Roberto Pastor-Barriuso

Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Are you Roberto Pastor-Barriuso?

Claim your profile

Publications (55)327.4 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) among obese persons without obesity-related metabolic abnormalities, called metabolically healthy obesity, is largely unexplored. Objective: To investigate the risk for incident CKD across categories of body mass index in a large cohort of metabolically healthy men and women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Kangbuk Samsung Health Study, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. Participants: 62 249 metabolically healthy, young and middle-aged men and women without CKD or proteinuria at baseline. Measurements: Metabolic health was defined as a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance less than 2.5 and absence of any component of the metabolic syndrome. Underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity were defined as a body mass index less than 18.5 kg/m2, 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m2, 23 to 24.9 kg/m2, and 25 kg/m2 or greater, respectively. The outcome was incident CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: During 369 088 person-years of follow-up, 906 incident CKD cases were identified. The multivariable-adjusted differences in 5-year cumulative incidence of CKD in underweight, overweight, and obese participants compared with normal-weight participants were -4.0 (95% CI, -7.8 to -0.3), 3.5 (CI, 0.9 to 6.1), and 6.7 (CI, 3.0 to 10.4) cases per 1000 persons, respectively. These associations were consistently seen in all clinically relevant subgroups. Limitation: Chronic kidney disease was identified by a single measurement at each visit. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased incidence of CKD in metabolically healthy young and middle-aged participants. These findings show that metabolically healthy obesity is not a harmless condition and that the obese phenotype, regardless of metabolic abnormalities, can adversely affect renal function. Primary funding source: None.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Annals of internal medicine
  • J Damián · R Pastor-Barriuso · E Valderrama-Gama · J de Pedro-Cuesta
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Studies on depression and mortality in nursing homes have shown inconclusive findings, and none has studied the role of detection. We sought to measure the association of depression with long-term all-cause mortality in institutionalised older people and evaluate a potential modification in the association by its detection status. Methods: We selected a stratified cluster sample of 591 residents aged 75 years or older (mean age 84.5 years) living in residential and nursing homes of Madrid, Spain, who were free of severe cognitive impairment at the 1998-1999 baseline interview. Mortality was ascertained until age 105 years or September 2013 (median/maximum follow-up 4.8/15.2 years) through linkage to the Spanish National Death Index. Detected depression was defined at baseline as a physician's diagnosis or antidepressant use, undetected depression as significant depressive symptoms (score of 4 or higher on the ten-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale) without documented diagnosis or treatment, and no depression as the absence of diagnosis, treatment, and symptoms. Constant and age-dependent hazard ratios for mortality comparing detected and undetected depression with no depression were estimated using Cox models, and absolute years of life gained and lost using Weibull models. Results: The baseline prevalences of detected and undetected depression were 25.9 and 18.8%, respectively. A total of 499 participants died during 3575 person-years of follow-up. In models adjusted for age, sex, type of facility, number of chronic conditions, and functional dependency, overall depression was not associated with long-term all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-1.08). However, compared with no depression, detected depression showed lower mortality (hazard ratio 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46-0.86), while undetected depression registered higher, not statistically significant, mortality (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% CI: 0.98-1.86). The median life expectancy increased by 1.8 years (95% CI: -3.1 to 6.7 years) in residents with detected depression and decreased by 6.3 years (95% CI: 2.6-10.1 years) in those undetected. Results were more marked in women than men and they were robust to the exclusion of antidepressants from the definition of depression and also to the use of a stricter cut-off for the presence of depressive symptoms. Conclusions: The long-term mortality risk associated with depression in nursing homes depends on its detection status, with better prognosis in residents with detected depression and worse in those undetected. The absolute impact of undetected depressive symptoms in terms of life expectancy can be prominent.