Heikki Joensuu

Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland

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Publications (552)4000.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The HER2/ErbB2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) trastuzumab is combined with chemotherapy as a standard-of-care for newly diagnosed HER2(+) breast cancer patients, but some patients treated with this combination therapy experience early relapse. Our analysis of data from a clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of chemotherapy plus/minus trastuzumab suggested that the magnitude of trastuzumab benefit on distant disease-free survival was higher for increasing expression of the IL21 receptor (IL21R). Therefore, we investigated a possible role for IL21 signaling in promoting HER2 mAb therapeutic efficacy. We found that IL21R-deficient mice and wild-type mice treated with a neutralizing anti-IL21 mAb were less susceptible to trastuzumab-like anti-ErbB2 therapy. Furthermore, IL21R expression on CD8(+) T cells, but not on natural killer cells, was required for optimal anti-ErbB2 mAb efficacy, and IL21 expression was enhanced in tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) T lymphocytes after anti-ErbB2 therapy. Finally, we found that administering recombinant IL21 in combination with anti-ErbB2 therapy was therapeutic against primary tumors and experimental metastases in mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that elevating IL21 signaling may enhance trastuzumab efficacy, thus constituting a novel candidate strategy to overcome trastuzumab resistance and improve patient survival. Cancer Res; 76(2); 1-11. ©2015 AACR.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cancer Research
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    Rautiola J · Donskov F · Peltola K · Joensuu H · Bono P.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical significance of hypertension (HTN), neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia as possible new biomarkers of sunitinib efficacy in non-trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 181 consecutive patients with mRCC were treated with sunitinib; 39 (22%) received sunitinib 50 mg/day 4 weeks on/2 weeks off, 80 (44%) received 37.5 mg/day continuously and 62 (34%) received 25 mg/day continuously as their starting dose. Treatment-induced adverse events (AEs) and their impact on outcome were analysed on multiple sunitinib doses. RESULTS: During sunitinib treatment 60 patients (33%) developed ≥grade 2 HTN, 88 (49%) ≥grade 2 neutropaenia and 135 (75%) ≥grade 1 thrombocytopaenia. These AEs were associated significantly with longer progression-free survival (PFS; 15.7 vs 6.7; 14.6 vs 6.9; 10.4 vs 4.2 months, respectively; P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS; 37.5 vs 16.2; 33.7 vs 13.2; 22.3 vs 13.2 months, respectively, P ≤ 0.008). Although only neutropaenia was associated with a significantly improved PFS and OS in all sunitinib doses, a similar trend was also seen with HTN and thrombocytopaenia in all sunitinib doses. In multivariate analysis, HTN and neutropaenia were significantly associated with PFS and OS and thrombocytopaenia was significantly associated with PFS. In a 12-week landmark analysis, HTN and thrombocytopaenia were significantly associated with PFS and OS. Patients who developed all three AEs (a favourable biomarker profile) had significantly better outcome than patients without these AEs (a poor biomarker profile); response rate 47% vs 4%, median PFS 27.1 vs 3.5 months and OS not reached vs 5.3 months (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: HTN, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia were all biomarkers of sunitinib efficacy in patients with mRCC. Our results may help to individualise sunitinib dosing during therapy based on these common sunitinib-related AEs
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · BJU International
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    ABSTRACT: A significant barrier to medical diagnostics in low-resource environments is the lack of medical care and equipment. Here we present a low-cost, cloud-connected digital microscope for applications at the point-of-care. We evaluate the performance of the device in the digital assessment of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER) expression in breast cancer samples. Studies suggest computer-assisted analysis of tumor samples digitized with whole slide-scanners may be comparable to manual scoring, here we study whether similar results can be obtained with the device presented.