significantly decreased the intraneuronal amyloid accumulation by as much as 76% compared with its corresponding vehicle control, together with a trend to reduce phosphorylated tau in the hippocampus. No significant differences could be detected in hippocampal or cortical brain volume, motor function or cognition among all experimental groups, indicating that the mice were still presymptomatic for Alzheimer disease. Thus, presymptomatic and long-term dantrolene treatment significantly decreased the intraneuronal amyloid burden in aged 3xTg-AD mice before significant changes in brain volume, or cognition.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
We hypothesized that preconditioning (PC) with a short exposure to isoflurane (ISO) would reduce neurodegeneration induced by prolonged exposure to ISO in neonatal rats, as previously shown in neuronal cell culture.
We randomly divided 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats into 3 groups: control, 1.5% ISO, and PC + 1.5% ISO. The control group was exposed to carrier gas (30% oxygen balanced in nitrogen) for 30 minutes and then to carrier gas again for 6 hours the following day. The 1.5% ISO group was exposed to carrier gas for 30 minutes and then to 1.5% ISO for 6 hours the following day. The PC + 1.5% ISO group was preconditioned with a 30-minute 1.5% ISO exposure and then exposed to 1.5% ISO for 6 hours the following day. Blood and brain samples were collected 2 hours after the exposures for determination of neurodegenerative biomarkers, including caspase-3, S100β, caspase-12, and an autophagy biomarker Beclin-1.
Prolonged exposure to ISO significantly increased cleaved caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of 7-day-old rats compared with the group preconditioned with ISO and the controls using Western blot assays. However, significant differences were not detected for other markers of neuronal injury.
The ISO-mediated increase in cleaved caspase-3 in the postnatal day 7 rat brain is ameliorated by PC with a brief anesthetic exposure, and differences were not detected in other markers of neuronal injury.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Anesthesia & Analgesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
While previous studies have demonstrated neuronal apoptosis and associated cognitive impairment after isoflurane or propofol exposure in neonatal rodents, the effects of these two anesthetics have not been directly compared. Here, we compare and contrast the effectiveness of isoflurane and propofol to cause neurodegeneration in the developing brain and associated cognitive dysfunction.
Seven-day-old mice were used. Mice in the isoflurane treatment group received 6 h of 1.5% isoflurane, while mice in propofol treatment group received one peritoneal injection (150 mg/kg), which produced persistent anesthesia with loss of righting for at least 6 h. Mice in control groups received carrying gas or a peritoneal injection of vehicle (intralipid). At 6 h after anesthetic treatment, a subset of each group was sacrificed and examined for evidence of neurodegeneration, using plasma levels of S100β, and apoptosis using caspase-3 immunohistochemistry in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and Western blot assays of the cortex. In addition, biomarkers for inflammation (interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) were examined with Western blot analyses of the cortex. In another subset of mice, learning and memory were assessed 32 days after the anesthetic exposures using the Morris water maze.
Isoflurane significantly increased plasma S100β levels compared to controls and propofol. Both isoflurane and propofol significantly increased caspase-3 levels in the cortex and hippocampus, though isoflurane was significantly more potent than propofol. However, there were no significant differences in the inflammatory biomarkers in the cortex or in subsequent learning and memory between the experimental groups.
Both isoflurane and propofol caused significant apoptosis in the mouse developing brain, with isoflurane being more potent. Isoflurane significantly increased levels of the plasma neurodegenerative biomarker, S100β. However, these neurodegenerative effects of isoflurane and propofol in the developing brain were not associated with effects on inflammation or with cognitive dysfunction in later life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Previous studies have demonstrated that isoflurane can provide both neuroprotection and neurotoxicity in various tissue culture models and in rodent developing brains. The cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating these dual effects are not clear, but the exposure level and duration of isoflurane appear to be determinant factors.
Using the ReNcell CX (Millipore, Billerica, MA) human neural progenitor cell line, the authors investigated the impact of prolonged exposure to varying isoflurane concentrations on cell survival and neurogenesis. In addition, the authors assessed the impact of short isoflurane preconditioning on elevation of cytosolic Ca concentration and cytotoxic effects mediated by prolonged isoflurane exposures and the contribution of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate or ryanodine receptor activation to these processes.
