Geoffrey M Calvert

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Атланта, Michigan, United States

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Publications (133)666.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Paraquat and diquat are among the most commonly used herbicides in the world. Objectives: Determine the magnitude, characteristics, and root causes for acute paraquat- and diquat-related illnesses in the US METHODS: Illnesses associated with paraquat or diquat exposure occurring from 1998 through 2011 were identified from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides Program, the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) Pesticide Illness Surveillance Program (PISP), and the Incident Data System (IDS). Cases identified by the National Poison Data System (NPDS) were reviewed for the years 1998-2003 and 2006-2013. Results: A total of 300 paraquat- and 144 diquat-related acute illnesses were identified by SENSOR, PISP, and IDS. NPDS identified 693 paraquat- and 2128 diquat-related acute illnesses. In SENSOR/PISP/IDS, illnesses were commonly low severity (paraquat=41%; diquat=81%); however, SENSOR/PISP/IDS identified 24 deaths caused by paraquat and 5 deaths associated with diquat. Nineteen paraquat-related deaths were due to ingestion, seven of which were unintentional, often due to improper storage in beverage bottles. In SENSOR/PISP/IDS, paraquat and diquat-related acute illnesses were work-related in 68% (n=203) and 29% (n=42) of cases, respectively. When herbicide application site was known, the vast majority of acute paraquat-related illnesses (81%) arose from agricultural applications. Common root causes of illness were failure to use adequate personal protective equipment (PPE), application equipment failure, and spill/splash of herbicide. Conclusions: Although the magnitude of acute paraquat/diquat-related illnesses was relatively low, several fatalities were identified. Many illnesses could be prevented through stricter compliance with label requirements (e.g. ensuring proper herbicide storage and PPE use), and through enhanced training of certified applicators.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · Environmental Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Hearing loss and tinnitus are two potentially debilitating physical conditions affecting many people in the United States. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hearing difficulty, tinnitus, and their co-occurrence within U.S. Populations: Methods: Data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were examined. Weighted prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios for self-reported hearing difficulty, tinnitus, and their co-occurrence were estimated and compared by demographic, among workers with and without occupational noise exposure, and across industries and occupations. Results: Seven percent of U.S. workers never exposed to occupational noise had hearing difficulty, 5% had tinnitus and 2% had both conditions. However, among workers who had ever been exposed to occupational noise, the prevalence was 23%, 15%, and 9%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Hearing difficulty and tinnitus are prevalent in the U.S.; especially among noise-exposed workers. Improved strategies for hearing conservation or better implementation are needed. Am. J. Ind. Med. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · American Journal of Industrial Medicine

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
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    ABSTRACT: Lack of trust in government-supported services after the death of a health care worker with symptoms of Ebola resulted in ongoing Ebola transmission in 2 Liberia counties. Ebola transmission was facilitated by attempts to avoid cremation of the deceased patient and delays in identifying and monitoring contacts.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Emerging infectious diseases
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    Dataset: 15-0511