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Three years of adjuvant imatinib therapy are recommended for patients with GI stromal tumor (GIST) with high-risk features, according to survival findings in the Scandinavian Sarcoma Group XVIII/AIO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie) trial. To investigate whether the survival benefits have persisted, we performed the second planned analysis of the trial. Patients and methods: Eligible patients had macroscopically completely excised, KIT-positive GIST with a high risk of recurrence, as determined by using the modified National Institutes of Health criteria. After surgery, the patients were randomly assigned to receive imatinib for either 1 or 3 years. The primary objective was recurrence-free survival (RFS), and the secondary objectives included survival. Results: A total of 400 patients were entered onto this open-label study between February 4, 2004, and September 29, 2008. During a median follow-up of 90 months, 171 recurrences and 69 deaths were detected. Patients assigned to the 3-year group had longer RFS than those assigned to the 1- year group; 5-year RFS was 71.1% versus 52.3%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.60; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.81; P < .001), and survival was 91.9% versus 85.3% (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.97; P = .036). Patients in the 3-year group survived longer in the subset with centrally confirmed GIST and without macroscopic metastases at study entry (93.4% v 86.8%; HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.93; P = .024). Similar numbers of cardiac events and second cancers were recorded in the groups. Conclusion: Three years of adjuvant imatinib therapy results in longer survival than 1 year of imatinib. High 5-year survival rates are achievable in patient populations with high-risk GIST.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as a larynx-preserving treatment option for patients with recurrent laryngeal cancer. Methods and materials: Six patients with locally recurrent squamous cell laryngeal carcinoma and 3 patients with persistent laryngeal cancer after prior treatment were treated with BNCT at the FiR1 facility (Espoo, Finland) in 2006 to 2012. The patients had received prior radiation therapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy to a cumulative median dose of 66 Gy. The median tumor diameter was 2.9 cm (range, 1.4-10.9 cm) before BNCT. Boron neutron capture therapy was offered on a compassionate basis to patients who either refused laryngectomy (n=7) or had an inoperable tumor (n=2). Boronophenylalanine-fructose (400 mg/kg) was used as the boron carrier and was infused over 2 hours intravenously before neutron irradiation. Results: Six patients received BNCT once and 3 twice. The estimated average gross tumor volume dose ranged from 22 to 38 Gy (W) (mean; 29 Gy [W]). Six of the 8 evaluable patients responded to BNCT; 2 achieved complete and 4 partial response. One patient died early and was not evaluable for response. Most common side effects were stomatitis, fatigue, and oral pain. No life-threatening or grade 4 toxicity was observed. The median time to progression within the target volume was 6.6 months, and the median overall survival time 13.3 months after BNCT. One patient with complete response is alive and disease-free with a functioning larynx 60 months after BNCT. Conclusions: Boron neutron capture therapy given after prior external beam radiation therapy is well tolerated. Most patients responded to BNCT, but long-term survival with larynx preservation was infrequent owing to cancer progression. Selected patients with recurrent laryngeal cancer may benefit from BNCT.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with advanced HER2-positive breast cancer frequently develop CNS metastases. The metastases that progress after brain radiotherapy and HER2-targeted systemic therapy are a difficult therapeutic challenge. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of afatinib, an irreversible blocker of the ErbB protein family, alone or combined with vinorelbine, compared with treatment of the investigator's choice in women with HER2-positive breast cancer with progressive brain metastases during or after treatment with trastuzumab, lapatinib, or both.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Lancet Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Trastuzumab is a remarkably effective therapy for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) - positive breast cancer (BC). However, not all women with high levels of HER2 benefit from trastuzumab.By integrating mRNA and protein expression data from Reverse-Phase Protein Array Analysis (RPPA) in HER2-positive BC, we developed gene expression metagenes that reflect pathway activation levels. Next we assessed the ability of these metagenes to predict resistance to adjuvant trastuzumab using gene expression data from two independent datasets.10 metagenes passed external validation (false discovery rate [fdr] < 0.05) and showed biological relevance with their pathway of origin. These metagenes were further screened for their association with trastuzumab resistance. An association with trastuzumab