Francine Grodstein

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (249)2263.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: We examined the association between endogenous sex hormones and both objective and subjective measures of cognitive function. Methods: We followed 3044 women up to 23 years in a prospective cohort study. We measured plasma levels of estrone, estrone sulfate, estradiol, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in 1989-1990, conducted neuropsychologic testing in 1999-2008, and inquired about subjective cognition in 2012. Results: Overall, we observed little relation between plasma levels of hormones and either neuropsychologic test performance or subjective cognition. However, after adjustment for age and education, we observed a borderline significant association of higher levels of plasma estrone with higher scores for both overall cognition (P trend = .10) and verbal memory (P trend = .08). Discussion: There were no clear associations of endogenous hormone levels at midlife and cognition in later life, although a suggested finding of higher levels of plasma estrone associated with better cognitive function merits further research.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate characteristics of receiving a medical evaluation for infertility among infertile women. Design: Prospective cohort. Setting: Academic institution. Patient(s): A total of 7,422 women who reported incident infertility between 1989 and 2009 in the Nurses' Health Study II. Intervention(s): None. Main outcome measure(s): Report of receiving a medical evaluation for infertility. Result(s): Approximately 65% of women who reported infertility had a medical evaluation for infertility. Infertile women who were parous (relative risk [RR] = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-0.84), older, current smokers (RR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.96), or who had a higher body mass index (BMI) were less likely to report receiving a medical infertility evaluation. Infertile women who exercised frequently, took multivitamins (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.07), lived in states with comprehensive insurance coverage (RR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.19), had a high household income, or who had a recent physical examination (RR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.24) were more likely to report receiving a medical infertility evaluation. Conclusion(s): These findings highlight demographic, lifestyle, and access barriers to receiving medical infertility care. Historically, the discussion of barriers to infertility care has centered on financial access, geographic access, and socioeconomic status. Our findings build off literature by supporting previously reported associations and showcasing the importance of demographic and lifestyle factors in accessing care.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Fertility and sterility
  • Elizabeth E Devore · Francine Grodstein · Eva S Schernhammer
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Increasing evidence suggests that circadian and sleep parameters influence cognitive function with aging. Objective: To evaluate observational studies of sleep duration and cognition in older adults. Data sources: A systematic review of OVID Medline and PsycINFO through September 2015, and review of bibliographies from studies identified. Study selection: English-language articles reporting observational studies of sleep duration and cognitive function in older populations. Data extraction: Data extraction by 2 authors using predefined categories of desired information. Results: Thirty-two studies met our inclusion criteria, with nearly two-thirds published in the past 4 years. One-third of studies indicated that extreme sleep durations were associated with worse cognition in older adults. More studies favored an association with long vs. short sleep durations (35 vs. 26% of studies, respectively). Four studies found that greater changes in sleep duration over time were related to lower cognition. Study design and analytic methods were very heterogeneous across studies; therefore, meta-analysis was not undertaken. Limitations: We reviewed English-language manuscripts only, with a qualitative summary of studies identified. Conclusions and Implications of Key Findings: Observational studies of sleep duration and cognitive function in older adults have produced mixed results, with more studies suggesting that long (rather than short) sleep durations are related to worse cognition. Studies more consistently indicate that greater changes in sleep duration are associated with poor cognition. Future studies should be prospectively designed, with objective sleep assessment and longer follow-up periods; intervention studies are also needed to identify strategies for promoting cognitive health with aging.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Neuroepidemiology
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    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the utility of the Cogstate self-administered computerized neuropsychological battery in a large population of older men. Methods: We invited 7,167 men (mean age of 75 years) from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a prospective cohort of male health professionals. We considered individual Cogstate scores and composite scores measuring psychomotor speed and attention, learning and working memory and overall cognition. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the association between risk factors measured 4 and 28 years prior to cognitive testing and each outcome. Results: The 1,866 men who agreed to complete Cogstate testing were similar to the 5,301 non-responders. Many expected risk factors were associated with Cogstate scores in multivariate adjusted models. Increasing age was significantly associated with worse performance on all outcomes (p < 0.001). For risk factors measured 4 years prior to testing and overall cognition, a history of hypertension was significantly associated with worse performance (mean difference of -0.08 standard units (95% CI -0.16, 0.00)) and higher consumption of nuts was significantly associated with better performance (>2 servings/week vs. <1 serving/month: 0.15 (0.03, 0.27)). Conclusions: The self-administered Cogstate battery showed significant associations with several risk factors known to be associated with cognitive function. Future studies of cognitive aging may benefit from the numerous advantages of self-administered computerized testing.