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Importance: Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction or stabilization is the only proven method for glaucoma management. Identifying risk factors for IOP is crucial to understand the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Objective: To examine the associations of change in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent fat mass with change in intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean adults. Design, setting and participants: Cohort study of 274,064 young and middle age Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings who attended annual or biennial health exams from January 1, 2002 to Feb 28, 2010 (577,981 screening visits). Exposures: BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass. Main outcome measure(s): At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes with automated noncontact tonometers. Results: In multivariable-adjusted models, the average increase in IOP (95% confidence intervals) over time per interquartile increase in BMI (1.26 kg/m2), waist circumference (6.20 cm), and percent fat mass (3.40%) were 0.18 mmHg (0.17 to 0.19), 0.27 mmHg (0.26 to 0.29), and 0.10 mmHg (0.09 to 0.11), respectively (all P < 0.001). The association was stronger in men compared to women (P < 0.001) and it was only slightly attenuated after including diabetes and hypertension as potential mediators in the model. Conclusions and relevance: Increases in adiposity were significantly associated with an increase in IOP in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health screening visits, an association that was stronger for central obesity. Further research is needed to understand better the underlying mechanisms of this association, and to establish the role of weight gain in increasing IOP and the risk of glaucoma and its complications.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between Se and cholesterol concentrations, a recent randomised controlled trial in 501 elderly UK individuals of relatively low-Se status found that Se supplementation for 6 months lowered total plasma cholesterol. The Danish PRECISE (PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with Selenium) pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01819649) was a 5-year randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with four groups (allocation ratio 1:1:1:1). Men and women aged 60–74 years ( n 491) were randomised to 100 ( n 124), 200 ( n 122) or 300 ( n 119) μg Se-enriched yeast or matching placebo-yeast tablets ( n 126) daily for 5 years. A total of 468 participants continued the study for 6 months and 361 participants, equally distributed across treatment groups, continued for 5 years. Plasma samples were analysed for total and HDL-cholesterol and for total Se concentrations at baseline, 6 months and 5 years. The effect of different doses of Se supplementation on plasma lipid and Se concentrations was estimated by using linear mixed models. Plasma Se concentration increased significantly and dose-dependently in the intervention groups after 6 months and 5 years. Total cholesterol decreased significantly both in the intervention groups and in the placebo group after 6 months and 5 years, with small and nonsignificant differences in changes in plasma concentration of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and total:HDL-cholesterol ratio between intervention and placebo groups. The effect of long-term supplementation with Se on plasma cholesterol concentrations or its sub-fractions did not differ significantly from placebo in this elderly population.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The British journal of nutrition
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The association of egg consumption with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the association between egg consumption and prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC). Cross-sectional study of 23,417 asymptomatic adult men and women without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or hypercholesterolemia, who underwent a health screening examination including cardiac computed tomography for CAC scoring and completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Total Healthcare Centers, South Korea (March 2011-April 2013). The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score > 0) was 11.2%. In multivariable-adjusted models, CAC score ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing participants eating ≥ 7 eggs/wk to those eating < 1 egg/wk was 1.80 (1.14-2.83; P for trend = 0.003). The multivariable CAC score ratio (95% CI) associated with an increase in consumption of 1 egg/day was 1.54 (1.11-2.14). The positive association seemed to be more pronounced among participants with low vegetable intake (P for interaction = 0.02) and those with high BMI (P for interaction = 0.05). The association was attenuated and no longer significant after further adjustment for dietary cholesterol. Egg consumption was associated with an increased prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and with a greater degree of coronary calcification in asymptomatic Korean adults, which may be mediated by dietary cholesterol. The association was particularly pronounced among individuals with low vegetable intake and those with high BMI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Atherosclerosis
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a convenient, non-radiating, readily available measurement of arterial stiffness, and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a reliable marker of coronary atherosclerosis, in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults; and to assess the incremental value of baPWV for detecting prevalent CAC beyond traditional risk factors. Cross-sectional study of 15,185 asymptomatic Korean adults who voluntarily underwent a comprehensive health screening program including measurement of baPWV and CAC. BaPWV was measured using an oscillometric method with cuffs placed on both arms and ankles. CAC burden was assessed using a multi-detector CT scan and scored following Agatston's method. The prevalence of CAC > 0 and CAC > 100 increased across baPWV quintiles. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC > 0 comparing baPWV quintiles 2-5 versus quintile 1 were 1.06 (0.87-1.30), 1.24 (1.02-1.50), 1.39 (1.15-1.69) and 1.60 (1.31-1.96), respectively (P trend < 0.001). Similarly, the relative prevalence ratios for CAC > 100 were 1.30 (0.74-2.26), 1.59 (0.93-2.71), 1.74 (1.03-2.94) and 2.59 (1.54-4.36), respectively (P trend < 0.001). For CAC > 100, the area under the ROC curve for baPWV alone was 0.71 (0.68-0.74), and the addition of baPWV to traditional risk factors significantly improved the discrimination and calibration of models for detecting prevalent CAC > 0 and CAC > 100. BaPWV was independently associated with the presence and severity of CAC in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults. BaPWV may be a valuable tool for identifying apparently low-risk individuals with increased burden of coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Atherosclerosis