resistance was observed and validated only for the AnnexinA1 metagene (ANXA1). In the randomised phase III Fin-her study, tumours with low levels of the ANXA1 metagene showed a benefit from trastuzumab (multivariate: hazard ratio [HR] for distant recurrence = 0.16[95%CI 0.05-0.5]; p = 0.002; fdr = 0.03), while high expression levels of the ANXA1 metagene were associated with a lack of benefit to trastuzmab (HR = 1.29[95%CI 0.55-3.02]; p = 0.56). The association of ANXA1 with trastuzumab resistance was successfully validated in an independent series of subjects who had received trastuzumab with chemotherapy (Log Rank; p = 0.01).In conclusion, in HER2-positive BC, some proteins are associated with distinct gene expression profiles. Our findings identify the ANXA1metagene as a novel biomarker for trastuzumab resistance.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: Background: It is unknown whether performing a core needle biopsy (CNB) to diagnose breast cancer increases the incidence of isolated tumor cells (ITC) in the axillary sentinel lymph nodes. Methods: Patients diagnosed with unilateral invasive pT1 breast cancer (≤2 cm in diameter, n = 1525) at a single center between February 2001 and August 2005 were included in this prospective observational cohort study. The patients were categorized into two groups according to the type of the preoperative breast needle biopsy performed, the CNB and the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) groups, and followed up for a median of 9.5 years after breast surgery. Results: 868 (56.9%) patients had FNAC and 657 (43.2%) CNB. In the subset of patients with no axillary metastases (pN0, n = 1005) 70 patients had ITC, 37 (4.3%) out of the 546 patients in FNAC group and 33 (5.0%) out of the 459 patients in the CNB group (p = 0.798). The type of tumor biopsy did not influence breast cancer-specific survival (p = 0.461) or local recurrence-free survival (p = 0.814) in univariable survival analyses. Overall, survival favored the CNB group in a univariable analysis, but no difference in survival emerged in a multivariable analysis (p = 0.718). Conclusions: CNB was not associated with a greater incidence of ITC in axillary lymph nodes as compared with FNAC, and did not have an adverse effect on survival outcomes in a patient population treated with modern adjuvant therapies.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Annals of Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 98 patients with glioma were treated with BPA-F-mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in Finland from 1999 to 2011. Thirty-nine (40%) had undergone surgery for newly diagnosed glioblastoma and 59 (60%) had malignant glioma recurrence after surgery. In this study we applied a closed 3-compartment model based on dynamic 18F-BPA-PET studies to estimate the BPA-F concentrations in the tumor and the normal brain with time. Altogether 22 patients with recurrent glioma, treated within the context of a clinical trial, were evaluated using their individual measured whole blood 10B concentrations as an input to the model. The delivered radiation doses to tumor and the normal brain were recalculated based on the modeled 10B concentrations in the tissues during neutron irradiation. The model predicts from −7% to +29% (average, +11%) change in the average tumor doses as compared with the previously estimated doses, and from 17% to 61% (average, 36%) higher average normal brain doses than previously estimated due to the non-constant tumor-to-blood concentration ratios and considerably higher estimated 10B concentrations in the brain at the time of neutron irradiation.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Most breast cancers are hormone receptor positive and exhibit a slow growth pattern. Based on biological properties, breast cancers are divided into four different biological subtypes. Furthermore, these subtypes are indicative of the risk of recurrence, which is also influenced by the size of the tumor and extension to lymph nodes. Postoperative adjuvant drug therapy is chosen on the basis of the biological type. Chemotherapy can be used in all subtypes. Hormonal therapies are used exclusively for the treatment of hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Trastuzumab antibody belongs to the treatment of the HER2 positive subtype.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
