[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Predicting the progression of kidney failure in patients with chronic kidney disease is difficult. The aim of this study was to assess the predictors of rapid kidney decline in a cohort of patients referred to a single outpatient nephrology clinic.
Longitudinal, prospective cohort study with a median follow-up of 3.39 years.
Data were obtained from 306 patients with chronic renal failure based on serum creatinine-estimated glomerular filtration rate (
) < 90 mL/min/1.73 m
. After excluding patients who died (
) and those who developed end-stage renal failure (
), 270 patients were included. This population was grouped according to the rate of kidney function decline. Rapid kidney function decline was defined as an annual
loss > 4 mL/min/1.73 m
. We recorded nonfatal cardiovascular events at baseline and during follow-up in addition to biochemical parameters.
The mean loss in renal function was 1.22 mL/min/1.73 m
per year. The mean age was 75 ± 8.8 years old, and the mean baseline
was 42 ± 14 mL/min/1.73 m
. Almost one-fourth of the sample (23.3% [63 patients]) suffered a rapid decline in renal function. In a logistic regression model with rapid decline as the outcome, baseline characteristics, lower serum albumin (OR: 0.313, 95% CI: 0.114–0.859), previous cardiovascular disease (OR: 1.903 95% CI: 1.028–3.523), and higher proteinuria (g/24 h) (OR: 1.817 CI 95%: 1.213–2.723) were the main predictors of rapid kidney decline. On multivariate analysis, including baseline and follow-up data, we obtained similar adjusted associations of rapid kidney decline with baseline serum albumin and proteinuria. The follow-up time was also shorter in the group with rapid rates of decline in renal function.
Renal function remained stable in the majority of our population. Previous cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular incidents, lower serum albumin, and higher proteinuria at baseline were the main predictors of rapid kidney decline in our population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania Infantum is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean area. Since 2009, Europe's largest outbreak of Leishmaniasis has been reported in the region of Madrid (Spain). Renal involvement is an unusual complication. Different forms of renal disease have been described: interstitial, glomerular, and vascular damage. Direct invasion of renal parenchyma by the parasite has been described as a mechanism of kidney damage, especially in the immunocompromised. Immune complex deposition and T cells adhesion molecules activation have demonstrated that a pathogenic role in glomerulonephritis related to visceral leishmaniasis. The association between mixed cryoglobulinemia and visceral leishmaniasis has been previously reported in six patients. Renal involvement is only described in one of them. From July 2009 to October 2012, 4 patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and mixed cryoglobulinemia with negative serology for hepatitis B and C were diagnosed in our hospital. Serology of Leishmania in serum bank samples was performed; it was positive in 3 patients. Leishmania parasite was confirmed by other tests. We present 3 patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis as first clinical manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Clinical nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aims:
Lower serum sodium levels have been associated with increased mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our aim was to analyze the independent factors associated with lower sodium levels among nondialysis patients with advanced CKD and to evaluate the evolution of these patients in comparison to those with higher plasma sodium over a 1-year period.
We included 72 patients with CKD stages 4 and 5 without clinically evident cardiopathy or liver disease. Bioelectrical impedance and echocardiography were performed to analyze the possible relation between plasma sodium and volume status and subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. During follow-up, we compared the evolution of patients with lower baseline plasma sodium (low quartile: <138 mEq/l) with that of patients with higher levels over a 1-year period.
At baseline, the independent predictors of lower plasma sodium were C-reactive protein (CRP; OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.91-0.99) and body mass index (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.78-0.99). An inverse correlation between plasma sodium and CRP was observed (r = -0.32; p = 0.01). Plasma sodium did not correlate with extracellular water and was not different between patients with or without echocardiographic data of LV dysfunction (p = 0.7). During follow-up, patients with lower sodium at baseline showed persistently lower sodium values (p = 0.04), higher CRP (p = 0.05), lower serum albumin (p < 0.01) and higher erythropoietin-stimulating agent resistance index (p = 0.05).
Our results suggest an association between lower plasma sodium and a microinflammatory state among patients with advanced CKD. Inflammation could be an underlying confounding factor explaining the increased mortality in these patients.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Nephron Clinical Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is an autosomal recessive tubular disease caused by mutations in the CLDN16 or CLDN19 gene. Previous studies using microsatellite markers flanking the CLDN19 locus estimated that p.G20D (c.59G>A), a recurrent mutation in Spanish families, is a founder mutation. In the present study, we assessed the haplotype of Spanish patients using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
Twenty-seven FHHNC patients were included in this study. We analyzed four SNPs located in CLDN19 introns 3 and 4 by polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing.