Short exposures to low isoflurane concentrations promote proliferation and differentiation of ReNcell CX cells, with no cell damage. However, prolonged exposures to high isoflurane concentrations induced significant ReNcell CX cell damage and inhibited cell proliferation. These prolonged exposures suppressed neuronal cell fate and promoted glial cell fate. Preconditioning of ReNcell CX cultures with short exposures to low concentrations of isoflurane ameliorated the effects of prolonged exposures to isoflurane. Pretreatment of ReNcell cultures with inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate or ryanodine receptor antagonists mostly prevented isoflurane-mediated effects on survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Finally, isoflurane-preconditioned cultures showed significantly less isoflurane-evoked changes in calcium concentration.
The commonly used general anesthetic isoflurane exerts dual effects on neuronal stem cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation, which may be attributed to differential regulation of calcium release through activation of endoplasmic reticulum localized inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate and/or ryanodine receptors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disruption of intracellular calcium homeostasis via abnormal and excessive activation of ryanodine receptors plays an important role in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease. We investigated the therapeutic effect of dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor antagonist, on cognitive dysfunction and neuropathology in the triple transgenic Alzheimer mouse model (3xTg-AD). 3xTg-AD mice were treated with dantrolene from 2 to 13 months of age. Learning and memory were measured with the Morris Water Maze at 6, 10, and 13 months of age. Amyloid and tau neuropathology and biomarkers for synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration were examined in the brain using immunoblotting or immunohistochemistry. Dantrolene treatment for 11 months significantly reduced both memory deficits and amyloid plaque load in the hippocampus in 13-month-old 3xTg-AD mice. Dantrolene treatment, however, had no effect on phosphorylated tau, phosphorylated or total GSK-3β, synaptic markers, or mitochondrial or cytosolic cytochrome C. Our results suggest that dantrolene significantly improves cognition in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease and is associated with a reduction in amyloid plaque burden, forming the basis for a novel therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isoflurane is known to increase β-amyloid aggregation and neuronal damage. We hypothesized that isoflurane will have similar effects on the polyglutamine huntingtin protein and will cause alterations in intracellular calcium homeostasis. We tested this hypothesis in striatal cells from the expanded glutamine huntingtin knock-in mouse (STHdh(Q111/Q111)) and wild type (STHdh(Q7/Q7)) striatal neurons. The primary cultured neurons were exposed for 24h to equipotent concentrations of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane in the presence or absence of extracellular calcium and with or without xestospongin C, a potent endoplasmic reticulum inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) receptor antagonist. Aggregation of huntingtin protein, cell viability, and calcium concentrations were measured. Isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane all increased the aggregation of huntingtin in STHdh(Q111/Q111) cells, with isoflurane having the largest effect. Isoflurane induced greater calcium release from the ER and relatively more cell damage in the STHdh(Q111/Q111) huntingtin cells than in the wild type STHdh(Q7/Q7) striatal cells. However, sevoflurane and desflurane caused less calcium release from the ER and less cell damage. Xestospongin C inhibited the isoflurane-induced calcium release from the ER, aggregation of huntingtin, and cell damage in the STHdh(Q111/Q111) cells. In summary, the Q111 form of huntingtin increases the vulnerability of striatal neurons to isoflurane neurotoxicity through combined actions on the ER IP(3) receptors. Calcium release from the ER contributes to the anesthetic induced huntingtin aggregation in STHdh(Q111/Q111) striatal cells.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that isoflurane has a greater potency to induce neurodegeneration than sevoflurane in the developing brains of neonatal mice based on our previous studies in cell culture.
We treated 7-day-old mice with either 0.75% isoflurane or 1.1% sevoflurane ( approximately 0.5 minimum alveolar concentration) for 6 h and then obtained blood and brain samples at 2 h after the anesthesia treatment for determination of neuroapoptosis in different brain regions and the neurodegenerative biomarker S100beta in the blood. The mechanisms of neurodegeneration induced by isoflurane or sevoflurane were also compared by determining protein expressions of the cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins. In separate groups, memory and learning ability were evaluated through the use of Morris Water Maze testing in mice at postnatal day 42 after anesthesia treatment at postnatal day 7.