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    ABSTRACT: The immune system plays a major role in cancer progression. In solid tumors, 5-40 % of the tumor mass consists of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and there is usually a correlation between the number of TAMs and poor prognosis, depending on the tumor type. TAMs usually resemble M2 macrophages. Unlike M1-macrophages which have pro-inflammatory and anti-cancer functions, M2-macrophages are immunosuppressive, contribute to the matrix-remodeling, and hence favor tumor growth. The role of TAMs is not fully understood in breast cancer progression. Macrophage infiltration (CD68) and activation status (HLA-DRIIα, CD163) were evaluated in a large cohort of human primary breast tumors (562 tissue microarray samples), by immunohistochemistry and scored by automated image analysis algorithms. Survival between groups was compared using the Kaplan-Meier life-table method and a Cox multivariate proportional hazards model. Macrophage education by breast cancer cells was assessed by ex vivo differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the presence or absence of breast cancer cell conditioned media (MDA-MB231, MCF-7 or T47D cell lines) and M1 or M2 inducing cytokines (respectively IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10). Obtained macrophages were analyzed by flow cytometry (CD14, CD16, CD64, CD86, CD200R and CD163), ELISA (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, monocyte colony stimulating factor M-CSF) and zymography (matrix metalloproteinase 9, MMP-9). Clinically, we found that high numbers of CD163 + M2-macrophages were strongly associated with fast proliferation, poor differentiation, estrogen receptor negativity and histological ductal type (p<0.001) in the studied cohort of human primary breast tumors. We demonstrated ex vivo that breast cancer cell-secreted factors modulate macrophage differentiation toward the M2 phenotype. Furthermore, the more aggressive mesenchymal-like cell line MDA-MB231, which secretes high levels of M-CSF, skews macrophages toward the more immunosuppressive M2c subtype. This study demonstrates that human breast cancer cells influence macrophage differentiation and that TAM differentiation status correlates with recurrence free survival, thus further emphasizing that TAMs can similarly affect therapy efficacy and patient outcome.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Breast Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Prolonged steroid hormone therapy increases the risk of breast cancer, especially the risk of lobular cancer, but the effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) use is controversial. In this study we aimed to test the hypothesis that risk for lobular breast cancer is elevated among LNG-IUS users. We identified from the national Medical Reimbursement Registry of Finland the women aged 30-49 who had used LNG-IUS for the treatment or prevention of menorrhagia in 1994-2007, and from the Finnish Cancer Registry breast cancers diagnosed before the age of 55 and by the end of 2012. A total of 2015 women had breast cancer diagnosed in a cohort of 93 843 LNG-IUS users during follow-up consisting of 1 032 767 women-years. The LNG-IUS users had an increased risk for both ductal breast cancer [standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.25] and for lobular breast cancer (SIR 1.33, 95% CI 1.20-1.46), as compared with the general female population. The highest risk was found in LNG-IUS users who purchased the device at least twice, whose SIR for lobular cancer was 1.73 (95% CI 1.37-2.15). The results imply that intrauterine administration of levonorgestrel is not only related to an excess risk of lobular breast cancer but also, in contrary to previous assumptions, to an excess risk of ductal breast cancer.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
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    ABSTRACT: The likelihood of recurrence in patients with breast cancer who have HER2-positive tumors is relatively high, although trastuzumab is a remarkably effective drug in this setting. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein (STAT3), a transcription factor that is persistently tyrosine-705 phosphorylated (pSTAT3) in response to numerous oncogenic signaling pathways, activates downstream proliferative and anti-apoptotic pathways. We hypothesized that pSTAT3 expression in HER2-positive breast cancer will confer trastuzumab resistance. We integrated reverse phase protein array (RPPA) and gene expression data from patients with HER2-positive breast cancer treated with trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting. We show that a pSTAT3-associated gene signature (pSTAT3-GS) is able to predict pSTAT3 status in an independent dataset (TCGA; AUC = 0.77, P = 0.02). This suggests that STAT3 induces a characteristic set of gene expression changes in HER2-positive cancers. Tumors characterized as high pSTAT3-GS were associated with trastuzumab resistance (log rank P = 0.049). These results were confirmed using data from the prospective, randomized controlled FinHer study, where the effect was especially prominent in HER2-positive estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors (interaction test P = 0.02). Of interest, constitutively activated pSTAT3 tumors were associated with loss of PTEN, elevated IL6, and stromal reactivation. This study provides compelling evidence for a link between pSTAT3 and trastuzumab resistance in HER2-positive primary breast cancers. Our results suggest that it may be valuable to add agents targeting the STAT3 pathway to trastuzumab for treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · BMC Medicine