Three new patients with homozygous p.G20D were identified. The SNP genotyping analysis showed that alleles carrying this mutation shared a common SNP haplotype.
Our findings suggest the existence of a founder effect responsible for FHHNC in our cohort. Testing for the presence of mutation p.G20D should be the first genetic screening in Spanish patients.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · World Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
In patients older than 75 years with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), the decision between treatment with dialysis [intention to treat with dialysis (ITD)] or conservative care (CC) is a challenge. Geriatric assessment can be helpful. The aim was to identify which factors had had an influence on decision-making.
We recruited 56 patients. At baseline we analyzed age, frailty (defined following the criteria of Fried et al. [J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001;56:146-156]), dependence for activities of daily living (ADL), cognitive impairment, depression, comorbidity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. After full information about prognosis and treatment options, the preferences of the patients and families were taken into consideration as determinants in the decision-making process. During the follow-up, we evaluated clinical and laboratory parameters, hospitalization, mortality and reevaluated frailty.
Twenty patients opted for CC, and 36 patients opted for ITD. On univariate analysis, the predictive factors of the election of CC were age, prefrailty, cognitive impairment, and dependence for ADL. In the multivariate analysis, age and prefrailty remained as predictors for the choice of CC. Hospitalizations were more frequent in CC. Survival was similar in both groups (p = 0.098).
Frailty assessment could be useful for decision-making about the treatment in elderly patients with CKD. CC may be a good treatment option.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Nephron Clinical Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Although tacrolimus is recommended by KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Glomerulonephritis for the treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MN), little is known about factors that influence response and relapse of the disease after tacrolimus therapy. Methods Multicentre study that collected 122 MN patients with nephrotic syndrome and stable renal function treated with tacrolimus. Duration of treatment was 17.6 ± 7.2 months, including a full-dose and a tapering period. Results The percentage of remission was 60, 78 and 84% after 6, 12 and 18 months of treatment, respectively. The amount of proteinuria at baseline significantly predicted remission, the lower the baseline proteinuria the higher the probability of remission. Only 10 patients (8%) received concomitantly corticosteroids, and their rate of remission was similar (80% at 18 months). Among responders, 42% achieved complete remission (CR) and 58% partial remission (PR). Almost half (44%) of the responder patients relapsed. The amount of proteinuria at the onset of tacrolimus tapering was significantly higher in relapsing patients. By multivariable analysis, the presence of a PR versus CR at the onset of tacrolimus tapering and a shorter duration of the tapering period significantly predicted relapses. Tolerance was good and the number of adverse events low. Conclusions Tacrolimus monotherapy is an effective and safe option for the treatment of MN with stable renal function. Relapses are frequent in patients with PR and can be partially prevented by a longer tapering period.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Mycophenolate (MF) is effective as induction and maintenance treatment in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of MF in patients with refractory and relapsing LN.
Data were retrospectively obtained for 85 patients (35 refractory and 50 relapsing) from 11 nephrology departments in Spain. The primary endpoints were the incidence and cumulative number of renal responses and relapses and their relationship with baseline clinical and analytical data. The secondary endpoint was the appearance of side effects.
The main clinical and analytical variables were similar both in refractory and relapsing LN. Most of the patients had received cyclophosphamide, and all of them switched to MF. 74 patients (87%) achieved a response (69% partial, 31% complete). Age at starting MF, gender, pathological classification, body mass index, blood pressure, baseline renal function, and proteinuria were not associated with achieving response. After stopping MF, 3 of 19 patients (15.7%) relapsed, all at 6 months of follow-up. No differences were found between clinical and analytical variables and number of relapses. Side effects were unremarkable, except for 1 patient, who died of thrombocytopenia and ovarian hemorrhage.
Switching to MF from other immunosuppressive treatments is effective and safe in refractory and relapsing LN.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · American Journal of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction and Aims: A high level of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a risk factor for mortality, and recent studies have linked FGF23
to parameters of volume homeostasis and an increased risk of heart failure. In hemodialysis (HD), a large ultrafiltration
volume (UFV) is also associated with an increased mortality risk. We aimed to investigate whether circulating FGF23 levels
and ultrafiltration volume are related in a cohort of stable HD patients.