    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Most studies of firefighter cancer risks were conducted prior to 1990 and do not reflect risk from advances in building materials. A case-control study using California Cancer Registry data (1988-2007) was conducted to evaluate the risk of cancer among firefighters, stratified by race. This study identified 3,996 male firefighters with cancer. Firefighters were found to have a significantly elevated risk for melanoma (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-2.1), multiple myeloma (OR 1.4; 95%CI 1.0-1.8), acute myeloid leukemia (OR 1.4; 95%CI 1.0-2.0), and cancers of the esophagus (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.2-2.1), prostate (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.3-1.7), brain (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.2-2.0), and kidney (OR 1.3; 95%CI 1.0-1.6). In addition to observing cancer findings consistent with previous research, this study generated novel findings for firefighters with race/ethnicity other than white. It provides additional evidence to support the association between firefighting and several specific cancers. © 2015 This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. © 2015 This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · American Journal of Industrial Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: West Africa is experiencing its first epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) (1). As of February 9, Liberia has reported 8,864 Ebola cases, of which 3,147 were laboratory-confirmed. Beginning in August 2014, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), supported by CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO), and others, began systematically investigating and responding to Ebola outbreaks in remote areas. Because many of these areas lacked mobile telephone service, easy road access, and basic infrastructure, flexible and targeted interventions often were required. Development of a national strategy for the Rapid Isolation and Treatment of Ebola (RITE) began in early October. The strategy focuses on enhancing capacity of county health teams (CHT) to investigate outbreaks in remote areas and lead tailored responses through effective and efficient coordination of technical and operational assistance from the MOHSW central level and international partners. To measure improvements in response indicators and outcomes over time, data from investigations of 12 of 15 outbreaks in remote areas with illness onset dates of index cases during July 16–November 20, 2014, were analyzed. The times to initial outbreak alerts and durations of the outbreaks declined over that period while the proportions of patients who were isolated and treated increased. At the same time, the case-fatality rate in each outbreak declined. Implementation of strategies, such as RITE, to rapidly respond to rural outbreaks of Ebola through coordinated and tailored responses can successfully reduce transmission and improve outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
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    ABSTRACT: West Africa is experiencing its first epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola). As of February 9, Liberia has reported 8,864 Ebola cases, of which 3,147 were laboratory-confirmed. Beginning in August 2014, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), supported by CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO), and others, began systematically investigating and responding to Ebola outbreaks in remote areas. Because many of these areas lacked mobile telephone service, easy road access, and basic infrastructure, flexible and targeted interventions often were required. Development of a national strategy for the Rapid Isolation and Treatment of Ebola (RITE) began in early October. The strategy focuses on enhancing capacity of county health teams (CHT) to investigate outbreaks in remote areas and lead tailored responses through effective and efficient coordination of technical and operational assistance from the MOHSW central level and international partners. To measure improvements in response indicators and outcomes over time, data from investigations of 12 of 15 outbreaks in remote areas with illness onset dates of index cases during July 16-November 20, 2014, were analyzed. The times to initial outbreak alerts and durations of the outbreaks declined over that period while the proportions of patients who were isolated and treated increased. At the same time, the case-fatality rate in each outbreak declined. Implementation of strategies, such as RITE, to rapidly respond to rural outbreaks of Ebola through coordinated and tailored responses can successfullyreduce transmission and improve outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of hearing loss for noise-exposed U.S. workers by industry sector and 5-year time period, covering 30 years. Audiograms for 1.8 million workers from 1981-2010 were examined. Incidence and prevalence were estimated by industry sector and time period. The adjusted risk of incident hearing loss within each time period and industry sector as compared with a reference time period was also estimated. The adjusted risk for incident hearing loss decreased over time when all industry sectors were combined. However, the risk remained high for workers in Healthcare and Social Assistance, and the prevalence was consistently high for Mining and Construction workers. While progress has been made in reducing the risk of incident hearing loss within most industry sectors, additional efforts are needed within Mining, Construction and Healthcare and Social Assistance. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · American Journal of Industrial Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cancer and chronic disease are leading causes of death in the US with an estimated cost of $46 billion.Methods We analyzed 11 million cause-specific deaths of US workers age 18–64 years in 30 states during 1985–1999, 2003–2004, and 2007 by occupation, industry, race, gender, and Hispanic origin.ResultsThe highest significantly elevated proportionate leukemia mortality was observed in engineers, protective service, and advertising sales manager occupations and in banks/savings &loans/credit agencies, public safety, and public administration industries. The highest significantly elevated smoking-adjusted acute myocardial infarction mortality was noted in industrial and refractory machinery mechanics, farmers, mining machine operators, and agricultural worker occupations; and wholesale farm supplies, agricultural chemical, synthetic rubber, and agricultural crop industries.Conclusions Significantly elevated risks for acute myocardial infarction and leukemia were observed across several occupations and industries that confirm existing reports and add new information. Interested investigators can access the NOMS website at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/NOMS/. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:123–137, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · American Journal of Industrial Medicine
  • Geoffrey M Calvert · Luis Rodriguez · Joanne Bonnar Prado