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) has been considered radiation-resistant, and radiotherapy is recommended only for palliation of bone metastases in current treatment guidelines. No registered prospective trial has evaluated GIST responsiveness to radiotherapy. Patients with GIST progressing at intra-abdominal sites or the liver were entered to this prospective Phase II multicenter study (identifier NCT00515931). Metastases were treated with external beam radiotherapy using either conformal 3D planning or intensity modulated radiotherapy and conventional fractionation to a cumulative planning target volume dose of approximately 40Gy. Systemic therapy was maintained unaltered during the study. Of the 25 patients entered, 19 were on concomitant tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, most often imatinib. Two (8%) patients achieved partial remission, 20 (80%) had stable target lesion size for ⩾3months after radiotherapy with a median duration of stabilization of 16months, and 3 (12%) progressed. The median time to radiotherapy target lesion progression was 4-fold longer than the median time to GIST progression at any site (16 versus 4months). Radiotherapy was generally well tolerated. Responses to radiotherapy were infrequent, but most patients had durable stabilization of the target lesions. GIST patients with soft tissue metastases benefit frequently from radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Radiotherapy and Oncology
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    Sebastian Bauer · Heikki Joensuu
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    ABSTRACT: Imatinib is strongly positioned as the recommended first-line agent for most patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) due to its good efficacy and tolerability. Imatinib-resistant advanced GIST continues to pose a therapeutic challenge, likely due to the frequent presence of multiple mutations that confer drug resistance. Sunitinib and regorafenib are approved as second- and third-line agents, respectively, for patients whose GIST does not respond to imatinib or who do not tolerate imatinib, and their use is supported by large randomized trials. ATP-mimetic tyrosine kinase inhibitors provide clinical benefit even in heavily pretreated GIST suggesting that oncogenic dependency on KIT frequently persists. Several potentially useful tyrosine kinase inhibitors with distinct inhibitory profiles against both KIT ATP-binding domain and activation loop mutations have not yet been fully evaluated. Agents that have been found promising in preclinical models and early clinical trials include small molecule KIT and PDGFRA mutation-specific inhibitors, heat shock protein inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, allosteric KIT inhibitors, KIT and PDGFRA signaling pathway inhibitors, and immunological approaches including antibody-drug conjugates. Concomitant or sequential administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with KIT signaling pathway inhibitors require further evaluation, as well as rotation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as a means to suppress drug-resistant cell clones.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Drugs
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    ABSTRACT: Hepsin belongs to a family of cell-surface serine proteases, which have sparked interest as therapeutic targets because of the accessibility of extracellular protease domain for inhibitors. Hepsin is frequently amplified and/or overexpressed in epithelial cancers, but it is not clear how enhanced hepsin expression confers a potential for oncogenicity. We show that hepsin is consistently overexpressed in more than 40% of examined breast cancers, including all major biological subtypes. The effects of doxycycline-induced hepsin overexpression were examined in mammary epithelial organoids, and we found that induced hepsin acutely downmodulates its cognate inhibitor, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1). Hepsin-induced depletion of cellular HAI-1 led to a sharp increase in pericellular serine protease activity. The derepressed hepsin proteolytically activated downstream serine proteases, augmented HGF/MET signalling and caused deterioration of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes; structures important for cell cohesion and cell-basement membrane interaction. Moreover, chronic induction of hepsin considerably shortened the latency of Myc-dependent tumourigenesis in the mouse mammary gland. The serine protease and uPA system inhibitor WX-UK1, identified as a micromolar range hepsin inhibitor, prevented hepsin from augmenting HGF/MET signalling and disrupting desmosomes and hemidesmosomes. The findings suggest that the oncogenic activity of hepsin arises not only from elevated expression level but also from depletion of HAI-1, events which together trigger gain-of-function activity impacting HGF/MET signalling and epithelial cohesion. Thus, hepsin overexpression is a major oncogenic conferrer to a serine protease activity involved in breast cancer dissemination.Oncogene advance online publication, 13 July 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.248.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Oncogene