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Neuroepidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To evaluate and compare the associations between microvascular and macrovascular abnormalities and cognitive and physical functionDesignCross-sectional analysis of the Cardiovascular Health Study (1998–1999).SettingCommunity.ParticipantsIndividuals with available data on three or more of five microvascular abnormalities (brain, retina, kidney) and three or more of six macrovascular abnormalities (brain, carotid artery, heart, peripheral artery) (N = 2,452; mean age 79.5).MeasurementsStandardized composite scores derived from three cognitive tests (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit-Symbol Substitution Test, Trail-Making Test (TMT)) and three physical tests (gait speed, grip strength, 5-time sit to stand)ResultsParticipants with high microvascular and macrovascular burden had worse cognitive (mean score difference = −0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = −0.37 to −0.24) and physical (mean score difference = −0.32, 95% CI = −0.38 to −0.26) function than those with low microvascular and macrovascular burden. Individuals with high microvascular burden alone had similarly lower scores than those with high macrovascular burden alone (cognitive function: −0.16, 95% CI = −0.24 to −0.08 vs −0.13, 95% CI = −0.20 to −0.06; physical function: −0.15, 95% CI = −0.22 to −0.08 vs −0.12, 95% CI = −0.18 to −0.06). Psychomotor speed and working memory, assessed using the TMT, were only impaired in the presence of high microvascular burden. Of the 11 vascular abnormalities considered, white matter hyperintensity, cystatin C–based glomerular filtration rate, large brain infarct, and ankle–arm index were independently associated with cognitive and physical function.Conclusion Microvascular and macrovascular abnormalities assessed using noninvasive tests of the brain, kidney, and peripheral artery were independently associated with poor cognitive and physical function in older adults. Future research should evaluate the usefulness of these tests in prognostication.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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    ABSTRACT: Observational data have suggested that high dietary intake of saturated fat and low intake of vegetables may be associated with increased risk of Alzheimer disease. To test the effects of oral supplementation with nutrients on cognitive function. In a double-masked randomized clinical trial (the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 [AREDS2]), retinal specialists in 82 US academic and community medical centers enrolled and observed participants who were at risk for developing late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) from October 2006 to December 2012. In addition to annual eye examinations, several validated cognitive function tests were administered via telephone by trained personnel at baseline and every 2 years during the 5-year study. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) (1 g) and/or lutein (10 mg)/zeaxanthin (2 mg) vs placebo were tested in a factorial design. All participants were also given varying combinations of vitamins C, E, beta carotene, and zinc. The main outcome was the yearly change in composite scores determined from a battery of cognitive function tests from baseline. The analyses, which were adjusted for baseline age, sex, race, history of hypertension, education, cognitive score, and depression score, evaluated the differences in the composite score between the treated vs untreated groups. The composite score provided an overall score for the battery, ranging from -22 to 17, with higher scores representing better function. A total of 89% (3741/4203) of AREDS2 participants consented to the ancillary cognitive function study and 93.6% (3501/3741) underwent cognitive function testing. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 72.7 (7.7) years and 57.5% were women. There were no statistically significant differences in change of scores for participants randomized to receive supplements vs those who were not. The yearly change in the composite cognitive function score was -0.19 (99% CI, -0.25 to -0.13) for participants randomized to receive LCPUFAs vs -0.18 (99% CI, -0.24 to -0.12) for those randomized to no LCPUFAs (difference in yearly change, -0.03 [99% CI, -0.20 to 0.13]; P = .63). Similarly, the yearly change in the composite cognitive function score was -0.18 (99% CI, -0.24 to -0.11) for participants randomized to receive lutein/zeaxanthin vs -0.19 (99% CI, -0.25 to -0.13) for those randomized to not receive lutein/zeaxanthin (difference in yearly change, 0.03 [99% CI, -0.14 to 0.19]; P = .66). Analyses were also conducted to assess for potential interactions between LCPUFAs and lutein/zeaxanthin and none were found to be significant. Among older persons with AMD, oral supplementation with LCPUFAs or lutein/zeaxanthin had no statistically significant effect on cognitive function. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00345176.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
  • Jae Hee Kang · Francine Grodstein · JoAnn E. Manson