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    ABSTRACT: On April 10, 2014 the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) was notified by a local newspaper of a suspected pesticide poisoning incident in Douglas County involving pesticides not previously reported in the published literature to be associated with human illness. On that same day, WSDA notified the Washington State Department of Health, which investigated this incident by conducting a site visit, reviewing medical and applicator records, and interviewing affected farmworkers, pesticide applicators, and the farmworkers' employer. In addition, on April 11, WSDA collected swab, foliage, and clothing samples and tested them for residues of pyridaben, novaluron, and triflumizole. In this incident, all 20 farmworkers working in a cherry orchard became ill from off-target drift of a pesticide mixture that was being applied to a neighboring pear orchard. Sixteen sought medical treatment for neurologic, gastrointestinal, ocular, and respiratory symptoms. This event highlights the need for greater efforts to prevent off-target drift exposures and promote awareness about the toxicity of some recently marketed pesticides. Incidents such as this could be prevented if farm managers planning pesticide applications notify their neighbors of their plans.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · American Journal of Industrial Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-two million workers are exposed to hazardous noise in the United States. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss among U.S. industries. We examined 2000–2008 audiograms for male and female workers ages 18–65, who had higher occupational noise exposures than the general population. Prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) for hearing loss were estimated and compared across industries. In our sample, 18% of workers had hearing loss. When compared with the Couriers and Messengers industry sub-sector, workers employed in Mining (PR = 1.65, CI = 1.57–1.73), Wood Product Manufacturing (PR = 1.65, CL = 1.61–1.70), Construction of Buildings (PR = 1.52, CI = 1.45–1.59), and Real Estate and Rental and Leasing (PR = 1.59, CL = 1.51–1.68) had higher risks for hearing loss. Workers in the Mining, Manufacturing, and Construction industries need better engineering controls for noise and stronger hearing conservation strategies. More hearing loss research is also needed within traditional “low-risk” industries like Real Estate. Am. J. Ind. Med. 56:670–681, 2013.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · American Journal of Industrial Medicine
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    Harpriya Kaur · Sara E. Luckhaupt · Jia Li · Toni Alterman · Geoffrey M. Calvert
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To explore associations between self-reported hypertension and workplace psychosocial factors that are common among U.S. workers and to identify industries and occupations (I&Os) that are associated with a high prevalence of hypertension, even after adjustment for common known risk factors.Methods Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to examine relationships between the prevalence of self-reported hypertension and job insecurity, hostile work environment, work- family imbalance, work hours and I&O.ResultsJob insecurity (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–1.19)) and hostile work environment (aPR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.03–1.29) were significantly associated with hypertension. Hypertension prevalence was significantly elevated among those employed in Healthcare Support occupations and Public Administration industries.Conclusion Addressing hostile work environments and the stress associated with job insecurity may improve workers' health. Other occupational factors that contribute to the variation in prevalence of hypertension by I&O should be sought. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:1011–1021, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · American Journal of Industrial Medicine
  • Sara E Luckhaupt · Geoffrey M Calvert
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease accounts for one in three deaths in the United States each year, and coronary heart disease and stroke account for most of those deaths. To try to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes by 2017, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the Million Hearts initiative, promoting proven and effective interventions in communities and clinical settings. In workplace settings, cardiovascular disease can be addressed through a Total Worker Health program, which integrates occupational safety and health protection with health promotion. To identify workers likely to benefit from such a program, CDC analyzed data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the period 2008-2012 to estimate the prevalence of a history of coronary heart disease or stroke (CHD/stroke) among adults aged <55 years by selected characteristics, employment status, occupation category, and industry of employment. The results of that analysis showed that 1.9% of employed adults aged <55 years reported a history of CHD/stroke, compared with 2.5% of unemployed adults looking for work, and 6.3% of adults not in the labor force (e.g., unemployed adults who stopped looking for work, homemakers, students, retired persons, and disabled persons). Workers employed in service and blue collar occupations were more likely than those in white collar occupations to report a history of CHD/stroke. Two industry groups also had significantly higher adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for CHD/stroke: Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services* and Accommodation and Food Service.† Workers in these occupation and industry groups might especially benefit from a Total Worker Health approach to reducing the risk for CHD/stroke.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
  • Geoffrey Calvert
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Since 1987, acute occupational pesticide-related illness and injury has been one of the conditions under surveillance by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH supports these surveillance activities by providing cooperative agreement funding and technical support to state health departments. The program conducting these activities is the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides Program. SENSOR-Pesticides is also partially funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). METHODS: Cases of acute pesticide-related illness and injury are identified and investigated by agencies in 12 states that participate in the SENSOR-Pesticides program. Data are submitted annually by each state agency to NIOSH, and NIOSH aggregates the data to produce a national database. The SENSOR-Pesticides program also provides timely identification of emerging pesticide problems. RESULTS: An update on recent findings and impacts from the SENSOR-Pesticides program will be provided. Among other things, the program highlights the risks faced by agricultural workers. Agricultural workers have a 10-fold higher risk of acute pesticide poisoning compared to workers in other industries. EPA is currently working on regulations to enhance farmworker protections, and these regulatory updates are, in part, being guided by SENSOR-Pesticides findings and recommendations. In 2013, findings from the SENSOR-Pesticides program were published in MMWR and peer-reviewed journals. These included an MMWR article on a case of acute acrolein poisoning. The peer-reviewed journal articles included one on the characteristics and magnitude of acute pesticide-related illnesses associated with pyrethrins and pyrethroids, and another describing a child of farmworker parents with high severity acute pesticide-related illness. CONCLUSIONS: The SENSOR-Pesticides program is considered the principal source of pesticide-related surveillance data in the US, and perhaps the world. It is a vital source of data for EPA to use when assessing whether pesticides are producing any unreasonable harm to human health.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
  • Gamola Z Fortenberry · Geoffrey Calvert

