[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (CSCC) are a common malignancy of keratinocytes that arise in sites of the skin exposed to excessive UV radiation. In the present study, we show that human SCC cell lines, preneoplastic solar keratoses (SK), and CSCC are associated with perturbations in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and peroxide levels. Specifically, we found that two of three SKs and four of five CSCCs, in vivo, were associated with decreased GPX activity and all SKs and CSCCs were associated with an elevated peroxide burden. Given the association of decreased GPX activity with CSCC, we examined the basis for the GPX deficiency in the CSCCs. Our data indicated that GPX was inactivated by a post-translational mechanism and that GPX could be inactivated by increases in intracellular peroxide levels. We next tested whether the decreased peroxidase activity coupled with an elevated peroxidative burden might contribute to CSCC formation in vivo. This was tested in Gpx1(-/-) and Gpx2(-/-) mice exposed to solar-simulated UV radiation. These studies showed that Gpx2 deficiency predisposed mice to UV-induced CSCC formation. These results suggest that inactivation of GPX2 in human skin may be an early event in UV-induced SCC formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, E2F function has expanded to include the regulation of differentiation in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs). We extend these findings to report that in HEKs, Sp1 is a differentiation-specific activator and a downstream target of E2F-mediated suppression of the differentiation-specific marker, transglutaminase type 1 (TG-1). Deletion of elements between -0.084 to -0.034 kb of the TG-1 promoter disabled E2F1-induced suppression of promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated that Sp1 and Sp3 bound this region. Protein expression analysis suggested that squamous differentiation was accompanied by increased Sp1/Sp3 ratio. Cotransfection of proliferating HEKs or the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line, KJD-1/SV40, with an E2F inhibitor (E2Fd/n) and Sp1 expression plasmid was sufficient to activate the TG-1 promoter. The suppression of Sp1 activity by E2F in differentiated cells appeared to be indirect since we found no evidence of an Sp1/E2F coassociation on the TG-1 promoter fragment. Moreover, E2F inhibition in the presence of a differentiation stimulus induced Sp1 protein. These data demonstrate that (i) Sp1 can act as a differentiation stimulus, (ii) E2F-mediated suppression of differentiation-specific markers is indirect via Sp1 inhibition and (iii) a combination of E2F inhibition and Sp1 activation could form the basis of a differentiation therapy for SCCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inhibition of E2F has been demonstrated to be important in the initiation of squamous differentiation by two independent manners: promotion of growth arrest and the relief of the differentiation-suppressive properties of E2Fs. E2F6 is reported to behave as a transcriptional repressor of the E2F family. In this study, we examined the ability of E2F6 to act as the molecular switch required for E2F inhibition in order for keratinocytes to enter a terminal differentiation programme. Results demonstrated that whilst E2F6 was able to suppress E2F activity in proliferating keratinocytes, it did not modulate squamous differentiation in a differentiated keratinocyte. Furthermore, inhibition of E2F, by overexpressing E2F6, was not sufficient to sensitise either proliferating keratinocytes or the squamous cell carcinoma cell line, KJD-1/SV40, to differentiation-inducing agents. Significantly, although E2F6 could suppress E2F activity in proliferating cells, it could not inhibit proliferation of KJD-1/SV40 cells. These results demonstrate that E2F6 does not contain the domains required for modulation of squamous differentiation and imply isoform-specific functions for individual E2F family members.
No preview · Article · Dec 2004 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The AP-2 transcription factor family is presumed to play an important role in the regulation of the keratinocyte squamous differentiation program; however, limited functional data are available to support this. In the present study, the activity and regulation of AP-2 were examined in differentiating human epidermal keratinocytes. We report that (1) AP-2 transcriptional activity decreases in differentiated keratinocytes but remains unchanged in differentiation-insensitive squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, (2) diminished AP-2 transcriptional activity is associated with a loss of specific DNA-bound AP-2 complexes, and (3) there is an increase in the ability of cytoplasmic extracts, derived from differentiated keratinocytes, to phosphorylate AP-2 alpha and AP-2 beta when cells differentiate. In contrast, extracts from differentiation-insensitive squamous cell carcinoma cells are unable to phosphorylate AP-2 proteins. Finally, the phosphorylation of recombinant AP-2 alpha by cytosolic extracts from differentiated keratinocytes is associated with decreased AP-2 DNA-binding activity. Combined, these data indicate that AP-2 trans-activation and DNA-binding activity decrease as keratinocytes differentiate, and that this decreased activity is associated with an enhanced ability to phosphorylate AP-2 alpha and beta.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the potential role of SMAD7 in human epidermal keratinocyte differentiation. Overexpression of SMAD7 inhibited the activity of the proliferation-specific promoters for the keratin 14 and cdc2 genes and reduced the expression of the mRNA for the proliferation-specific genes cdc2 and E2F1. The ability of SMAD7 to suppress cdc2 promoter activity was lost in transformed keratinocyte cell lines and was mediated by a domain(s) located between aa 195-395 of SMAD7. This domain lies outside the domain required to inhibit TGFbeta1 signaling, suggesting that this activity is mediated by a novel functional domain(s). Examination of AP1, NFkappaB, serum response element, Gli, wnt, and E2F responsive reporters indicated that SMAD7 significantly suppressed the E2F responsive reporter and modestly increased AP1 activity in proliferating keratinocytes. These data suggest that SMAD7 may have a role in TGFbeta-independent signaling events in proliferating/undifferentiated keratinocytes. The effects of SMAD7 in differentiated keratinocytes indicated a more traditional role for SMAD7 as an inhibitor of TGFbeta action. SMAD7 was unable to initiate the expression of differentiation markers but was able to superinduce/derepress differentiation-specific markers and genes in differentiated keratinocytes. This latter role is consistent with the ability of SMAD7 to inhibit TGFbeta-mediated suppression of keratinocyte differentiation and suggest that the opposing actions of SMAD7 and TGFbeta may serve to modulate squamous differentiation.
No preview · Article · May 2004 · Experimental Cell Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E2F regulation is essential for normal cell cycle progression. Therefore, it is not surprising that squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (SCC) overexpress E2F1 and exhibit deregulated E2F activity when compared with normal keratinocytes. Indeed, deliberate E2F1 deregulation has been shown to induce hyperplasia and skin tumor formation. In this study, we report on a dual role for E2F as a mediator of keratinocyte proliferation and modulator of squamous differentiation. Overexpression of E2F isoforms in confluent primary keratinocyte cultures resulted in suppression of differentiation-associated markers. Moreover, we found that the DNA binding domain and the trans-activation domain of E2F1 are important in mediating suppression of differentiation. Use of a dominant/negative form of E2F1 (E2F d/n) found that E2F inhibition alone is sufficient to suppress the activity of proliferation-associated markers but is not capable of inducing differentiation markers. However, if the E2F d/n is expressed in differentiated keratinocytes, differentiation marker activity is further induced, suggesting that E2F may act as a modulator of squamous differentiation. We therefore examined the effects of E2F d/n in a differentiation-insensitive SCC cell line. We found that treatment with the differentiating agent, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), or expression of E2F d/n alone had no effect on differentiation markers. However, a combination of E2F d/n + TPA induced the expression of differentiation markers. Combined, these data indicate that E2F may play a key role in keratinocyte differentiation. These data also illustrate the unique potential of anti-E2F therapies in arresting proliferation and inducing differentiation of SCCs.
No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Journal of Biological Chemistry