    No preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders1, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness2. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power3, 4. Here we use runs of homozygosity to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts, and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in one second, general cognitive ability and educational attainment (P < 1 × 10−300, 2.1 × 10−6, 2.5 × 10−10 and 1.8 × 10−10, respectively). In each case, increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months’ less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing evidence that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples5, 6, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection7, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders1, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness2. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power3, 4. Here we use runs of homozygosity to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts, and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in one second, general cognitive ability and educational attainment (P < 1 × 10−300, 2.1 × 10−6, 2.5 × 10−10 and 1.8 × 10−10, respectively). In each case, increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months’ less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing evidence that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples5, 6, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection7, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between infertility and fertility treatments on subsequent risk of hypertension. Cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 116,430 female nurses, followed from 1993 to June 2011, as part of the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. None. Self-reported, physician-diagnosed hypertension. Compared with women who have never reported infertility, infertile women were at no greater risk of hypertension (multivariable adjusted relative risk (RR) = 1.01, with 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.94-1.07]). Infertility due to tubal disease was associated with a higher risk of hypertension (RR = 1.15 [1.01-1.31]), but no other diagnoses were associated with hypertension risk, compared with women who did not report infertility (ovulatory disorder: RR = 1.03 [0.94-1.13]; cervical: RR = 0.88 [0.70-1.10]; male factor: RR = 1.05 [0.95-1.15]; other reason: RR = 1.02 [0.94-1.11]; reason not found: RR = 1.02 [0.95-1.10]). The infertile women collectively had 5,070 cases of hypertension. No clear pattern between use of fertility treatment and hypertension was found among infertile women (clomiphene citrate: RR = 0.97 [0.90-1.04]; gonadotropin alone: RR = 0.97 [0.87-1.08]; intrauterine insemination: RR = 0.86 [0.71-1.03]; in vitro fertilization: RR = 0.86 [0.73-1.01]). Among this relatively young cohort of women, no apparent increase occurred in hypertension risk among infertile women, or among women who had undergone fertility treatment previously. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Fertility and sterility
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    ABSTRACT: To identify common variants contributing to normal variation in two specific domains of cognitive functioning, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of executive functioning and information processing speed in non-demented older adults from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) consortium. Neuropsychological testing was available for 5429-32 070 subjects of European ancestry aged 45 years or older, free of dementia and clinical stroke at the time of cognitive testing from 20 cohorts in the discovery phase. We analyzed performance on the Trail Making Test parts A and B, the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST), the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST), semantic and phonemic fluency tests, and the Stroop Color and Word Test. Replication was sought in 1311-21860 subjects from 20 independent cohorts. A significant association was observed in the discovery cohorts for the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17518584 (discovery P-value=3.12 × 10(-8)) and in the joint discovery and replication meta-analysis (P-value=3.28 × 10(-9) after adjustment for age, gender and education) in an intron of the gene cell adhesion molecule 2 (CADM2) for performance on the LDST/DSST. Rs17518584 is located about 170 kb upstream of the transcription start site of the major transcript for the CADM2 gene, but is within an intron of a variant transcript that includes an alternative first exon. The variant is associated with expression of CADM2 in the cingulate cortex (P-value=4 × 10(-4)). The protein encoded by CADM2 is involved in glutamate signaling (P-value=7.22 × 10(-15)), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport (P-value=1.36 × 10(-11)) and neuron cell-cell adhesion (P-value=1.48 × 10(-13)). Our findings suggest that genetic variation in the CADM2 gene is associated with individual differences in information processing speed.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 14 April 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.37.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Molecular Psychiatry
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Molecular Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: The role of socioeconomic status in hip fracture incidence is unclear. In a diverse population of elderly, higher education was found to be associated with lower, whereas living alone, compared to being married/cohabiting, with higher hip fracture risk. Educational level and marital status may contribute to hip fracture risk. The evidence on the association between socioeconomic status and hip fracture incidence is limited and inconsistent. We investigated the potential association of education and marital status with hip fracture incidence in older individuals from Europe and USA. A total of 155,940 participants (79 % women) aged 60 years and older from seven cohorts were followed up accumulating 6456 incident hip fractures. Information on education and marital status was harmonized across cohorts. Hip fractures were ascertained through telephone interviews/questionnaires or through record linkage with registries. Associations were assessed through Cox proportional hazard regression adjusting for several factors. Summary estimates were derived using random effects models. Individuals with higher education, compared to those with low education, had lower hip fracture risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.84, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.95]. Respective HRs were 0.97 (95 % CI 0.82-1.13) for men and 0.75 (95 % CI 0.65-0.85) for women. Overall, individuals living alone, especially those aged 60-69 years, compared to those being married/cohabiting, tended to have a higher hip fracture risk (HR = 1.12, 95 % CI 1.02-1.22). There was no suggestion for heterogeneity across cohorts (P heterogeneity > 0.05). The combined data from >150,000 individuals 60 years and older suggest that higher education may contribute to lower hip fracture risk. Furthermore, this risk may be higher among individuals living alone, especially among the age group 60-69 years, when compared to those being married/cohabiting.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Osteoporosis International
