Gautam Sethi

King Saud University, Ar Riyāḑ, Ar Riyāḑ, Saudi Arabia

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Publications (194)868.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The ‘language’ of covalent histone modifications translates environmental and cellular cues into gene expression. This vast array of post translational modifications on histones are more than just covalent moieties added onto a protein, as they also form a platform on which crucial cellular signals are relayed. The reversible lysine acetylation has emerged as an important post translational modification of both histones and non-histone proteins, dictating numerous epigenetic programs within a cell. Thus, understanding the complex biology of lysine acetylation and its regulators is essential for the development of epigenetic therapeutics. In this review, we will attempt to address the complexity of lysine acetylation in the context of tumorigenesis, their role in cancer progression and emphasize on the modalities developed to target lysine acetyltransferases towards cancer treatment.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Bcl homologs prominently contribute to apoptotic resistance in cancer cells and serve as molecular targets in treatment of various cancers. Herein, we report the synthesis of biphenyl-adamantane derivatives by a ligand free palladium on carbon based Suzuki reaction using diisopropylamine as a base for the coupling of adamantane based aryl chloride with a variety of aryl boronic acids. Among the biphenyl derivatives synthesized, compound 3'-(adamantan-1-yl)-4'-methoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-ol (AMB) displayed cytotoxic activity against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines without significantly affecting the normal cell lines. Further, AMB caused increased accumulation of the HCC cells in subG1 phase, decreased the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, cyclin D1, caspase-3, survivin and increased the cleavage of PARP in a time-dependent manner. In silico molecular interaction studies between Bcl homologs and AMB showed that the biphenyl scaffold is predicted to form π-π interactions with Phe-101 and Tyr-105 and the adamantyl fragment is predicted to occupy another hydrophobic region in the kink region of the binding groove. In summary, we report on the synthesis and biological characterization of adamantyl-tethered biphenylic compounds that induce apoptosis in tumor cells most likely by targeting Bcl homologs.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. Currently available therapies for metastatic PCa are only marginally effective; hence novel treatment modalities are urgently required. Considerable evidence(s) suggest that deregulated activation of oncogenic transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of PCa. Thus agents that can abrogate STAT3 activation could form the basis of novel therapy for PCa patients. In the present study, we analyzed whether the potential anticancer effects of nimbolide (NL), a limonoid triterpene derived from Azadirachtaindica, against PCa cell lines and transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model are mediated through the negative regulation of STAT3 pathway. Results: Data from the in vitro studies indicated that NL could significantly inhibit cell viability, induce apoptosis and suppress cellular invasion and migration. Interestingly, NL also abrogated STAT3 activation, and this effect was found to be mediated via an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to GSH/GSSG imbalance. Oral administration of NL significantly suppressed the tumor growth and metastasis in TRAMP mouse model without exhibiting any significant adverse effects. Innovation: The present study demonstrates the critical role of GSH/GSSG imbalance-mediated ROS production contributing to the STAT3 inhibitory and tumor suppressive effect of NL in PCa. Conclusion: Overall our findings indicate that NL exhibits significant anticancer effects in PCa that may be primarily mediated through the ROS-regulated inhibition of STAT3 signaling cascade.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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    ABSTRACT: Frequent activation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase B (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in gastric cancer (GC) is gaining immense popularity with identification of mutations and/or amplifications of PIK3CA gene or loss of function of PTEN, a tumor suppressor protein, to name a few; both playing a crucial role in regulating this pathway. These aberrations result in dysregulation of this pathway eventually leading to gastric oncogenesis, hence, there is a need for targeted therapy for more effective anticancer treatment. Several inhibitors are currently in either preclinical or clinical stages for treatment of solid tumors like GC. With so many inhibitors under development, further on predictive biomarkers are needed to measure the specificity of any therapeutic intervention. Herein, we review the common dysregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in GC and the various types of single or dual pathway inhibitors under development that might have a superior role in GC treatment. We also summarize the recent developments in identification of predictive biomarkers and propose use of predictive biomarkers to facilitate more personalized cancer therapy with effective PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibition.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis and represents a potential bioterrorism threat. In this study, the transcriptomic responses of B. pseudomallei infection of a human macrophage cell model were investigated using whole-genome microarrays. Gene expression profiles were compared between infected THP-1 human monocytic leukemia cells with or without treatment with Daboia russelli russelli daboiatoxin (DRRDbTx) or ceftazidime (antibiotic control). Microarray analyses of infected and treated cells revealed differential up regulation of various inflammatory genes such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 4 (CXCL4), transcription factor p65 (NF-kB); and several genes involved in immune and stress responses, cell cycle, and lipid metabolism. Moreover, following DRR-DbTx treatment of infected cells, there was enhanced expression of the toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) mediated signaling pathway involved in recognition and initiation of acute inflammatory responses. Importantly, we observed that highly inflammatory cytokine gene responses were similar in infected cells exposed to DRR-DbTx or ceftazidime after 24 h. Additionally, there were increased transcripts associated with cell death by caspase activation that can promote host tissue injury. In summary, the transcriptional responses during B. pseudomallei infection of macrophages highlight a broad range of innate immune mechanisms that are activated within 24 h post-infection. These data provide insights into the transcriptomic kinetics following DRR-DbTx treatment of human macrophages infected with B. pseudomallei.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Current Molecular Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Telomeres are the heterochromatic repeat regions at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, whose length is considered to be a determinant of biological ageing. Normal ageing itself is associated with telomere shortening. Here, critically short telomeres trigger senescence and eventually cell death. This shortening rate may be further increased by inflammation and oxidative stress and thus affect the ageing process. Apart from shortened or dysfunctional telomeres, cells undergoing senescence are also associated with hyperactivity of the transcription factor NF-κB and overexpression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ in circulating macrophages. Interestingly, telomerase, a reverse transcriptase that elongates telomeres, is involved in modulating NF-κB activity. Furthermore, inflammation and oxidative stress are implicated as pre-disease mechanisms for chronic diseases of ageing such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. To date, inflammation and telomere shortening have mostly been studied individually in terms of ageing and the associated disease phenotype. However, the interdependent nature of the two demands a more synergistic approach in understanding the ageing process itself and for developing new therapeutic approaches. In this review, we aim to summarize the intricate association between the various inflammatory molecules and telomeres that together contribute to the ageing process and related diseases.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Ageing Research Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Chromatin acetylation is attributed with distinct functional relevance with respect to gene expression in normal and diseased conditions thereby leading to a topical interest in the concept of epigenetic modulators and therapy. We report here the identification and characterization of the acetylation inhibitory potential of an important dietary flavonoid, luteolin. Luteolin was found to inhibit p300 acetyltransferase with competitive binding to the acetyl CoA binding site. Luteolin treatment in a xenografted tumor model of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), led to a dramatic reduction in tumor growth within 4 weeks corresponding to a decrease in histone acetylation. Cells treated with luteolin exhibit cell cycle arrest and decreased cell migration. Luteolin treatment led to an alteration in gene expression and miRNA profile including up-regulation of p53 induced miR-195/215, let7C; potentially translating into a tumor suppressor function. It also led to down-regulation of oncomiRNAs such as miR-135a, thereby reflecting global changes in the microRNA network. Furthermore, a direct correlation between the inhibition of histone acetylation and gene expression was established using chromatin immunoprecipitation on promoters of differentially expressed genes. A network of dysregulated genes and miRNAs was mapped along with the gene ontology categories, and the effects of luteolin were observed to be potentially at multiple levels: at the level of gene expression, miRNA expression and miRNA processing.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) comprise an important class of transcription factors that have been implicated in a wide variety of essential cellular functions related to proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis. Among various STAT members, STAT3 is frequently overexpressed in tumor cells as well as tissue samples, and regulates the expression of numerous oncogenic genes controlling the growth and metastasis of tumor cells. The current review briefly discusses the importance of STAT3 as a potential target for cancer therapy and also provides novel insights into various classes of existing pharmacological inhibitors of this transcription factor that can be potentially developed as anti-cancer drugs.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become a rising threat to public health. There is an urgent need for development of promising new therapeutic agents against drug resistant bacteria like S. aureus. This report discusses purification and characterization of proteins from Indian Russell’s viper snake venom. Novel 15-kDa proteins called “Viperatoxin” (VipTx-I and VipTx-II) were extracted from the whole venom and evaluated using in vitro antimicrobial experiments. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of “Viperatoxin” showed high sequence homology to daboiatoxin isolated from the same venom and also matched to phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes isolated from other snake venoms. In an in vitro plate assay, VipTx-II but not VipTx-I showed strong antimicrobial effects against S. aureus and Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW & TES), Proteus vulgaris and P. mirabilis. The VipTx-II was further tested by a broth-dilution assay at 100–3.1μg/ml concentrations. The most potent bactericidal effect was found at the lowest dilutions (MICs of 6.25μg/ml) against B. pseudomallei, S. aureus and P. vulgaris (MICs of 12.25μg/ml). Electron microscopic investigation revealed that the protein-induced bactericidal potency was closely associated with pore formation and membrane damage, even at the lowest concentrations (<20μg/ml). The toxin caused a low level of cytotoxic effects as observed in human (THP-1) cells at higher concentrations. Molecular weight determinations of VipTx-II by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed one major, along with few minor bands. The results indicate that VipTx-II plays a significant role in bactericidal and membrane damaging effects in vitro. Non-cytotoxic properties on human cells highlight it as a promising candidate for further evaluation for its antimicrobial potential in vivo.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · FEBS Open Bio
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    ABSTRACT: Condensed-bicyclic triazolo-thiadiazoles were synthesized via an efficient "green" catalyst strategy and identified as effective inhibitors of PTP1B in vitro. The lead compound, 6-(2-benzylphenyl)-3-phenyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[3][1,3,4]thiadiazole (BPTT) was most effective against human hepatoma cells, inhibits cell invasion, and decreases neovasculature in HUVEC and also tumor volume in EAT mouse models. This report describes an experimentally unidentified class of condensed-bicyclic triazolo-thiadiazoles targeting PTP1B and its analogs could be the therapeutic drug-seeds.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Scientific Reports
  • Hong Wang · Gautam Sethi · Weng-Keong Loke · Meng-Kwoon Sim
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    ABSTRACT: ACE inhibitors and ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers) have been shown to attenuate radiation injuries in animal models of lethal gamma irradiation. These two classes of drug act by curtailing the actions of angiotensin II-linked inflammatory pathways that are up-regulated during gamma radiation in organ systems such as the brain, lung, kidney, and bone marrow. ACE inhibitors inhibit ACE and attenuate the formation of angiotensin II from angiotensin I; ARBs block the angiotensin AT1 receptor and attenuate the actions of angiotensin II that are elicited through the receptor. DAA-I (des-aspartate-angiotensin I), an orally active angiotensin peptide, also attenuates the deleterious actions of angiotensin II. It acts as an agonist on the angiotensin AT1 receptor and elicits responses that oppose those of angiotensn II. Thus, DAA-I was investigated for its anticipated radioprotection in gamma irradiated mice. DAA-I administered orally at 800 nmole/kg/day for 30 days post exposure (6.4 Gy) attenuated the death of mice during the 30-day period. The attenuation was blocked by losartan (50 nmole/kg/day, i.p.) that was administered sequential to DAA-I administration. This shows that the radioprotection was mediated via the angiotensin AT1 receptor. Furthermore, the radioprotection correlated to an increase in circulating PGE2 of surviving animals, and this suggests that PGE2 is involved in the radioprotection in DAA-I-treated mice. At the hematopoietic level, DAA-I significantly improved two syndromes of myelosuppression (leucopenia and lymphocytopenia), and mice pre-treated with DAA-I prior to gamma irradiation showed significant improvement in the four myelodysplastic syndromes that were investigated, namely leucopenia, lymphocytopenia, monocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Based on the known ability of PGE2 to attenuate the loss of functional hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in radiation injury, we hypothesize that PGE2 mediated the action of DAA-I. DAA-I completely attenuated the increase in circulating level of two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-6, in irradiated mice; and this shows that DAA-I exerted additional anti-inflammatory actions, which could also have contributed to its radioprotection. These findings show that DAA-I acts via a novel mechanism of action on the angiotensin AT1 receptor to specifically release PGE2, which mediates radioprotection in the gamma irradiated mice.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · PLoS ONE

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: The benzylideneindolinone 6-chloro-3-(3'-trifluoromethylbenzylidene)-1,3-dihydroindol-2-one (4) was reported to exhibit potent and selective growth inhibitory effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Corroborative evidence supported multi-receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibition as a possible mode of action. However, the poor physicochemical properties of 4 limited its furtherance as a lead compound. In this study, the modification of 4 was investigated with the aim of improving its potency and physicochemical profile. The 6-fluorobenzylideneindolinone 3-12 bearing a 3'-N-propylaminosulfonyl substituent was found to be a promising substitute. Compound 3-12 [6-fluoro-3-(3'-N-propylaminosulfonylbenzylidene)-1,3-dihydroindol-2-one] was found to be tenfold more soluble than 4 and to have sub-micromolar growth inhibitory activities on HCC cells. It is apoptogenic and inhibits the phosphorylation of several RTKs in HuH7, of which the inhibition of FGFR4 and HER3 are prominent. Compound 3-12 decreased the tumor load in a physiologically relevant orthotopic HCC xenograft murine model. Structure-activity relationships support pivotal roles for the fluoro and N'-propylaminosulfonyl moieties in enhancing cell-based activity and moderating the physicochemical profile (solubility, permeability) of 3-12. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · ChemMedChem
