[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Physical inactivity is high in Latinas, as are chronic health conditions. There is a need for physical activity (PA) interventions that are not only effective but have potential for cost-effective widespread dissemination. The purpose of this paper was to assess the costs and cost effectiveness of a Spanish-language print-based mail-delivered PA intervention that was linguistically and culturally adapted for Latinas. Methods: Adult Latinas (N = 266) were randomly assigned to receive mail-delivered individually tailored intervention materials or wellness information mailed on the same schedule (control). PA was assessed at baseline, six months (post-intervention) and 12 months (maintenance phase) using the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall Interview. Costs were calculated from a payer perspective, and included personnel time (wage, fringe, and overhead), materials, equipment, software, and postage costs. Results: At six months, the PA intervention cost $29/person/month, compared to $15/person/month for wellness control. These costs fell to $17 and $9 at 12 months, respectively. Intervention participants increased their PA by an average of 72 min/week at six months and 94 min/week at 12 months, while wellness control participants increased their PA by an average of 30 min/week and 40 min/week, respectively. At six months, each minute increase in PA cost $0.18 in the intervention group compared to $0.23 in wellness control, which fell to $0.07 and $0.08 at 12 months, respectively. The incremental cost per increase in physical activity associated with the intervention was $0.15 at 6 months and $0.05 at 12 months. Conclusions: While the intervention was more costly than the wellness control, costs per minute of increase in PA were lower in the intervention. The print-based mail-delivered format has potential for broad, cost-effective dissemination, which could help address disparities in this at-risk population.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This mixed-method study used administrative data from 68 supportive housing programs and evaluative and qualitative site visit data from a subset of four forensic programs to (a) compare fidelity to the Housing First model and residential client outcomes between forensic and nonforensic programs and (b) investigate whether and how providers working in forensic programs can navigate competing Housing First principles and criminal justice mandates. Quantitative findings suggested that forensic programs were less likely to follow a harm reduction approach to substance use and clients in those programs were more likely to live in congregate settings. Qualitative findings suggested that an interplay of court involvement, limited resources, and risk environments influenced staff decisions regarding housing and treatment. Existing mental health and criminal justice collaborations necessitate adaptation to the Housing First model to accommodate client needs.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Community Mental Health Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Permanent supportive housing (PSH) programs are being implemented throughout the United States. This study examined the relationship between fidelity to the Housing First model and health service use among clients in PSH programs in California.
Data from a survey of PSH program practices were merged with administrative data on service utilization to examine the association between fidelity to a benchmark program, the Housing First model, and health service use among 5,067 clients in 77 PSH programs. Regression analyses were used to compare inpatient, crisis and residential, and outpatient mental health service use between high-, mid-, and low-fidelity programs in a pre-post design.
During the preenrollment period, clients in mid- and high-fidelity PSH programs, compared with low-fidelity programs, used inpatient and crisis and residential services more but used outpatient mental health services less. Postenrollment, patients in high-fidelity programs showed the largest increase in the number of outpatient visits, followed by clients in mid- and low-fidelity programs: 71.6 versus 48.2 and 29.0, respectively.
Clients in housing programs with higher fidelity to the Housing First model had greater increases in outpatient visits. Compared with lower-fidelity programs, higher-fidelity programs also enrolled clients who used fewer mental health outpatient services in the year before enrollment. Higher-fidelity programs may be more effective than lower-fidelity programs in increasing outpatient service utilization and in their outreach to and engagement of clients who are not appropriately served by the public mental health system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined whether receipt of outpatient psychiatric services after hospital discharge was associated with reduced risk of readmission.
Treatment records from patients admitted to San Diego County psychiatric hospitals over a one-year period were obtained from the San Diego County Behavioral Health Services electronic health record system. A discrete-time proportional hazards model was used to examine the association of receipt of outpatient psychiatric services with readmission within 30 days of discharge from the index hospitalization.
Of the 4,663 patients, 16% were readmitted within 30 days. In an adjusted model, receipt of outpatient therapy after discharge was associated with a greater likelihood of being readmitted (hazard ratio=1.36, 95% confidence interval=1.14-1.67), whereas receipt of case management or medication management was not associated with readmission.
The differential risk of readmission by service type suggests a need for studies that explore reasons for an increased risk of readmission with certain types of services.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes how individuals struggling with severe mental illness experience stigma along multiple dimensions including their experiences of discrimination by others, their unwillingness to disclose information about their mental health, and their internalization or rejection of the negative and positive aspects of having mental health problems.