Methods: Post-hoc analysis on a prospective cohort study of 104 HD patients, median age 66 (interquartile range 51-75) years, dialysis
vintage 25.0 (8.5-51.2) months, who underwent a standard four-hour HD session at the first session of the week. Blood samples
were drawn at onset of HD. Plasma C-terminal FGF23 was determined by ELISA. Residual renal function (RRF) and Kt/V were extracted
from patient records. We used uni- and multivariate linear regression to assess the association between UFV and FGF23. Natural
log (Ln)-transformation was applied when appropriate.
Results: At start of the HD session the median FGF23 level was 7535 [interquartile range 3276-13433] RU/mL. Mean UFV throughout the
HD session was 2561 (standard deviation ±771) mL. In univariate analysis, natural log-transformed (Ln) FGF23 levels correlated
with UFV (Figure 1), and also with serum phosphate (R=0.587, P<0.001), age (R=-0.384 P<0.001), and Ln Kt/V (R=-0.252 P=0.01),
but not significantly with calcium (R=0.167 P=0.09). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed a consistent strong
association between Ln FGF23 AND UFV (St. β 0.385, P<0.001), in a model adjusted for serum phosphate (Standardized β 0.451,
P<0.001) and serum calcium (St. β 0.222, P=0.002; model R2 52%). Age, gender, dialysis vintage, Kt/V, systolic and diastolic
blood pressure did not contribute to this model. The association between FGF23 and UFV was independent of serum phosphate
(Figures 1, 2). Patients with relevant residual renal function had a trend for lower FGF23 levels (Mann-Whitney P=0.04, Spearman’s
Rho -0.230 P=0.04), however RRF was no correlate of FGF23 in multivariate analysis (St. β -0.111, P=0.16).
Conclusions: In a cohort of stable HD patients we found an association between FGF23 and UFV, independent of serum phosphate. Our findings
are in line with the role of exaggerated sympathetic nerve activation in patients with large UFV, as it was recently reported
that sympathetic stimulation increases FGF23 release from the bone (Kawai M et al J Biol Chem 2014). Further research on this
novel connection between deranged volume and phosphate homeostasis in HD patients are urgently needed and may provide clues
to better integrated management of these high risk patients.
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Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. We examine whether cystatin C, a surrogate marker of renal function, could identify patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with an increased risk of renal disease progression, death, or cardiovascular events. Methods. Data were obtained for 180 patients, with a diagnosis of chronic renal failure based on serum creatinine estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcreat) <90 mL/min/1.73 m(2). This population was grouped in tertiles according to cystatin C and creatinine values at baseline. Cardiovascular events and overall mortality were estimated for each tertile. Predictors of overall mortality and for the development of renal disease progression were analyzed. Results. The median age was 75 years (interquartile range 69-82) and the median eGFRcreat 38 mL/min m(2) (interquartile range 33-49). Overall mortality was lower on the first and on the second tertiles of cystatin C than on the third one (HR = 0.060; 95% CI: 0.008-0.447 and HR = 0.094; 95% CI: 0.022-0.406, resp.). Deaths related to the creatinine tertiles followed the same pattern, but differences were not as large. Cardiovascular mortality was lower on the second than on the third cystatin C tertile (HR = 0.198; 95% CI: 0.040-0.987), but it did not show differences on the first and the second creatinine tertiles compared with the third one (HR = 0.126; 95% CI: 0.013-1.265 and HR = 0.403; 95% CI: 0.093-1.740). The only independent predictors of mortality during followup were baseline cystatin C (OR = 0.100; 95% CI: 0.021-0.463) and baseline uric acid (OR = 1.377; 95% CI: 1.070-1.773). Conclusion. Cystatin C may be an alternative to creatinine for detecting a high risk of death and cardiovascular events in a population with CKD.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · International Journal of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Low serum magnesium has been associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in the general population and in dialysis patients. Our aim was to analyze the influence of serum magnesium on overall mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with advanced CKD not yet on dialysis. Methods. Seventy patients with CKD stages 4 and 5 were included. After a single measurement of s-magnesium, patients were followed a mean of 11 months. Primary end-point was death of any cause, and secondary end-point was the occurrence of fatal or nonfatal CV events. Results. Basal s-magnesium was within normal range ( mg/dL), was lower in men and in diabetic patients , and was not different between patients with and without cardiopathy. Magnesium did not correlate with PTH, calcium, phosphate, albumin, inflammatory parameters (CRP), and cardiac (NT-proBNP) biomarkers but correlated inversely ; with the daily dose of loop diuretics. In univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models, magnesium was not an independent predictor for overall mortality or CV events. Conclusions. Our results do not support that serum magnesium can be an independent predictor for overall mortality or future cardiovascular events among patients with advanced CKD not yet on dialysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Mycophenolate (MF) is effective as a maintenance therapy after induction therapy in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). However, little is known about its role in patients with impaired renal function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MF as a maintenance therapy for LN and its association with renal function.