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    ABSTRACT: Deregulated inflammatory response plays a pivotal role in the initiation, development and progression of tumours. Potential molecular mechanism(s) that drive the establishment of an inflammatory-tumour microenvironment is not entirely understood owing to the complex cross-talk between pro-inflammatory and tumorigenic mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, oncogenes, enzymes, transcription factors and immune cells. These molecular mediators are critical linchpins between inflammation and cancer, and their activation and/or deactivation are influenced by both extrinsic (i.e. environmental and lifestyle) and intrinsic (i.e. hereditary) factors. At present, the research pertaining to inflammation-associated cancers is accumulating at an exponential rate. Interest stems from hope that new therapeutic strategies against molecular mediators can be identified to assist in cancer treatment and patient management. The present review outlines the various molecular and cellular inflammatory mediators responsible for tumour initiation, progression and development, and discusses the critical role of chronic inflammation in tumorigenesis.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Biochemical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Wound healing is critical for normal development and pathological processes including cancer cell metastasis. MAPK, Rho-GTPases and NFκB are important regulators of wound healing, but mechanisms for their integration are incompletely understood. Annexin-A1 (ANXA1) is upregulated in invasive breast cancer cells resulting in constitutive activation of NFκB. We show here that silencing ANXA1 increases the formation of stress fibres and focal adhesions, which may inhibit wound healing. ANXA1 regulated wound healing is dependent on the activation of ERK1/2. ANXA1 increases the activation of RhoA, which is dependent on ERK activation. Furthermore, active RhoA is important in NF-κB activation, where constitutively active RhoA potentiates NFκB activation, while dominant negative RhoA inhibits NFκB activation in response to CXCL12 stimulation and active MEKK plasmids. These findings establish a central role for ANXA1 in the cell migration through the activation of NFκB, ERK1/2 and RhoA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been shown to selectively induce apoptotic cell death in various tumor cells by engaging its death-inducing receptors (TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2). This property has led to the development of a number of TRAIL-receptor agonists such as the soluble recombinant TRAIL and agonistic antibodies, which have shown promising anticancer activity in preclinical studies. However, besides activating caspase-dependent apoptosis in several cancer cells, TRAIL may also activate nonapoptotic signal transduction pathways such as nuclear factor-kappa B, mitogen-activated protein kinases, AKT, and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3, which may contribute to TRAIL resistance that is being now frequently encountered in various cancers. TRAIL resistance can be overcome by the application of efficient TRAIL-sensitizing pharmacological agents. Natural compounds have shown a great potential in sensitizing cells to TRAIL treatment through suppression of distinct survival pathways. In this review, we have summarized both apoptotic and nonapoptotic pathways activated by TRAIL, as well as recent advances in developing TRAIL-receptor agonists for cancer therapy. We also briefly discuss combination therapies that have shown great potential in overcoming TRAIL resistance in various tumors.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Experimental Biology and Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Development of drug resistance to standard chemotherapy is a common phenomenon that leads to poor prognosis in patients. Thus, novel agents that can attenuate chemoresistance are urgently needed. Therefore, we analyzed whether isorhamnetin (IH), a 3'-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin, can enhance the potential efficacy of capecitabine in gastric cancer. The potential effect of IH on viability was analyzed by MTT assay, apoptosis by flow cytometric analysis, and NF-κB activation by DNA binding as well as Western blot assays. The in vivo effect of IH was also examined on the growth of subcutaneously implanted tumors in nude mice. IH inhibited the viability, potentiated the apoptotic effects of capecitabine, abrogated NF-κB activation, and suppressed the expression of various NF-κB regulated gene products in tumor cells. In a gastric cancer xenograft model, administration of IH alone (1 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) significantly suppressed the tumor growth alone as well as in combination with capecitabine. IH further reduced NF-κB activation and the expression of various proliferative and oncogenic biomarkers in tumor tissues. Overall, our results demonstrate that IH can significantly enhance the anti-tumor effects