[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is a multifactorial dementia disorder characterized by early amyloid-β, tau deposition, glial activation and neurodegeneration, where the interrelationships between the different pathophysiological events are not yet well characterized. In this study, longitudinal multitracer positron emission tomography imaging of individuals with autosomal dominant or sporadic Alzheimer's disease was used to quantify the changes in regional distribution of brain astrocytosis (tracer (11)C-deuterium-L-deprenyl), fibrillar amyloid-β plaque deposition ((11)C-Pittsburgh compound B), and glucose metabolism ((18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose) from early presymptomatic stages over an extended period to clinical symptoms. The 52 baseline participants comprised autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutation carriers (n = 11; 49.6 ± 10.3 years old) and non-carriers (n = 16; 51.1 ± 14.2 years old; 10 male), and patients with sporadic mild cognitive impairment (n = 17; 61.9 ± 6.4 years old; nine male) and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (n = 8; 63.0 ± 6.5 years old; five male); for confidentiality reasons, the gender of mutation carriers is not revealed. The autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease participants belonged to families with known mutations in either presenilin 1 (PSEN1) or amyloid precursor protein (APPswe or APParc) genes. Sporadic mild cognitive impairment patients were further divided into (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-positive (n = 13; 62.0 ± 6.4; seven male) and (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-negative (n = 4; 61.8 ± 7.5 years old; two male) groups using a neocortical standardized uptake value ratio cut-off value of 1.41, which was calculated with respect to the cerebellar grey matter. All baseline participants underwent multitracer positron emission tomography scans, cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis and neuropsychological assessment. Twenty-six of the participants underwent clinical and imaging follow-up examinations after 2.8 ± 0.6 years. By using linear mixed-effects models, fibrillar amyloid-β plaque deposition was first observed in the striatum of presymptomatic autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease carriers from 17 years before expected symptom onset; at about the same time, astrocytosis was significantly elevated and then steadily declined. Diverging from the astrocytosis pattern, amyloid-β plaque deposition increased with disease progression. Glucose metabolism steadily declined from 10 years after initial amyloid-β plaque deposition. Patients with sporadic mild cognitive impairment who were (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-positive at baseline showed increasing amyloid-β plaque deposition and decreasing glucose metabolism but, in contrast to autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease carriers, there was no significant longitudinal decline in astrocytosis over time. The prominent initially high and then declining astrocytosis in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease carriers, contrasting with the increasing amyloid-β plaque load during disease progression, suggests astrocyte activation is implicated in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease pathology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methods:
9 subjects (5 with AD, 4 with mild cognitive impairment) received a 90 min dynamic (S)-(18)F-THK5117 PET scan. Arterial blood was sampled for measurement of blood radioactivity and metabolite analysis. VOI-based analysis was performed using plasma-input models; single-tissue and two-tissue (2TCM) compartment models and plasma-input Logan, and reference tissue models; simplified reference tissue model (SRTM), reference Logan and standardised uptake value ratio (SUVr). Cerebellum grey matter was used as reference region. Voxel-level analysis was performed using basis function implementations of SRTM, reference Logan and SUVr. Regionally averaged voxel values were compared to VOI-based values from the optimal reference tissue model and simulations were made to assess accuracy and precision. In addition to 90 min, initial 40 and 60 min data were analysed.
Plasma-input Logan distribution volume ratio (DVR)-1 values agreed well with 2TCM DVR-1 values (R2=0.99, slope=0.96). SRTM binding potential (BPND) and reference Logan DVR-1 values were highly correlated with plasma-input Logan DVR-1 (R2=1.00, slope≈1.00) while SUVr70-90-1 values correlated less well and overestimated binding. Agreement between parametric methods and SRTM was best for reference Logan (R2=0.99, slope=1.03). SUVr70-90-1 values were almost 3 times higher than BPND values in white matter and 1.5 times higher in grey matter. Simulations showed poorer accuracy and precision for SUVr70-90-1 values than for the other reference methods. SRTM BPND and reference Logan DVR-1 values were not affected by a shorter scan duration of 60 min.