Isoflurane but not sevoflurane significantly increased the neurodegenerative biomarker S100beta in the blood. Isoflurane treatments significantly increased apoptosis indicated by the activation of caspase-3 and elevation of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase in different brain regions. An equipotent exposure of sevoflurane tended to increase apoptosis in hippocampal and cortex areas but was significantly less potent than isoflurane. Neither isoflurane nor sevoflurane significantly changed protein levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta-site amyloid beta-precursor protein-cleaving enzyme, and cell cycle regulatory proteins (CDK4, cyclin D1). Isoflurane and sevoflurane at the selected exposures did not significantly alter memory and learning ability.
At equipotent exposures, isoflurane has a greater potency than sevoflurane to cause neurodegeneration in the developing brains of neonatal mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The commonly used general anesthetic isoflurane induces widespread neurodegeneration in the developing mammalian brain through poorly understood mechanisms. We have investigated whether excessive Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum via overactivation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) is a contributing factor in such neurodegeneration in rodent primary cultured neurons and developing rat brain. We also investigated the correlation between isoflurane exposure and cognitive decline in rats at 1 month of age. Our results show that isoflurane increases cytosolic calcium in the primary cortical neurons through release from the endoplasmic reticulum and influx from the extracellular space. Pharmacological inhibition of InsP3R activity and knockdown of its expression nearly abolishes the isoflurane-mediated elevation of the cytosolic calcium concentration and cell death in rodent primary cortical and hippocampal neurons. Inhibition of InsP3R activity by its antagonist xestospongin C significantly inhibits neurodegeneration induced by isoflurane at clinically used concentration in the developing brain of postnatal day 7 rats. Moreover, our results show that isoflurane activates beta-site amyloid beta precursor protein-cleaving enzyme via activation of the InsP3R. We also noted that mice exposed to isoflurane during early postnatal development showed transient memory and learning impairments, which did not correlate well with the noted neuropathological defects. Taken together, our results suggest that Ca2+ dysregulation through overactivation of the InsP3R may be a contributing factor in the mechanism of isoflurane-induced neurodegeneration in rodent neuronal cell culture and during brain development.
Preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the extent of isoflurane-induced neurodegeneration on the fetuses of pregnant rats exposed in utero. Pregnant rats at gestational d 21 were divided into three experimental groups. Rats in the control group spontaneously breathed 100% oxygen for 1 h. Rats in the treatment groups breathed either 1.3 or 3% isoflurane in 100% oxygen through an endotracheal tube, with mechanical ventilation for 1 h. Rat pups were delivered by cesarian section 6 h after treatment, and fetal blood was sampled from the left ventricle of each fetal heart and evaluated for S100beta. Fetal brains were then evaluated for apoptosis, using caspase-3 immunohistochemistry in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and the retrosplenial cortex (RS). The 3% isoflurane treatment group showed significantly higher levels of S100beta levels and significantly increased average densities of total caspase-3-positive cells in the CA1 hippocampus and RS cortex compared with the control and the 1.3% isoflurane groups. There were no differences in S100beta levels or densities of caspase-3-positive cells between the control and 1.3% isoflurane groups. Isoflurane at a concentration of 3% for 1 h increased neurodegeneration in the hippocampal CA1 area and the retrosplenial cortex in the developing brain of fetal rats.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Pediatric Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors hypothesized that inhalational anesthetics induced cell damage by causing abnormal calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum via excessive activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors, with isoflurane having greater potency than sevoflurane or desflurane.
The authors treated DT40 chicken B lymphocytes with total IP3 receptor knockout or their corresponding wild-type control cells with equipotent exposure to isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane. The authors then determined the degree of cell damage by counting the percentage of annexin V- or propidium iodide-positively stained cells or measuring caspase-3 activity. They also studied the changes of calcium concentrations in the endoplasmic reticulum, cytosol, and mitochondria evoked by equipotent concentrations of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane in both types of DT40 cells.
