[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A procedure based on ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of 22 antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs ad metabolites in the three consecutive maternal hair segments representing the pregnancy trimesters and paired neonatal meconium samples. After hair washing with methyl alcohol and diethyl ether and subsequent addition of internal standards, hair samples were treated with 500μl VMA-T M3 reagent for 1h at 100°C. After cooling, 100μl M3 extract were diluted with 400μl water and a volume of 10μl was injected into chromatographic system. Meconium samples were firstly treated with 1ml methyl alcohol and the organic layer back-extracted twice with 1.5ml of a mixture of ethylacetate:hexane (80:20, v/v). Chromatographic separation was achieved at ambient temperature using a reverse-phase column and a linear gradient elution with two solvents: 0.3% formic acid in acetonitrile and 5mM ammonium formate pH 3. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive ion mode, using multiple reaction monitoring via positive electrospray ionization. The method was linear from the limit of quantification (0.05-1ng/mg hair and 5-25ng/g meconium depending on analyte under investigation;) to 10ng/mg hair and 1000ng/g meconium, with an intra- and inter-assay imprecision and inaccuracy always less than 20% and an analytical recovery between 66.6% and 95.3%, depending on the considered analyte and biological matrix. Using the validated method, 7 mothers were found positive to one or more hair segments and 5 meconium samples were found positive to one or more antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs, assessing prenatal exposure to these drugs following maternal consumption in one or more pregnancy trimesters.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Studies investigating whether smoking increases or decreases during economic downturn provided contrasting results. For the first time, we used direct questions to analyse changes in smoking behaviour due to the 2008 financial crisis, comparing socio-economic characteristics of smokers who changed with those who kept their smoking intensity. Study design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods: We used data from three annual surveys conducted in Italy in 2012-2014 on representative samples of the Italian general population aged ≥15 years. Results: A total of 1919 current smokers were asked specific questions on the influence of the economic crisis that started in 2008 on their smoking behaviour. Overall, 77.4% of 1919 current smokers reported not to have changed their smoking behaviour, 19.1% to have reduced, and 3.5% to have increased their smoking intensity as a consequence of the economic crisis. The reduction in cigarette smoking increased with age: compared to the respondents aged <25 years, the multivariate odds ratio (OR) for those aged 25-44, 45-64 and ≥65 years were 0.65, 0.46 and 0.33, respectively (P for trend<0.001). Reduction was significantly lower among intermediate (OR = 0.68 compared to low) and high education levels (OR = 0.28; P for trend<0.001). A significant inverse trend for increasing consumption was observed with age (P = 0.022), education (P = 0.003) and family income (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The large majority of current smokers did not change their smoking habit following the economic crisis. However, there are specific vulnerable subgroups of smokers, constituted by the young and subjects with low socio-economic status, that were reactive to the global economic crisis. These groups are more prone to change their smoking behaviours, either for better or -, in a smaller proportion -, for worse.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
In Italy, sales data show a dramatic fall in alcohol consumption between 1970 and 2010. The aim of our study is to provide updated information on trends, prevalence and determinants of alcohol drinking in Italy, using individual-level data.
Seven nationally representative cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Italy between 2006 and 2014, on a total sample of 21,416 participants aged ≥15 years, with available information on weekly consumption of wine, beer and spirits.
Per capita alcohol consumption decreased by 23% between 2006 and 2014 (from 5.6 to 4.4 drinks/week), due to the fall in wine drinking. Overall, the prevalence of alcohol drinkers was 61.6%. Individuals predominantly drinking wine were 35.3%, beer 11.1% and spirits 6.4%. A direct trend of drinking with age was observed for total alcohol (multivariate odds ratio, OR = 1.75 for ≥65 vs. 15-24 years) and predominant wine drinking (OR = 8.05), while an inverse trend was observed for beer (OR = 0.17) and spirit drinkers (OR = 0.33). Women (OR = 0.24), obese individuals (OR = 0.67) and those from southern Italy (OR = 0.63) were less frequently, while those with high education (OR = 1.97), ex- (OR = 1.46) and current smokers (OR = 2.17) were more frequently alcohol drinkers.
On the basis of individual-level data we confirm and further update to 2014 the decreasing trend in alcohol consumption in Italy over the last few decades, mainly due to the fall in wine consumption. This may be due to anti-alcohol policies, programs and campaigns adopted and developed over the last decade. It also reflects socio-cultural changes in drinking, particularly in younger generations.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Alcohol and Alcoholism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
This study aimed to test the effectiveness of single-session motivational intervention to stop ethanol use during pregnancy using segmental hair analysis of ethyl glucuronide to objectively verify drinking behavior before and after intervention.
168 pregnant women attending Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain) for antenatal visit were included in the study and randomly assigned to one of two conditions: single-session motivational intervention (MI; N=83) or single-session educational control condition (ECC; N=85). Ethyl glucuronide was measured in maternal hair divided into three segments of 3cm each corresponding to the three different gestation trimesters by a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Concentrations of EtG<7pg/mg, between 7 and 30pg/mg and ≥30pg/mg in each segment were used to assess total abstinence, repetitive moderate drinking and chronic excessive consumption in the previous three months.
About a third of pregnant women self-reporting no ethanol consumption during gestation showed hair EtG values corresponding to ethanol drinking. Single-session MI helped in decreasing alcohol consumption during pregnancy as assessed by lower hair EtG concentrations in 2nd and 3rd trimesters. However, it did not significantly increase complete abstinence in pregnant women who previously showed hair EtG compatible with ethanol consumption.