This cross-sectional study employs descriptive analyses and linear regression to assess the relationship between demographics, mental health diagnoses and self-reported stigma among people receiving mental health services in a large and ethnically diverse county public mental health system (n = 1,237) in 2009. We used the King Stigma Scale to measure three factors related to stigma: discrimination, disclosure, and positive aspects of mental illness.
Most people (89.7 %) reported experiencing some discrimination from having mental health problems. Regression analyses revealed that younger people in treatment experienced more stigma related to mental health problems. Women reported experiencing more stigma than men, but men were less likely to endorse the potentially positive aspects of facing mental health challenges than women. Although people with mood disorders reported more discomfort with disclosing mental illness than people with schizophrenia, they did not report experiencing more discrimination than people with schizophrenia.
Study findings suggest that the multidimensional experiences of stigma differ as a function of age, gender, and diagnosis. Importantly, these findings should inform anti-stigma efforts by describing different potential treatment barriers due to experiences of stigma among people using mental health services, especially among younger people and women who may be more susceptible to stigma.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. Prior research suggests that medical marijuana laws (MMLs) have no effects on prevalence of marijuana use among adolescents and adults. Yet, adult-based studies employed aggregate state-level data, and adolescent-based studies relied on biennial surveys with limited state-year observations. This study examines the effects of MMLs on the prevalence of marijuana use and provides new evidence regarding perceived access to marijuana, and social norms against use by analyzing detailed individual-level data for an eight-year period.
Methods. Individual observations (adolescents=175,900, adults=356,600) were obtained from SAMHSA’s annual National Survey on Drug Use and Health confidential data 2004-2011. Difference-in-difference regression models estimated the within-state changes in marijuana outcomes before and after passing MMLs versus control states experiencing no changes in MMLs status.
Results. Among adults, passing MMLs increased the likelihood of past-month marijuana use (OR=1.17, p=.014) and past-year frequent use (OR=1.20, p=.012), and decreased the likelihood of perceiving frequent use harmful (OR=.91, p=.039). No discernable effects on MMLs were found on perceived access to marijuana. Adolescents were more likely to perceive access to marijuana as easy after passing MMLs (OR=1.13, p=.016), but there is no evidence suggesting that passing MMLs affected adolescents’ marijuana use or social norms.
Conclusions. This unparalleled and timely analysis suggests that MMLs has increased the use of marijuana and undermined the social norms against use among adults, whereas MMLs have had limited effects on marijuana outcomes among adolescents. Future research needs to examine the long-term impacts of MMLs among adolescents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This presentation focuses on a policy experiment being conducted in Los Angeles County (LAC), where the Department of Mental Health (DMH) has funded several models of integrated mental and physical health care (24 total programs). One of the models consists of using a housing first approach that combines supportive housing, assertive community treatment (ACT), and primary care (n=5). An implementation evaluation was conducted through interviews and observations conducted through site-visits to each program. Outcome data was entered into a web-based secure database developed for the project. A total of 465 adults with serious mental enrolled in the housing first programs. Days homeless decreased significantly, recovery measures showed significant improvement, but overall health measures were unchanged. These findings will be discussed in terms of challenges and solutions to providing integrated care for those who have experienced chronic homelessness and are now living in supportive housing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Despite the significant prevalence of elevated blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) in children, few studies have assessed their combined impact on healthcare costs. This study estimates healthcare costs related to BP and BMI in children and adolescents.
Prospective dynamic cohort study of 71,617 children aged 3 to 17 years with 208,800 child years of enrollment in integrated health systems in Colorado or Minnesota between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2011.
Generalized linear models were used to calculate standardized annual estimates of total, inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy costs, outpatient utilization, and receipt of diagnostic and evaluation tests associated with BP status and BMI status. Results: Total annual costs were significantly lower in children with normal BP ($736, SE = $15) and prehypertension ($945, SE = $10) than children with hypertension ($1972, SE = $74) (P <.001, each comparison), adjusting for BMI. Total annual cost for children below the 85th percentile of BMI ($822, SE = $8) was significantly lower than for children between the 85th and 95th percentiles ($954, SE = $45) and for children at or above the 95th percentile ($937, SE = $13) (P <.001, each), adjusting for HT.
This study shows strong associations of prehypertension and hypertension, independent of BMI, with healthcare costs in children. Although BMI status was also statistically significantly associated with costs, the major influence on cost in this large cohort of children and adolescents was BP status. Costs related to elevated BMI may be systematically overestimated in studies that do not adjust for BP status.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · The American journal of managed care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Permanent supported housing programs are being implemented throughout the United States. This study examined the relationship between fidelity to the Housing First model and residential outcomes among clients of full service partnerships (FSPs) in California.