Prolonged use of 2 minimal alveolar concentration sevoflurane or desflurane (24 h) induced significant cell damage only in DT40 wild-type and not in IP3 receptor total knockout cells, but with significantly less potency than isoflurane. In accord, all three inhalational anesthetics induced significant decrease of calcium concentrations in the endoplasmic reticulum, accompanied by a subsequent significant increase in the cytosol and mitochondrial calcium concentrations only in DT40 wild-type and not in IP3 receptor total knockout cells. Isoflurane treatment showed significantly greater potency of effect than sevoflurane or desflurane.
Inhalational anesthetics may induce cell damage by causing abnormal calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum via excessive activation of IP3 receptors. Isoflurane has greater potency than sevoflurane or desflurane to cause calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum and to induce cell damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isoflurane induces cell apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. The authors hypothesized that isoflurane activates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, causing excessive calcium release, triggering apoptosis.
The authors determined isoflurane-induced cytotoxicity by measuring caspase-3 activity, lactate dehydrogenase release, MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) reduction, and imaging analysis of cell damage markers (annexin V and propidium iodide staining) in different cell types. The authors used the chicken B lymphocyte with a total knock-out of IP3 receptors, PC12 cells with elevated IP3 receptor activity (transfected with L286V presenilin 1), striatal cells with a knock-in of Q111 Huntingtin, and each cell line's corresponding wild-type controls. The authors also measured the isoflurane-evoked changes of calcium concentration in cytosol and/or mitochondria in these cells.
Isoflurane induced apoptosis concentration- and time-dependently, and sequentially elevated cytosolic and then mitochondrial calcium in the chicken B-lymphocyte wild-type but not the IP3 receptor total knock-out cells. Thapsigargin, a calcium adenosine triphosphatase inhibitor on ER membranes, induced apoptosis and elevations of calcium in cytosol and mitochondria in both chicken B-lymphocyte wild-type and IP3 receptor total knock-out cells. Isoflurane induced significantly more neurotoxicity and greater calcium release from the ER in L286V PC12 and Q111 Huntingtin striatal cells than in their corresponding wild-type controls, both of which were significantly inhibited by the IP3 receptor antagonist xestospongin C.
These findings suggest that isoflurane activates the ER membrane IP3 receptor, producing excessive calcium release and triggering apoptosis. Neurons with enhanced IP3 receptor activity, as in certain cases of familial Alzheimer or Huntington disease, may be especially vulnerable to isoflurane cytotoxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isoflurane, a commonly used inhaled anesthetic, induces apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma neurosecretory cells (PC12) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner via an as yet unknown mechanism. We hypothesize that isoflurane induces apoptosis by causing abnormal calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors. A presenilin-1 (PS1) mutation associated with familial Alzheimer's disease was shown to increase the activity of IP3 receptors, and therefore may render cells vulnerable to isoflurane-induced cytotoxicity. Sevoflurane and desflurane have less ability to disrupt intracellular calcium homeostasis; and thus we predict they will cause less cytotoxicity.
PC12 cells transfected with wild type, vector alone (Vector) or mutated PS1 (L286V) were treated with equivalent of 1 MAC of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane for 12 h. Mitochondria redox activity (MTT reduction) and lactate dehydrogenase release assays were performed to evaluate cell viability. Changes of calcium concentration in cytosolic space ([Ca2+]c) and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined after exposing different types of cells to various inhaled anesthetics. We also determined the effects of IP3 receptor antagonist xestospongin C on isoflurane-induced cytotoxicity and calcium release from the ER in L286V PC12 cells, and in rat primary cortical neurons.
Isoflurane at 1 MAC for 12 h induced cytotoxicity in L286V but not wild type or vector PC12 cells, and also caused greater and faster increase of peak [Ca2+]c in the L286V cells. Xestospongin C significantly attenuated isoflurane cytotoxicity in both L286V cells and primary cortical neurons and inhibited the calcium release from the ER in L286V cells. Isoflurane did not induce significant changes of ROS production in any type of PC12 cells. Sevoflurane and desflurane at equivalent exposure to isoflurane did not induce similar cytotoxicity or increase of peak [Ca2+]c in L286V PC12 cells.