of capecitabine through the negative regulation of NF-κB regulated oncogenic genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Cancer Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Garcinol is the main medicinal component of the dried fruit rind of Garcinia indica (G. indica), which has traditionally been extensively used to treat gastric ailments and skin irritation. In vitro studies of garcinol revealed its potential therapeutic effects, such as its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Similarly, in vivo studies in animal models also demonstrated the efficacy of garcinol for the treatment of various inflammatory and cancerous conditions. Despite being well tolerated in preclinical studies, the toxicological profile of garcinol remains elusive. More importantly, systematic pharmacokinetics (PK) studies of garcinol to establish an appropriate route of administration and its effective concentration range under physiological conditions have not yet been performed. PK studies play an essential role in translating the preclinical findings of garcinol from cell line models and animal species to humans, thereby facilitating dose selection, the characterization of the therapeutic index, identification of a metabolic pathway, and the determination of garcinol's potency and tolerability. This paper reviews the current studies of garcinol as a potential anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agent and highlights the importance of performing preclinical PK and toxicological studies on garcinol for its development pipeline. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Cancer letters
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological reports as well as experimental studies have demonstrated the significant health benefits provided by regular berry consumption. Berries possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potential against several chronic illnesses, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and neoplastic diseases. Berries owe their health benefits to phytoconstituents, such as polyphenolic anthocyanins, ellagic acid and a diverse array of phytochemicals bestowed with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as well as the ability to engage a multitude of signaling pathways. This review highlights the principal chemical constituents present in berries and their primary molecular targets. The article presents and critically analyzes the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of berry extracts, fractions and bioactive components on various cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including esophageal, stomach, intestinal and colorectal cancers as well as cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, such as oral cancer. The current status of clinical studies evaluating berry products in several aforementioned cancers is presented. Various emerging issues including dose-ranging and dosage forms, the role of synergy and the usage of combination therapy as well as other relevant areas essential for the development of berry phytoconstituents as mainstream chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against aerodigestive and GIT cancers are critically discussed.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
  • Jong Hyun Lee · Chulwon Kim · Gautam Sethi · Kwang Seok Ahn
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    ABSTRACT: Persistent phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently observed in tumor cells. We found that brassinin (BSN) suppressed both constitutive and IL-6-inducible STAT3 activation in lung cancer cells. Moreover, BSN induced PIAS-3 protein and mRNA, whereas the expression of SOCS-3 was reduced. Knockdown of PIAS-3 by small interfering RNA prevented inhibition of STAT3 and cytotoxicity by BSN. Overexpression of SOCS-3 in BSN-treated cells increased STAT3 phosphorylation and cell viability. BSN down-regulated STAT3-regulated gene products, inhibited proliferation, invasion, as well as induced apoptosis. Most importantly, when administered intraperitoneally, combination of BSN and paclitaxel significantly decreased the tumor development in a xenograft lung cancer mouse model associated with down-modulation of phospho-STAT3, Ki-67 and CD31. We suggest that BSN inhibits STAT3 signaling through modulation of PIAS-3 and SOCS-3, thereby attenuating tumor growth and increasing sensitivity to paclitaxel.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Oncotarget

Publication Stats

8k Citations
868.02 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • King Saud University
      • Department of Botany and Microbiology
      Ar Riyāḑ, Ar Riyāḑ, Saudi Arabia
    • Curtin University
      • School of Biomedical Sciences
      Bentley, Western Australia, Australia
  • 2012-2015
    • National University Health System
    • University of Western Australia
      • School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
  • 2011-2015
    • Kyung Hee University
      • Institute of Oriental Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010-2015
    • National University of Singapore
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 2014
    • Harrison and Star
      New York, New York, United States
    • Clinical Research Center of Moscow
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 2013
    • Bangalore University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Bengalūru, Karnataka, India
  • 1970-2010
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Department of Experimental Therapeutics
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2006
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2004-2005
    • Banaras Hindu University
      • School of Biotechnology
      Vārānasi, Uttar Pradesh, India