This study had a mixed-methods design. Quantitative administrative and survey data were used to describe FSP practices and to examine the association between fidelity to Housing First and residential outcomes in the year before and after enrollment of 6,584 FSP clients in 86 programs. Focus groups at 20 FSPs provided qualitative data to enhance the understanding of these findings with actual accounts of housing-related experiences in high- and low-fidelity programs.
Prior to enrollment, the mean days of homelessness were greater at high- versus low-fidelity (101 versus 46 days) FSPs. After adjustment for individual characteristics, the analysis found that days spent homeless after enrollment declined by 87 at high-fidelity programs and by 34 at low-fidelity programs. After adjustment for days spent homeless before enrollment, days spent homeless after enrollment declined by 63 at high-fidelity programs and by 53 at low-fidelity programs. After enrollment, clients at high-fidelity programs spent more than 60 additional days in apartments than clients at low-facility programs. Differences were found between high- and low-fidelity FSPs in client choice in housing and how much clients' goals were considered in housing placement.
Programs with greater fidelity to the Housing First model enrolled clients with longer histories of homelessness and placed most of them in apartments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
California's full-service partnerships (FSPs) provide a combination of subsidized permanent housing and multidisciplinary team-based services with a focus on rehabilitation and recovery. The goal of the study was to examine whether participation in FSPs is associated with changes in health service use and costs compared with usual care.
A quasi-experimental, pre-post, intent-to-treat design with a propensity score-matched contemporaneous control group was used to compare health service use and costs among 10,231 FSP clients and 10,231 matched clients with serious mental illness who were receiving public mental health services in California from January 1, 2004, through June 30, 2010.
Among FSP participants, the mean annual number of mental health outpatient visits increased by 55.5, and annual mental health costs increased by $11,725 relative to the matched control group. Total service costs increased by $12,056.
Participation in an FSP was associated with increases in outpatient visits and their associated costs. As supportive housing programs are implemented nationally and on a large scale, these programs will likely need to be more effectively designed and targeted in order to achieve reductions in costly inpatient services.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined variation in the implementation of California's Full Service Partnerships (FSPs), which are supported housing programs that do "whatever it takes" to improve outcomes among persons with serious mental illness who are homeless or at risk of homelessness.
Ninety-three FSPs in California.
A mixed methods approach was selected to develop a better understanding of the complexity of the FSP programs. The design structure was a combined explanatory and exploratory sequential design (qual→QUAN→qual) where a qualitative focus group was used to develop a quantitative survey that was followed by qualitative site visits. The survey was used to describe the breadth of variation based on fidelity to the Housing First model, while the site visits were used to provide a depth of information on high- versus low-fidelity programs.
We found substantial variation in implementation among FSPs. Fidelity was particularly low along domains related with housing and service philosophy, indicating that many FSPs implemented a rich array of services but applied housing readiness requirements and did not adhere to consumer choice in housing.
There remains room for improvement in the recovery-orientation of FSPs. Fortunately, we have identified several processes by which program managers and counties can increase the fidelity of their programs.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Health Services Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In California, the Mental Health Services Act allocated substantial funding to Full Service Partnerships (FSPs): programs that do whatever it takes to improve residential stability and mental health outcomes. The state-guided, but stakeholder-driven, approach to FSPs resulted in a set of programs that share core similarities but vary in their specific approaches. This qualitative study examines FSP variations within the framework of fidelity to the Housing First model. Semistructured interviews with 21 FSP program managers identified through purposeful sampling were coded and analyzed to identify variations across programs in their approaches to housing and services. Through the process of constant comparison, FSP characteristics were condensed into a set of broad themes related to fidelity to the Housing First model. We identified three broad themes: (a) FSPs varied in the degree to which key elements of Housing First were present; (b) program recovery orientation and staff experience were associated with fidelity; and (c) FSPs for older adults, adults exiting the justice system, and transitional age youth made specific adaptations to tailor their programs for the needs of their specific populations. FSPs bring a considerable level of community-based housing and treatment resources to homeless persons with serious mental illness. However, when examined individually, there exists enough variation in approaches to housing and treatment to raise the question whether some programs may be more or less effective than others. An opportunity exists to employ the variation in FSPs implemented under this initiative to analyze the importance of fidelity to HF for client outcomes, program costs, and recovery-oriented care.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Programs that use the Housing First model are being implemented throughout the United States and internationally. The authors describe the development and validation of a Housing First fidelity survey.
A 46-item survey was developed to measure fidelity across five domains: housing process and structure, separation of housing and services, service philosophy, service array, and team structure. The survey was administered to staff and clients of 93 supported-housing programs in California. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to identify the items and model structure that best fit the data.