Our results show that the L286V PS1 mutation augments the isoflurane-induced [Ca2+]c increase via calcium release from intracellular stores which, in turn, renders the cells vulnerable to isoflurane neurotoxicity. ROS production was not involved in isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. Sevoflurane and desflurane, at equivalent exposure to isoflurane, did not induce a similar increase of [Ca2+]c or neurotoxicity in L286V PC12 cells.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Anesthesia and analgesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a maternal fetal rat model, we investigated the behavioral and neurotoxic effects of fetal exposure to isoflurane. Pregnant rats at gestational day 21 were anesthetized with 1.3% isoflurane for 6h. Apoptosis was quantified in the hippocampus and cortex at 2 and 18h after exposure in the fetal brain and in the postnatal day 5 (P5) pup brain. Spatial memory and learning of the fetal exposed pups were examined with the Morris Water Maze at juvenile and adult ages. Rat fetal exposure to isoflurane at pregnancy day 21 through maternal anesthesia significantly decreased spontaneous apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region and in the retrosplenial cortex at 2h after exposure, but not at 18h or at P5. Fetal exposure to isoflurane did not impair subsequent juvenile or adult postnatal spatial reference memory and learning and, in fact, improved spatial memory in the juvenile rat. These results show that isoflurane exposure during late pregnancy is not neurotoxic to the fetal brain and does not impair memory and learning in the juvenile or adult rat.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Neuropharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The commonly used inhaled anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to be both neuroprotective and neurotoxic in various cell cultures and animal models. We hypothesize that, like cerebral ischemia, isoflurane is inherently neurotoxic. Limited exposure of isoflurane provides neuroprotection via induction of endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms (preconditioning), while prolonged exposure of isoflurane induces neurotoxicity directly by its inherent neurotoxic effects. To test this hypothesis, we treated rat primary cortical neurons at different days in vitro (DIV) and rat pheochromocytoma neurosecretory (PC12) cells with or without Alzheimer's mutated presenilin-1 (PS1) with 2.4% isoflurane for 24 h to induce cell damage determined by both MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyithiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) reduction and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) release assays. For isoflurane preconditioning, we treated the above cells with isoflurane at 0.6%, 1.2% and 2.4% for 60 min, 4 h prior to a prolonged exposure of 2.4% isoflurane for 24 h. One hour of preconditioning with isoflurane dose-dependently inhibited neurotoxicity induced by 2.4% isoflurane for 24 h in both primary cortical neurons and PC12 cells. This neuroprotection was most dramatically observed in matured cortical neurons (DIV 16) and PC12 cells with over expression of Alzheimer's mutated PS1 (L286V). Preconditioning L286V PC12 cells with equivalent two minimal alveolar concentrations (MAC) of halothane (1.5%), but not sevoflurane (4%), also abolished the neurotoxicity induced by 2.4% isoflurane for 24 h. Overall, these results suggest that isoflurane may be both neuroprotective and neurotoxic, depending on the exposure concentrations and duration.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Neuroscience Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depletion of calcium from the neuronal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induces apoptosis. Isoflurane depletes calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of muscle, an analogue of ER in neurons, while sevoflurane maintains or increases SR calcium. We hypothesized that isoflurane, but not sevoflurane, induces apoptosis by depleting the ER calcium. Rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and primary cortical neurons were treated with equipotent doses of isoflurane and sevoflurane. Isoflurane, but not sevoflurane, at equipotent doses induced cell damage determined by both LDH release and MTT reduction assays, dose and time dependently, in both types of cells. Isoflurane at 2.4% for 24 h induced cytotoxicity in both cell types, which was characterized by nuclear condensation and fragmentation and activation of caspases 3 and 9. Isoflurane cytotoxicity was suppressed by dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor antagonist that inhibits abnormal calcium release from the ER. Isoflurane decreased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio by as much as 36% (P < 0.05). However, sevoflurane did not cause neuronal damage by apoptosis nor did it decrease the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. These results suggest that isoflurane and sevoflurane differentially affect the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and cell survival. At equipotent concentrations, isoflurane, but not sevoflurane, induces cytotoxicity in both PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons and decreases the Bcl-2/Bax ratio.