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although physician-rated health is emerging as a potentially useful variable in research, with implications in practice, it has not been analyzed. Moreover, one of its most important aspects, namely, concordance with patients' objective health state, has not been investigated. This study sought to measure concordance between physician-rated health and an objective health measure, and assess both measures' validity in predicting death. The data for the study were drawn from a 1998-1999 survey and subsequent mortality follow-up of residential and nursing homes in Madrid (Spain). Study subjects were 630 residents aged ≥65 years, and their respective facility physicians. Measures included agreement between physicians' rating of residents' overall health (good, intermediate or poor) and an objective measure of residents' health (good, intermediate or poor), based on functional capacity, cognitive status, and number of chronic conditions. Overrating was defined as any case where health, rated as good by a physician, was objectively rated as poor. Whereas 45 % of physicians and 55 % of residents rated their health as good, only 4 % of such residents had good objective health. Of those who received a physician rating of good/very good health, 39.0 % had poor objective health. There was evidence of clear overrating in 18 % of the population, and clear to moderate overrating in 73 % of the population. In terms of power to predict mortality, the pattern of behavior shown by the objective health measure was good, graded and congruent, and better than that shown by physician-rated health. Physician overrating of the overall health of older persons in residential and nursing homes, would appear to be very high. Although some degree of contextualization by physicians in this setting might be considered reasonable, the degree of overrating in our population seems nevertheless excessive.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · BMC Geriatrics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · The American Journal of Cardiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of diabetes and diabetes treatment with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Histologically confirmed incident cases of postmenopausal breast (N = 916) cancer were recruited from 23 Spanish public hospitals. Population-based controls (N = 1094) were randomly selected from primary care center lists within the catchment areas of the participant hospitals. ORs (95 % CI) were estimated using mixed-effects logistic regression models, using the recruitment center as a random effect term. Breast tumors were classified into hormone receptor positive (ER+ or PR+), HER2+ and triple negative (TN). Diabetes was not associated with the overall risk of breast cancer (OR 1.09; 95 % CI 0.82-1.45), and it was only linked to the risk of developing TN tumors: Among 91 women with TN tumors, 18.7 % were diabetic, while the corresponding figure among controls was 9.9 % (OR 2.25; 95 % CI 1.22-4.15). Regarding treatment, results showed that insulin use was more prevalent among diabetic cases (2.5 %) as compared to diabetic controls (0.7 %); OR 2.98; 95 % CI 1.26-7.01. They also showed that, among diabetics, the risk of developing HR+/HER2- tumors decreased with longer metformin use (ORper year 0.89; 95 % CI 0.81-0.99; based on 24 cases and 43 controls). This study reinforces the need to correctly classify breast cancers when studying their association with diabetes. Given the low survival rates in women diagnosed with TN breast tumors and the potential impact of diabetes control on breast cancer prevention, more studies are needed to better characterize this association.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Acta Diabetologica
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In Spain, cervical cancer prevention is based on opportunistic screening, due to the disease's traditionally low incidence and mortality rates. Changes in sexual behaviour, tourism and migration have, however, modified the probability of exposure to human papilloma virus among Spaniards. This study thus sought to evaluate recent cervical cancer mortality trends in Spain. We used annual female population figures and individual records of deaths certified as cancer of cervix, reclassifying deaths recorded as unspecified uterine cancer to correct coding quality problems. Joinpoint models were fitted to estimate change points in trends, as well as the annual (APC) and average annual percentage change. Log-linear Poisson models were also used to study age-period-cohort effects on mortality trends and their change points. 1981 marked the beginning of a decline in cervical cancer mortality (APC1981-2003: -3.2; 95%CI:-3.4;-3.0) that ended in 2003, with rates reaching a plateau in the last decade (APC2003-2012: 0.1; 95%CI:-0.9; 1.2). This trend, which was observable among women aged 45-46 years (APC2003-2012:1.4; 95%CI:-0.1;2.9) and over 65 years (APC2003-2012:-0.1; 95%CI:-1.9;1.7), was clearest in Spain's Mediterranean and Southern regions. The positive influence of opportunistic screening is not strong enough to further reduce cervical cancer mortality rates in the country. Our results suggest that the Spanish Health Authorities should reform current prevention programmes and surveillance strategies in order to confront the challenges posed by cervical cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · BMC Cancer