Sixteen items were retained in a two-factor model, one related to approach to housing, separation of housing and services, and service philosophy and one related to service array and team structure.
Our survey mapped program practices by using a common metric that captured variation in fidelity to Housing First across a large-scale implementation of supported-housing programs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To describe a needs assessment, practice description, practice innovation and reimbursement of a psychiatric pharmacist medication therapy management (MTM) clinic with related challenges and opportunities. SETTING An MTM clinic established in collaboration with the Outpatient Psychiatric Services (OPS) at the University of California San Diego (UCSD), under contract with the San Diego County Health and Human Services Agency Adult and Older Adult Mental Health Services (A/OAMHS). PRACTICE DESCRIPTION Two board-certified psychiatric pharmacists provided direct patient care using a collaborative practice protocol 3 days per week. Clinical services included pharmacotherapy management, laboratory monitoring, medication counseling, and psychosocial referrals to other providers. PRACTICE INNOVATION Payment to UCSD OPS for clinical services was based on a contract between the San Diego County A/OAMHS and the clinic. Two pharmacists co-managed mental health patients and billed for medication management based on face-to-face contact time (medication minutes) and documentation time with each patient. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Number of patients comanaged, dropout rates, visit duration, and billed minutes. RESULTS From May 2009 to December 2010, two pharmacists comanaged 68 patients, mean (± SD) age 48.6 ± 11.6 years, diagnosed with major depressive, schizophrenic, schizoaffective, and/or bipolar disorder. A total of 56 (82.3%) patients were clinically stable and remained on the pharmacist caseload, but 12 (17.6%) patients were lost to follow-up (10 lost contact, 1 moved, 1 expired). On average, patients had 7.7 patient visits , for 491 total visits (with an average of 26 minutes per visit) that were billed at a rate of $4.82 per minute for medication minutes, translating to $84,542.80. CONCLUSION With provider education and appropriate physician champions, pharmacists are able to work collaboratively with psychiatrists in a mental health clinic.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of the American Pharmacists Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: San Diego County Mental Health system clients completed a questionnaire after the October 2007 wildfires. As compared to those not in an evacuation area, those residing in an evacuation area reported significantly more impact of the fires. Clients who evacuated were most affected, followed by those in an evacuation area who did not evacuate. Evacuation strongly impacted client-reported emotional effects of the fire, confusion about whether to evacuate, and ability to obtain medications. Gender and clinical diagnosis interacted with evacuation status for some fire impact variables. Loss of control and disruption of routine are discussed as possibly related factors.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Medical groups have invested billions of dollars in electronic medical records (EMRs), but few studies have examined the cost-effectiveness of EMR-based clinical decision support (CDS). This study examined the cost-effectiveness of EMR-based CDS for adults with diabetes from the perspective of the health care system.
Clinical outcome and cost data from a randomized clinical trial of EMR-based CDS were used as inputs into a diabetes simulation model. The simulation cohort included 1,092 patients with diabetes with A1c above goal at baseline.
The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Outcomes Model, a validated simulation model of diabetes, was used to evaluate remaining life years, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and health care costs over patient lifetimes (40-year time horizon) from the health system perspective.
Patients in the intervention group had significantly lowered A1c (0.26 percent, p = .014) relative to patients in the control arm. Intervention costs were $120 (SE = 45) per patient in the first year and $76 (SE = 45) per patient in the following years. In the base case analysis, EMR-based CDS increased lifetime QALYs by 0.04 (SE = 0.01) and increased lifetime costs by $112 (SE = 660), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $3,017 per QALY. The cost-effectiveness of EMR-based CDS persisted in one-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.
Widespread adoption of sophisticated EMR-based CDS has the potential to modestly improve the quality of care for patients with chronic conditions without substantially increasing costs to the health care system.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Health Services Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proposals to move toward reducing geographic differentials in health care spending have focused on patterns of spending in Medicare. We show in this article that when considering each state as a whole, there is almost no relationship between the level of spending for Medicare beneficiaries and that for other populations. In sharp contrast to these state-level results, there is a strong relationship between Medicare and Medicaid spending in comparing Hospital Referral Regions within each state. We suggest that the strong intrastate regional correlations demonstrate the importance of the supply of hospital beds, specialists, and other health care resources as determinants of use and spending. In contrast, the lack of correlation at the state level suggests that other factors, such as state-level poverty rates, influence use and spending at the state level, and that these other factors influence Medicare and non-Medicare use and spending differently. These findings demonstrate that it is important to broaden our analytic focus from Medicare beneficiaries to the larger population, and to consider the likely effects of changes in Medicare payment policy on the care received by other state residents.