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    ABSTRACT: We compared efficacy of trastuzumab versus no trastuzumab in patients with small (≤ 2 cm) human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive breast cancer treated in randomized trials. A meta-analysis was conducted using data from five of the six adjuvant trastuzumab trials. Efficacy end points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Separate analyses were prospectively planned for hormone receptor (HR) -positive and HR-negative cohorts. Random effect models and Yusuf-Peto fixed effects models assessed the impact of heterogeneity on baseline hazards and treatment effects across studies. Peto-Pike cumulative incidence estimates were stratified by study and nodal status. Median follow-up time was 8 years. For 2,263 patients with HR-positive disease, 8-year cumulative incidence rates comparing trastuzumab versus no trastuzumab were 17.3% versus 24.3% (P < .001) for DFS and 7.8% versus 11.6% (P = .005) for OS, respectively; for 1,092 HR-positive patients with zero or one positive lymph nodes, results were 12.7% versus 19.4% (P = .005) for DFS and 5.3% versus 7.4% (P = .12) for OS, respectively. For 1,957 patients with HR-negative disease, 8-year cumulative incidence rates were 24.0% versus 33.4% (P < .001) for DFS and 12.4% versus 21.2% (P < .001) for OS, respectively; for 1,040 HR-negative patients with zero or one positive lymph nodes, results were 20.4% versus 26.3% (P = .05) for DFS and 8.2% versus 12.2% (P = .084) for OS, respectively. Women with HER2-positive tumors ≤ 2 cm in the randomized trastuzumab trials derived substantial DFS and OS benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab. Trastuzumab-treated patients with HR-positive disease and ≤ one positive lymph node may be candidates for trials assessing less aggressive treatment approaches. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: After the revelation of kinase targeting with orally available small molecules, the use of imatinib in chronic myelogenous leukemia and in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) has now become commonplace and just two of many examples of the use of kinase inhibitors in cancer. In this article, we discuss important practice points that may impact upon questions of therapy of primary and metastatic GIST, with the hope that the questions addressed in this rare solid tumor can serve as examples of what can be achieved with kinase-directed therapies in other cancers. We present cases that highlight some of the key issues in GIST management and afterward discuss both points of consensus and controversial issues in what is now recognized as one of the most common forms of sarcoma. ©AlphaMed Press.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The Oncologist

Publication Stats

28k Citations
4,000.36 Total Impact Points


  • 1995-2016
    • Helsinki University Central Hospital
      • Department of Oncology
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
    • Oulu University Hospital
      Uleoborg, Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland
  • 1996-2015
    • University of Helsinki
      • • Department of Oncology
      • • Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2008
    • Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center
      LEB, New Hampshire, United States
  • 2007
    • The Princess Margaret Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2005
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2002
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2001
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Oulu
      • Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Uleoborg, Oulu, Finland
  • 1988-1998
    • University of Turku
      • • MediCity Research Laboratory
      • • Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy
      • • Department of Pathology
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 1986-1995
    • Turku University Hospital
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 1994
    • National Public Health Institute
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
    • University of Lodz
      Łódź, Łódź Voivodeship, Poland
  • 1993
    • Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 1992
    • Kuopio University Hospital
      Kuopio, Northern Savo, Finland