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AimsA systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to synthesize results from cohort studies on initiation into drug injection among vulnerable populations, to quantify heterogeneity in the estimated incidence rates of drug injection, and to identify potential sources of heterogeneity and bias.MethodsMEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and LILACS were searched for relevant studies published between 1980 and 2012. Investigators independently reviewed studies for inclusion, retrieved information on baseline population characteristics and follow-up features, and assessed study quality. Study-specific incidence rates of drug injection were calculated as the number of new injectors divided by the person-years at risk. The I2 statistic was used to quantify heterogeneity in incidence rates across studies, and random-effects meta-regression models were used to identify determinants of heterogeneity and bias.ResultsNine cohorts totaling 1,843 participants met the inclusion criteria, with individual sample sizes of 70 to 415 participants and follow-up lengths of 0.5 to 3.4 years. The incidence of drug injection varied widely from 2.1 to 24.2 cases per 100 person-years. The strong between-study heterogeneity (I2=90%, P<0.001) was significantly reduced after accounting for the different follow-up lengths (I2=17%, P=0.30), with a 57% (95% confidence interval 46–66%) decrease in the pooled incidence of drug injection per one-year increase in average follow-up.Conclusions The incidence of drug injection decreases sharply with increasing follow-up length in cohort studies on drug injection initiation. Low retention rates and potential for downward selection bias in cohort studies on drug injection initiation are caused primarily by greater loss to follow-up among individuals at higher risk of starting injection, compared with other participants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Addiction
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To examine the longitudinal association between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean men and women. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 274,064 young and middle-aged Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings, following them from January 1, 2002, to February 28, 2010. Health exams were scheduled annually or biennially. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes using automated noncontact tonometers. The longitudinal change in IOP with age was evaluated using three-level mixed models for longitudinal paired-eye data, accounting for correlations between paired eyes and repeated measurements over time. Results: In fully adjusted models, the average longitudinal change in IOP per 1-year increase in age was -0.065 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.068 to -0.063), with marked sex differences (P < 0.001). In men, the average annual IOP change was -0.093 mm Hg (95% CI -0.096 to -0.091) throughout follow-up. In women, the average annual IOP change was -0.006 mm Hg (95% CI -0.010 to -0.003), with a relatively flat association in the age range of 30 to 59 years and more marked annual decreases at younger and older ages. Conclusions: Intraocular pressure was inversely associated with age in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health-screening visits. For men, this inverse association was observed throughout the entire age range, while for women it was evident only in younger (<30 years of age) and older (≥60 years of age) women, with no association in women aged 30 to 59. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to reconsider cutoffs for defining high IOP by age and sex groups in Asian populations.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are risk factors for atherosclerosis. It is unclear whether thyroid hormone levels within the normal range are also associated with atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC). Approach and results: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 41 403 apparently healthy young and middle-aged men and women with normal thyroid hormone levels. Free thyroxin, free triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. CAC score was measured by multidetector computed tomography. The multivariable adjusted CAC ratios comparing the highest versus the lowest quartile of thyroid hormones were 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.91; P for trend <0.001) for free thyroxin, 0.81 (0.66-1.00; P for trend=0.05) for free triiodothyronine, and 0.78 (0.64-0.95; P for trend=0.01) for thyroid-stimulating hormone. Similarly, the odds ratios for detectable CAC (CAC >0) comparing the highest versus the lowest quartiles of thyroid hormones were 0.87 (0.79-0.96; P for linear trend <0.001) for free thyroxin, 0.90 (0.82-0.99; P for linear trend=0.02) for free triiodothyronine, and 0.91 (0.83-1.00; P for linear trend=0.03) for thyroid-stimulating hormone. Conclusions: In a large cohort of apparently healthy young and middle-aged euthyroid men and women, low-normal free thyroxin and thyroid-stimulating hormone were associated with a higher prevalence of subclinical coronary artery disease and with a greater degree of coronary calcification.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are associated with higher levels of serum creatinine and with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prospective association between thyroid hormones and kidney function in euthyroid individuals,however, is largely unexplored. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study in 104 633 South Korean men and women who were free of CKD and proteinuria at baseline and had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease or cancer. At each annual or biennial follow-up visit, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxin (FT4) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The study outcome was incident CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. Results: After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 1032 participants developed incident CKD.There was a positive association between high-normal levels of TSH and increased risk of incident CKD. In fully-adjusted models including baseline eGFR, the hazard ratio comparing the highest vs the lowest quintiles of TSH was 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.55; P for linear trend=0.03]. In spline models, FT3 levels below 3 pg/ml were also associated with increased risk of incident CKD. There was no association between FT4 levels and CKD. Conclusions: In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, high levels of TSH and low levels of FT3, even within the normal range, were modestly associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · International Journal of Epidemiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although oral cavity, pharyngeal, oesophageal and gastric cancers share some risk factors, no comparative analysis of mortality rate trends in these illnesses has been undertaken in Spain. This study aimed to evaluate the independent effects of age, death period and birth cohort on the mortality rates of these tumours. Specific and age-adjusted mortality rates by tumour and sex were analysed. Age-period-cohort log-linear models were fitted separately for each tumour and sex, and segmented regression models were used to detect changes in period- and cohort-effect curvatures. Among men, the period-effect curvatures for oral cavity/pharyngeal and oesophageal cancers displayed a mortality trend that rose until 1995 and then declined. Among women, oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer mortality increased throughout the study period whereas oesophageal cancer mortality decreased after 1970. Stomach cancer mortality decreased in both sexes from 1965 onwards. Lastly, the cohort-effect curvature showed a certain degree of similarity for all three tumours in both sexes, which was greater among oral cavity, pharyngeal and oesophageal cancers, with a change point in evidence, after which risk of death increased in cohorts born from the 1910-1920s onwards and decreased among the 1950-1960 cohorts and successive generations. This latter feature was likewise observed for stomach cancer. While the similarities of the cohort effects in oral cavity/pharyngeal, oesophageal and gastric tumours support the implication of shared risk factors, the more marked changes in cohort-effect curvature for oral cavity/pharyngeal and oesophageal cancer could be due to the greater influence of some risk factors in their aetiology, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. The increase in oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer mortality in women deserves further study.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · BMC Cancer
  • Source
    Roberto Pastor-Barriuso · Gonzalo López-Abente
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In contrast to other haematological cancers, mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma increased dramatically during the second half of the 20th century in most developed countries. This widespread upward trend remains controversial, as it may be attributable either to progressive improvements in diagnosis and certification or to increasing exposures to little-known but relevant risk factors. To assess the relative contribution of these factors, we analysed the independent effects of age, death period, and birth cohort on haematological cancer mortality rates in Spain across the period 1952-2006. Weighted joinpoint regression analyses were performed to detect and estimate changes in period and cohort curvatures. Although mortality rates were consistently higher among men, trends across periods and cohorts were virtually identical in both sexes. There was an early period trend reversal in the 1960s for Hodgkin's disease and leukaemia, which was delayed to the 1980s for multiple myeloma and the 1990s for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Birth cohort patterns showed a first downturn for generations born in the 1900s and 1910s for all haematological cancers, and a second trend reversal for more recent cohorts born in the 1950s and 1960s for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and leukaemia. The sustained decline in Hodgkin's disease mortality and the levelling off in leukaemia seem to be driven by an early period effect linked to improvements in disease treatment, whereas the steep upward trends in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma mortality in Spain are more likely explained by a cohort effect linked to better diagnosis and death certification in the elderly. The consistent male excess mortality across all calendar periods and age groups points to the importance of possible sex-related genetic markers of susceptibility in haematological cancers.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · BMC Cancer
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context: Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, both overt and subclinical, are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The association between thyroid hormones and mortality in euthyroid individuals, however, is unclear. Objective: To examine the prospective association between thyroid hormones levels within normal ranges and mortality endpoints. Design: Prospective cohort study from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2009. Participants: 212,456 middle age South Korean men and women who had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease at baseline. Exposures: Free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Main outcomes: Vital status and cause of death ascertainment were based on linkage to the National Death Index death certificate records. Results: After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 730 participants died (335 cancer deaths and 112 cardiovascular deaths). FT4 was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.95, comparing the highest vs. lowest quartile of FT4; P for linear trend = 0.01), and FT3 was inversely associated cancer mortality (HR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.85; P for linear trend = 0.001). TSH was not associated with mortality endpoints. Conclusions: In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, FT4 and FT3 levels within the normal range were inversely associated with the risk of all-cause mortality and cancer mortality, particularly liver cancer mortality.