Pregnant women did not correctly self reported ethanol consumption during gestation, while hair EtG was essential to correctly identify drinking patterns. Single-session MI was not enough to stop ethanol use during pregnancy. Interventions at any visit during pregnancy are strongly recommended.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Drug and alcohol dependence
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
In recent years, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium emerged as reliable, direct biological markers for establishing gestational ethanol exposure. We investigated whether EtG in maternal hair measured during the three trimesters of pregnancy correlated with EtG and FAEEs in neonatal meconium.
In a prospective sample of 80 mother-infant dyads from Barcelona (Spain), we measured EtG and FAEE in maternal hair segments and meconium samples using a validated UHPLC-MS/MS method.
Fifty-eight (72.5%) women had EtG concentrations in the hair shafts >7 pg/mg in one or more pregnancy trimesters, and EtG and FAEEs in meconium samples were documented in 50 and 24 of their neonates, respectively. The best significant correlations (p<0.0001) were found between EtG concentration in the proximal 0-3 and 3-6 hair shaft segments corresponding to the last two pregnancy trimesters and EtG in neonatal meconium (ρ=0.609 and ρ=0.577, respectively). Using the combination of EtG in meconium ≥30 ng/g and a median of EtG >11 pg/mg in maternal hair during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, prenatal ethanol exposure could be predicted with a sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 73.7%.
This study provides evidence of proven fetal exposure to ethanol during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy by linking detection of ethanol biomarkers (EtG) in maternal hair segments and EtG in neonatal meconium.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electronic cigarette (e-cig) has gained popularity as an aid in smoking cessation programs mainly because it maintains the gestures and rituals of tobacco smoking. However, it has been shown in inexperienced e-cig users that ineffective nicotine delivery can cause tobacco craving that could be responsible for unsuccessful smoking reduction/cessation. Moreover, the incorrect use of an e-cig could also led to potential nicotine overdosage and intoxication. Medically assisted training on the proper use of an e-cig plus behavioral support for tobacco dependence could be a pivotal step in avoiding both issues. We performed an eight-month pilot study of adult smokers who started e-cig use after receiving a multi-component medically assisted training program with monitoring of nicotine intake as a biomarker of correct e-cig use. Participants were tested during follow-up for breath carbon monoxide (CO), plasma cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and number of tobacco cigarettes smoked. At the end of the first, fourth, and eighth month of follow-up, 91.1, 73.5, and 76.5% of participants respectively were e-cig users ('only e-cig' and 'dual users'). They showed no significant variation in plasma cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine with respect to the start of the study when they smoked only tobacco cigarettes, but a significant reduction in breath CO. The proposed medically assisted training program of e-cig use led to a successful nicotine intake, lack of typical cigarette craving and overdosage symptoms and a significant decrease in the biomarker of cigarette combustion products.
Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perinatal exposure to one or more drugs of abuse can affect the neonate temporarily or permanently. In addition to meconium, the evaluation of perinatal exposure to drugs of abuse has been achieved by testing biological matrices coming from the newborn (neonatal hair) and from the pregnant or nursing mother (maternal hair and breast milk). These matrices have the advantage of noninvasive collection and account for a sizable time window of active and passive exposure. Sensitive and specific analytical methods are required to determine minute amounts of drugs of abuse and metabolites in these matrices. The present manuscript reviews the newest analytical methods developed to detect drugs of abuse as well as ethanol biomarkers in maternal and neonatal hair and breast milk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sildenafil and bosentan are increasingly used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in HIV-infected patients. However, concerns exist about pharmacokinetic interactions among sildenafil, bosentan and antiretroviral drugs, including protease inhibitors (PI). We describe here the case of an HIV-infected patient with PAH, who was co-administered bosentan 125 mg twice daily and sildenafil 40 mg three times per day, together with a ritonavir-boosted PI-based antiretroviral therapy; plasma levels of bosentan, sildenafil, N-desmethylsildenafil, and PI were measured. The patient had a sildenafil Cthrough and Cmax of 276.94 ng/mL and 1733.19 ng/mL, respectively. The Cthrough and the Cmax of bosentan were 1546.53 ng/mL and 3365.99 ng/mL, respectively. The patient was able to tolerate as high sildenafil blood concentrations as 10 times those usually requested and did not report any significant adverse reaction to sildenafil during the follow-up period. Therapeutic drug monitoring should be considered during sildenafil therapy in patients concomitantly treated with ritonavir-boosted PI.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Infectious disease reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed and validated an ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method to identify and quantify 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide in hair of cannabis consumers. After hair washing with methyl alcohol and diethyl ether and subsequent addition of amiodarone as internal standard hair samples were treated with 500 μl VMA-T M3 buffer reagent for 1 h at 100 °C. After cooling, 10 μl VMA-T M3 extract were injected into chromatographic system. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase column using a linear gradient elution with two solvents: 5 mM ammonium formate pH 3.0 (solvent A) and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile (solvent B). The flow rate was kept constant at 0.4 ml/min during the analysis. The separated analytes were detected with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode via positive electrospray ionization. Linear calibration curves were obtained for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide with correlation coefficients (r2) of 0.99 and a limit of quantification of 0.25 pg/mg hair. Analytical recovery was between 79.6% to 100.7% and intra and inter-assay imprecision and inaccuracy were always lower than 15%. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 20 different hair samples of cannabis consumers disclosed the presence of 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide in the range of 0.5-8.6 pg/mg hair. These data provided a good start to consider 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide as alternative hair biomarker of cannabis consumption.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Forensic Science International