SRTM BPND and reference Logan DVR-1 values were highly correlated with plasma-input Logan DVR-1 values. VOI-based data analyses indicated robust results for scan durations of 60 min. Reference Logan generated quantitative (S)-(18)F-THK5117 DVR-1 parametric images with the greatest accuracy and precision, and with a much lower white matter signal than seen with SUVr-1 images.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studying autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD), caused by gene mutations yielding nearly complete penetrance and a distinct age of symptom onset, allows investigation of presymptomatic pathological processes that can identify a therapeutic window for disease-modifying therapies. Astrocyte activation may occur in presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD) because reactive astrocytes surround beta-amyloid (Abeta) plaques in autopsy brain tissue. Positron emission tomography was performed to investigate fibrillar Abeta, astrocytosis and cerebral glucose metabolism with the radiotracers (11)C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB), (11)C-deuterium-L-deprenyl (DED) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) respectively in presymptomatic and symptomatic ADAD participants (n = 21), patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 11) and sporadic AD (n = 7). Multivariate analysis using the combined data from all radiotracers clearly separated the different groups along the first and second principal components according to increased PIB retention/decreased FDG uptake (component 1) and increased DED binding (component 2). Presymptomatic ADAD mutation carriers showed significantly higher PIB retention than non-carriers in all brain regions except the hippocampus. DED binding was highest in presymptomatic ADAD mutation carriers. This suggests that non-fibrillar Abeta or early stage plaque depostion might interact with inflammatory responses indicating astrocytosis as an early contributory driving force in AD pathology. The novelty of this finding will be investigated in longitudinal follow-up studies.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New therapeutic strategies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are focused on targeting amyloid-β (Aβ) to modify the underlying cause of the disease rather than just the symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of treatment with the anti-Aβ compound phenserine on (i) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for Aβ and tau pathology and (ii) brain metabolism as assessed by the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc), using positron emission tomography. Twenty patients with mild AD were included in the study and after 12 months treatment with phenserine, CSF Aβ 40 and α- and β-secretase-cleaved soluble amyloid-β protein precursor (sAβPP) levels had significantly increased and rCMRglc had stabilized. Levels of CSF Aβ 40 and sAβPP correlated positively with rCMRglc and cognition while CSF Aβ 42 levels, the Aβ 42/40 ratio, P-tau, and T-tau correlated negatively with rCMRglc and cognition. In summary, long-term phenserine treatment resulted in increased levels of CSF Aβ 40, sAβPPα, and sAβPPβ, which positively correlated with improvements in rCMRglc and cognition. The study illustrates the value of using biomarkers in the CSF and brain for evaluation of drug effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology can be quantified in vivo using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42), total-tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau181p), as well as with positron emission tomography (PET) using [11C]Pittsburgh compound-B ([11C]PIB). Studies assessing concordance between these measures, however, have provided conflicting results. Moreover, it has been proposed that [11C]PIB PET may be of great clinical utility in terms of identifying patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who will progress to the dementia phase of AD. Objective: To determine concordance and classification accuracy of CSF biomarkers and [11C]PIB PET in a cohort of patients with MCI and AD. Methods: 68 patients (MCI, n = 33; AD, n = 35) underwent [11C]PIB PET and CSF sampling. Cutoffs of >1.41 ([11C]PIB), <450 pg/mL-and a more lenient cutoff of 550 pg/mL-(Aβ1-42), <6.5 (Aβ1-42/p-tau181p), and 1.14 (Aβ1-42/t-tau), were used to determine concordance. Logistic regression was used to determine classification accuracy with respect to stable MCI (sMCI) versus MCI who progressed to AD (pMCI). Results: Concordance between [11C]PIB and Aβ1-42 was highest for sMCI (67%), followed by AD (60%) and pMCI (33%). Agreement was increased across groups using Aβ1-42 <550 pg/mL, or Aβ1-42 to tau ratios. Logistic regression showed that classification accuracy of [11C]PIB, between sMCI and pMCI, was superior to Aβ1-42 (73% versus 58%), Aβ1-42/t-tau (63%), and Aβ1-42/p-tau181p (65%). Conclusion: In the present study, [11C]PIB proved a better predictor of progression to AD in patients with MCI, relative to CSF measures of Aβ1-42 or Aβ1-42/tau. Discordance between PET and CSF markers for Aβ1-42 suggests they cannot be used interchangeably, as is currently the case.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Proposed diagnostic criteria (international working group and National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association) for Alzheimer's disease (AD) include markers of amyloidosis (abnormal cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] amyloid beta [Aβ]42) and neurodegeneration (hippocampal atrophy, temporo-parietal hypometabolism on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and abnormal CSF tau). We aim to compare the accuracy of these biomarkers, individually and in combination, in predicting AD among mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients.
In 73 MCI patients, followed to ascertain AD progression, markers were measured. Sensitivity and specificity, positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios, and crude and adjusted hazard ratios were computed.
Twenty-nine MCI patients progressed and 44 remained stable. Positivity to any marker achieved the lowest LR- (0.0), whereas the combination Aβ42 plus FDG-PET achieved the highest LR+ (6.45). In a survival analysis, positivity to any marker was associated with 100% conversion rate, whereas negativity to all markers was associated with 100% stability.
The best criteria combined amyloidosis and neurodegeneration biomarkers, whereas the individual biomarker with the best performance was FDG-PET.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Alzheimer's and Dementia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Extensive loss of central cholinergic functions in AD brain is linked to impaired nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling. The cardinal cholinergic biomarker is the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), which has recently been found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).Method: Encapsulated cell implants releasing NGF (EC-NGF) were surgically implanted bilaterally in the basal forebrain of six AD patients for 12 months and cholinergic markers in CSF were analyzed. Hypothesis: EC-NGF therapy will alter CSF levels of cholinergic biomarkers, ChAT and acetylcholinesteraseResult: Activities of both enzymes were altered after 12 months. In particular, activity of soluble ChAT showed high correlation with cognition, CSF tau and amyloid-β, in vivo cerebral glucose utilization and nicotinic binding sites, as well as morphometric and volumetric MRI measures.Conclusion: A clear pattern of associations is demonstrated showing a proof-of-principle effect on CSF cholinergic markers, suggestive of a beneficial EC-NGF implant therapy
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Alzheimer's and Dementia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is linked to survival and function of the forebrain cholinergic neurons and an abnormal NGF signaling may be one of the reasons for degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the brain of patients with Alzheimer´s disease (AD).