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: World-wide controversy continues to surround the question of whether exposure to ionising radiations arising from nuclear power plants and radioactive fuel cycle facilities could increase the risk of cancer. The objective was to analyse cancer mortality in towns close to Spanish nuclear power plants and radioactive fuel cycle facilities by reference to their history of exposure to artificial radiation generated by such emissions. An ecological cancer mortality study was conducted to know the effect of artificial radiation, estimated taken into account the magnitude of emissions, in towns ≤30 km of any installation. A model of atmospheric and aquatic dispersion of radionuclides was used. As reference, towns within a 50–100 km radius were matched with exposed by socio-demographic characteristics. For analysis purposes, log-linear Poisson models were fitted. The cumulative effective dose was the measure of exposure. Mortality rates ratios were calculated for each tumour site. Natural radiation and socio-demographic matching variables were included in the models, with ‘installation’ as a random effects term. The estimated cumulative artificial radiation dose was below 350 μSv for all sites. For nuclear power plants overall, analysis showed no positive association with increases in the cumulative dose. In the joint analysis of radioactive fuel cycle facilities, however, mortality was observed to rise with increases in the estimated radiation dose in the case of lung, bone and colorectal cancer, and in breast cancer among women. These results would not appear to be due to exposure arising from the operation of the installations, since were not reproduced around installations of the same type.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · International journal of Environmental Science and Technology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A total of 2,514,346 metric tons (Mt) of asbestos were imported into Spain from 1906 until the ban on asbestos in 2002. Our objective was to study pleural cancer mortality trends as an indicator of mesothelioma mortality and update mortality predictions for the periods 2011--2015 and 2016--2020 in Spain. Log-linear Poisson models were fitted to study the effect of age, period of death and birth cohort (APC) on mortality trends. Change points in cohort- and period-effect curvatures were assessed using segmented regression. Fractional power-link APC models were used to predict mortality until 2020. In addition, an alternative model based on national asbestos consumption figures was also used to perform long-term predictions. Pleural cancer deaths increased across the study period, rising from 491 in 1976--1980 to 1,249 in 2006--2010. Predictions for the five-year period 2016--2020 indicated a total of 1,319 pleural cancer deaths (264 deaths/year). Forecasts up to 2020 indicated that this increase would continue, though the age-adjusted rates showed a levelling-off in male mortality from 2001 to 2005, corresponding to the lower risk in post-1960 generations. Among women, rates were lower and the mortality trend was also different, indicating that occupational exposure was possibly the single factor having most influence on pleural cancer mortality. The cancer mortality-related consequences of human exposure to asbestos are set to persist and remain in evidence until the last surviving members of the exposed cohorts have disappeared. It can thus be assumed that occupationally-related deaths due to pleural mesothelioma will continue to occur in Spain until at least 2040.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · BMC Cancer
  • Source
    Javier Virues-Ortega · Flávia M Julio · Roberto Pastor-Barriuso
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The intervention program for autism known as Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) is considered an emerging practice for autism. In the present study we used state-of-the-art meta-analytical procedures to examine the pooled clinical effects of TEACCH in a variety of outcomes. A total of 13 studies were selected for meta-analysis totaling 172 individuals with autism exposed to TEACCH. Standardized measures of perceptual, motor, adaptive, verbal and cognitive skills were identified as treatment outcomes. We used inverse-variance weighted random effects meta-analysis supplemented with quality assessment, sensitivity analysis, meta-regression, and heterogeneity and publication bias tests. The results suggested that TEACCH effects on perceptual, motor, verbal and cognitive skills were of small magnitude in the meta-analyzed studies. Effects over adaptive behavioral repertoires including communication, activities of daily living, and motor functioning were within the negligible to small range. There were moderate to large gains in social behavior and maladaptive behavior. The effects of the TEACCH program were not moderated by aspects of the intervention such as duration (total weeks), intensity (hours per week), and setting (home-based vs. center-based). While the present meta-analysis provided limited support for the TEACCH program as a comprehensive intervention, our results should be considered exploratory owing to the limited pool of studies available.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Clinical psychology review