    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
  • Soo-Jeong Lee · Sangwoo Tak · Toni Alterman · Geoffrey M Calvert
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Ergonomic risks from agricultural tasks can compromise musculoskeletal health of workers. This study estimated prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in a sample representing almost 2 million US agricultural industry workers. This study used National Health Interview Survey data from 2004 to 2008. Weighted prevalence was calculated by demographic and employment factors. Prevalence ratios were calculated using generalized linear models with the Poisson distribution assumption. Prevalence rates of low back and neck pain in the previous 3 months were 24.3% and 10.5%, respectively, among agricultural workers. Monthly prevalence of joint pain was 17.0% for hips/knees, 9.8% for shoulders, 9.5% for wrists/hands, 5.4% for elbows, and 4.7% for ankles/toes. Agricultural workers had a significantly higher prevalence of shoulder pain than all other industry workers (prevalence ratios [PR] = 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.61). This study provides detailed national estimates of musculoskeletal symptom prevalence to understand the burden and the need for intervention among agricultural workers.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Agromedicine
  • Sara E Luckhaupt · Geoffrey M Calvert · Jia Li · Marie Sweeney · Tammy A Santibanez
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    ABSTRACT: During an influenza pandemic, information about the industry and occupation (I&O) of persons likely to be infected with influenza virus is important to guide key policy decisions regarding vaccine prioritization and exposure-control measures. Health-care personnel (HCP) might have increased opportunity for exposure to influenza infection, and they have been prioritized for influenza vaccination because of their own risk and the risk that infected HCP pose to patients. To identify other groups of workers that might be at increased risk for pandemic influenza infection, influenza-like illness (ILI) and vaccination coverage data from the 2009 National H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS), which was conducted during October 2009 through June 2010, were analyzed. In a representative sample of 28,710 employed adults, 5.5% reported ILI symptoms in the month before the interview, and 23.7% received the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccine. Among employed adults, the highest prevalence of ILI was reported by those employed in the industry groups "Real estate and rental and leasing" (10.5%) and "Accommodation and food services" (10.2%), and in the occupation groups "Food preparation and serving related" (11.0%) and "Community and social services" (8.3%). Both seasonal influenza and pH1N1 vaccination coverage were relatively low in all of these groups of workers. Adults not in the labor force (i.e., homemakers, students, retired persons, and persons unable to work) had ILI prevalence and pH1N1 vaccination coverage similar to those found in all employed adults combined; in contrast, ILI prevalence was higher and pH1N1 vaccination coverage was lower among unemployed adults (i.e., those looking for work). These results suggest that adults employed in certain industries and occupations might have increased risk for influenza infection, and that the majority of these workers did not receive seasonal or pH1N1 influenza vaccine. Unemployed adults might also be considered a high risk group for influenza.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
  • Sara E Luckhaupt · Martha A Cohen · Jia Li · Geoffrey M Calvert
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    ABSTRACT: Along with public health and clinical professionals, employers are taking note of rising obesity rates among their employees, as obesity is strongly related to chronic health problems and concomitant increased healthcare costs. Contributors to the obesity epidemic are complex and numerous, and may include several work characteristics. To explore associations between occupational factors and obesity among U.S. workers. Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were utilized to calculate weighted prevalence rates and prevalence ratios (PRs) for obesity in relation to workweek length, work schedule, work arrangement, hostile work environment, job insecurity, work-family imbalance, and industry and occupation of employment. Data were collected in 2010 and analyzed in 2012-2013. Overall, 27.7% of U.S. workers met the BMI criterion for obesity. Among all workers, employment for more than 40 hours per week and exposure to a hostile work environment were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, although the differences were modest. Employment in health care and social assistance and public administration industries, as well as architecture and engineering, community and social service, protective service, and office and administrative support occupations was also associated with increased obesity prevalence. Work-related factors may contribute to the high prevalence of obesity in the U.S. working population. Public health professionals and employers should consider workplace interventions that target organization-level factors, such as scheduling and prevention of workplace hostility, along with individual-level factors such as diet and exercise.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · American journal of preventive medicine

Publication Stats

2k Citations
666.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998-2015
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies (DSHEFS)
      Атланта, Michigan, United States
  • 2008-2013
    • United States National Transportation Safety Board
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2012
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Family Medicine
      Irvine, California, United States
  • 1999
    • Wright State University
      Dayton, Ohio, United States