Data were obtained for 56 Spanish patients who were receiving MF as a maintenance therapy for LN. Patients were classified into two groups according to renal function at the initiation of MF treatment: group 1 [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)] and group 2 (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). The primary endpoints of the study were the rates of renal relapse and responses, and their relationship with baseline renal function. Secondary outcomes were the appearance of side effects during treatment.
At initiation of MF treatment, the only differences between the groups were for age, hemoglobin levels, anti-DNA antibody titer, proteinuria, and renal function. In group 1 (n = 38), the eGFR was 98 ± 34 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and in group 2 (n = 18) the eGFR was 43 ± 14 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Only 3 cases had an eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2). No significant differences were observed in the rate of relapse at 6 months (group 1: 20%; group 2: 23%) or at 12 months (group 1: 25%; group 2: 17%). Response rates were also similar in both groups. Side effects were unremarkable.
MF is effective and safe as a maintenance therapy for LN both in patients with normal renal function and in those with renal impairment.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · American Journal of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Mycophenolate (MF) is effective as induction therapy for lupus nephritis (LN) in patients with normal renal function; however, little is known about its role in patients with impaired renal failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response to MF in LN and its association with baseline renal function. Methods: Data were obtained for 90 patients from 12 Spanish renal units who were receiving MF as induction therapy for LN. Patients were classified into 2 groups: group 1 (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and group 2 (eGFR <60 ml/min/ 1.73 m(2)). The primary outcome measure was the percentage of patients who achieved any response and its relationship with initial eGFR. The secondary outcome measures were the percentage of patients who achieved a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) and the appearance of relapses during treatment and side effects. Results: At initiation of MF treatment, there were no differences in the main parameters between group 1 (n = 63; eGFR 87 ± 23 ml/min/ 1.73 m(2)) and group 2 (n = 27; eGFR 44 ± 12 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Exposure to prednisone and MF was similar. The percentages of patients who achieved a response in groups 1 and 2 were, respectively, 69.2 and 43.8% at 6 months and 81.3 and 73.7% at 12 months. CR was more frequent in group 1, whereas PR was similar in both groups. Four patients relapsed and side effects were unremarkable. Conclusions: MF is effective and safe as induction therapy for LN, and response is even achieved in patients with baseline renal impairment.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · American Journal of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Decreased levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) have been reported in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The pleiotropic effects of vitamin D are known to go beyond mineral metabolism.
The aims of this study were to: 1) Determine the 25(OH)D levels in predialysis outpatients. 2) Find out the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with 25(OH)D deficiency, and predictive factors for the deficiency. Patients and methods: An observational study in 79 predialysis outpatients was performed. Clinical and biochemical parameters were analysed in terms of nutrition, inflammation and mineral metabolism in relation to serum levels of 25(OH)D. Levels of 25(OH)D lower than 15ng/ml were considered to be deficient.
Serum levels of 25(OH)D were deficient in 41 patients (52%). The comparative study regarding levels of vitamin 25(OH)D showed the group of patients with a deficiency, i.e. those with less than 15ng/ml, were older (70 ± 11.97 vs. 61 ± 14.5; p = 0.005), had a greater body mass index, BMI, (30±4.06 vs. 27.1 ± 5.08; p = 0.003) and increased proteinuria (1.42g/24h (0.53-2.96) vs. 0.51 (0.20-1.48), p = 0.009). This group included a greater number of diabetic patients: 20 (76.9%) vs. 6 (23%), p = 0.002. They had a higher level of parathyroid hormone (PTH): 359 (239-658) vs. 233 (129-323), p = 0.000; and more patients were under treatment with Calcitriol: 28 (62.2%) vs. 17 (37.8%), p = 0.024. In the multivariate analysis, high levels of PTH (OR 13.38; CI 95% [2.94-60.89]; p=0.001), increased proteinuria (OR 4.41; CI 95% [1.12-17.25]; p = 0.033); and being diabetic (OR 5.713; CI 95% [1.43-22.77]; p = 0.014) were independent predictor factors for patients with 25(OH)D deficiency.