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    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2014
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    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2014
  • Cécilia Samieri · Qi Sun · Mary K Townsend · Eric B Rimm · Francine Grodstein
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. We included 13,818 women from the Nurses' Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984-1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984-1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragraph or word list delayed recall in 19 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, comprising 29,076 dementia- and stroke-free individuals of European descent, aged ≥45 years. Replication of suggestive associations (p < 5 × 10(-6)) was sought in 10,617 participants of European descent, 3811 African-Americans, and 1561 young adults. rs4420638, near APOE, was associated with poorer delayed recall performance in discovery (p = 5.57 × 10(-10)) and replication cohorts (p = 5.65 × 10(-8)). This association was stronger for paragraph than word list delayed recall and in the oldest persons. Two associations with specific tests, in subsets of the total sample, reached genome-wide significance in combined analyses of discovery and replication (rs11074779 [HS3ST4], p = 3.11 × 10(-8), and rs6813517 [SPOCK3], p = 2.58 × 10(-8)) near genes involved in immune response. A genetic score combining 58 independent suggestive memory risk variants was associated with increasing Alzheimer disease pathology in 725 autopsy samples. Association of memory risk loci with gene expression in 138 human hippocampus samples showed cis-associations with WDR48 and CLDN5, both related to ubiquitin metabolism. This largest study to date exploring the genetics of memory function in ~40,000 older individuals revealed genome-wide associations and suggested an involvement of immune and ubiquitin pathways. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Biological psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Background Subjective cognitive concerns may represent a simple method to assess likelihood of memory decline among apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 carriers. Methods We examined the relationship of self-reported subjective cognitive concerns, using seven specific cognitive concerns, with memory and memory decline over 6 years among APOE ε4 carriers and non-carriers from the Nurses' Health Study. Results In both groups, increasing subjective cognitive concern score predicted worse baseline memory and faster rates of subsequent memory decline, after adjustment for age, education and depression. The relation with baseline memory appeared statistically stronger in APOE ε4 carriers (P-interaction = 0.03). For memory decline, mean differences in slopes of episodic memory (95% CI) for 4 to 7 versus no concern = −0.05 (−0.10, 0.01) standard units in APOE ε4 carriers, and −0.04 (−0.08, −0.01) standard units in non-carriers. Conclusions APOE ε4 carriers with self-assessed cognitive concerns appear to have worse memory, and possibly accelerated memory decline.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Alzheimer's and Dementia
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Dementia or other significant cognitive impairment (SCI) are often comorbid with other chronic diseases. To promote collaborative research on the intersection of these conditions, we compiled a systematic inventory of major data resources. Methods: Large data sets measuring dementia and/or cognition and chronic conditions in adults were included in the inventory. Key features of the resources were abstracted including region, participant sociodemographic characteristics, study design, sample size, accessibility, and available measures of dementia and/or cognition and comorbidities. Results: 117 study data sets were identified; 53% included clinical diagnoses of dementia along with valid and reliable measures of cognition. Most (79%) used longitudinal cohort designs and 41% had sample sizes greater than 5000. Approximately 47% were European-based, 40% were US-based, and 11% were based in other countries. Conclusions: Many high-quality data sets exist to support collaborative studies of the effects of dementia or SCI on chronic conditions and to inform the development of evidence-based disease management programs.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association

Publication Stats

15k Citations
2,263.90 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995-2016
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Channing Division of Network Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1993-2016
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1997-2015
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002-2014
    • Massachusetts Department of Public Health
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2011-2012
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Division of Geriatric Medicine
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2008
    • Rush University Medical Center
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Chicago, Illinois, United States