Introduction: In our previous pilot study we reported the effect of NGF treatment on the cholinergic biomarkers in CSF from six AD patients who received implants with encapsulated NGF (EC-NGF) releasing cells. The results showed a positive effect of NGF on the cholinergic biomarkers, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and in vivo imaging markers and cognition.
Aim To investigate the effect of NGF treatment on AChE and ChAT activity in additional AD patients receiving EC-NGF implants, releasing higher levels of mature NGF then the previous study.
Material and Methods: Four AD patients have successfully received implants with EC-NGF releasing cells (10 times higher NGF) into the basal forebrain using stereotactic neurosurgery. In addition to regular examination, CSF and plasma were collected at baseline, 3 and at 6 months, when the implants were removed. The cholinergic biomarkers were analyzed, and the findings evaluated in relation to cognitive performance and in vivo nicotine binding sites assessed by PET.
Results: Changes in CSF AChE activity correlated strongly with changes in MMSE (r=0.994, p< 0.0040) and the changes in the number of nicotinic binding sites in the overall brain regions (r=0.999, p< 0.0001). Interestingly the changes in the overall brain regions’ nicotinic binding sites correlated significantly with changes in MMSE (r= 0.995, p<0.0025). The changes in CSF ChAT activity showed positive trends with changes in MMSE and the changes in the overall brain regions’ nicotinic binding sites.
Conclusion: The findings were in close agreement with the pattern of observations in our first pilot study. Accordingly, NGF-implant treated AD patients who showed increases in CSF ChAT and AChE activity exhibited less cognitive decline and increased nicotinic binding sites assessed by PET.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) plays a key role in the regulation of brain striatal signaling, and several pharmaceutical companies currently investigate PDE10A inhibitors in clinical trials for various central nervous system diseases. A PDE10A PET ligand may provide evidence that a clinical drug candidate reaches and binds to the target. Here we describe the successful discovery and initial validation of the novel radiolabeled PDE10A ligand 5,8-dimethyl-2-[2-((1-(11)C-methyl)-4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine ((11)C-Lu AE92686) and its tritiated analog (3)H-Lu AE92686.
Initial in vitro experiments suggested Lu AE92686 as a promising radioligand, and the corresponding tritiated and (11)C-labeled compounds were synthesized. (3)H-Lu AE92686 was evaluated as a ligand for in vivo occupancy studies in mice and rats, and (11)C-Lu AE92686 was evaluated as a PET tracer candidate in cynomolgus monkeys and in humans.
(11)C-Lu AE92686 displayed high specificity and selectivity for PDE10A-expressing regions in the brain of cynomolgus monkeys and humans. Similar results were found in rodents using (3)H-Lu AE92686. The binding of (11)C-Lu AE92686 and (3)H-Lu AE92686 to striatum was completely and dose-dependently blocked by the structurally different PDE10A inhibitor 2-[4-(1-methyl-4-pyridin-4-yl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenoxymethyl]-quinoline (MP-10) in rodents and in monkeys. In all species, specific binding of the radioligand was seen in the striatum but not in the cerebellum, supporting the use of the cerebellum as a reference region. The binding potentials (BPND) of (11)C-Lu AE92686 in the striatum of both cynomolgus monkeys and humans were evaluated by the simplified reference tissue model with the cerebellum as the reference tissue, and BPND was found to be high and reproducible-that is, BPNDs were 6.5 ± 0.3 (n = 3) and 7.5 ± 1.0 (n = 12) in monkeys and humans, respectively.
Rodent, monkey, and human tests of labeled Lu AE92686 suggest that (11)C-Lu AE92686 has great potential as a human PET tracer for the PDE10A enzyme.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an overlap regarding Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) retention in patients clinically diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-AD dementia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there are any differences between PIB-positive and PIB-negative patients in a mixed cohort of patients with neurodegenerative dementia of mild severity regarding neuropsychological test performance and regional cerebral glucose metabolism measured with [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET).
Eighteen patients clinically diagnosed as probable AD or frontotemporal dementia were examined with PIB PET, FDG PET and neuropsychological tests and followed for 5-9 years in a clinical setting.
The PIB-positive patients (7 out of 18) had slower psychomotor speed and more impaired visual episodic memory than the PIB-negative patients; otherwise performance did not differ between the groups. The initial clinical diagnoses were changed in one third of the patients (6 out of 18) during follow-up.
The subtle differences in neuropsychological performance, the overlap of hypometabolic patterns and clinical features between AD and non-AD dementia highlight the need for amyloid biomarkers and a readiness to re-evaluate the initial diagnosis.