In our study, we observed a high prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency among patients with CKD. The increased levels of PTH, the increase of proteinuria and the presence of diabetes were independent predictors for 25(OH)D deficiency.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been associated with increased mortality in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesize that elevated ALP could be partly explained by subclinical liver congestion related to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.
Doppler echocardiography was performed in 68 patients with advanced CKD followed up for a median of 2.1 years. Time-averaged levels of ALP and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were compared between patients with and without diastolic dysfunction. We also evaluated the effect of intensifying diuretic treatment on ALP levels in a small group of 16 patients with high ALP and signs of volume overload.
ALP correlated significantly (p < 0.001) with GGT but not with parathyroid hormone (p = 0.09). Patients with diastolic dysfunction showed higher ALP (p = 0.01), higher GGT (p = 0.03) and lower albumin (p = 0.04). The highest values of ALP were observed in patients with diastolic dysfunction plus pulmonary hypertension (p = 0.01). Intensifying diuretic therapy in a subgroup of patients with signs of fluid overload induced a significant reduction in body weight, GGT (p < 0.001) and ALP levels (p < 0.001).
Elevated ALP in patients with advanced CKD could be partly explained by subclinical liver congestion related to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, hypervolemia or both. The worse prognosis of these patients could be explained by their myocardial damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Decreased levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) have been reported in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The pleiotropic effects of vitamin D are known to go beyond mineral metabolism. Objetives: The aims of this study were to: 1) Determine the 25(OH)D levels in predialysis outpatients. 2) Find out the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with 25(OH)D deficiency, and predictive factors for the deficiency. Patients and methods: An observational study in 79 predialysis outpatients was performed. Clinical and biochemical parameters were analysed in terms of nutrition, inflammation and mineral metabolism in relation to serum levels of 25(OH)D. Levels of 25(OH)D lower than 15ng/ml were considered to be deficient. Results: Serum levels of 25(OH)D were deficient in 41 patients (52%). The comparative study regarding levels of vitamin 25(OH)D showed the group of patients with a deficiency, i.e. those with less than 15ng/ml, were older (70 ± 11.97 vs. 61 ± 14.5; p = 0.005), had a greater body mass index, BMI, (30±4.06 vs. 27.1 ± 5.08; p = 0.003) and increased proteinuria (1.42g/24h (0.532.96) vs. 0.51 (0.201.48), p = 0.009). This group included a greater number of diabetic patients: 20 (76.9%) vs. 6 (23%), p = 0.002. They had a higher level of parathyroid hormone (PTH): 359 (239658) vs. 233 (129323), p = 0.000; and more patients were under treatment with Calcitriol: 28 (62.2%) vs. 17 (37.8%), p = 0.024. In the multivariate analysis, high levels of PTH (OR 13.38; CI 95% [2.9460.89]; p=0.001), increased proteinuria (OR 4.41; CI 95% [1.1217.25]; p = 0.033); and being diabetic (OR 5.713; CI 95% [1.4322.77]; p = 0.014) were independent predictor factors for patients with 25(OH)D deficiency. Conclusions: In our study, we observed a high prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency among patients with CKD. The increased levels of PTH, the increase of proteinuria and the presence of diabetes were independent predictors for 25(OH)D deficiency.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous remission is a well known characteristic of idiopathic membranous nephropathy, but contemporary studies describing predictors of remission and long-term outcomes are lacking. We conducted a retrospective, multicenter cohort study of 328 patients with nephrotic syndrome resulting from idiopathic membranous nephropathy that initially received conservative therapy. Spontaneous remission occurred in 104 (32%) patients: proteinuria progressively declined after diagnosis until remission of disease at 14.7 +/- 11.4 months. Although spontaneous remission was more frequent with lower levels of baseline proteinuria, it also frequently occurred in patients with massive proteinuria: 26% among those with baseline proteinuria 8 to 12 g/24 h and 22% among those with proteinuria >12 g/24 h. Baseline serum creatinine and proteinuria, treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists, and a >50% decline of proteinuria from baseline during the first year of follow-up were significant independent predictors for spontaneous remission. Only six patients (5.7%) experienced a relapse of nephrotic syndrome. The incidence of death and ESRD were significantly lower among patients with spontaneous remission. In conclusion, spontaneous remission is common among patients with nephrotic syndrome resulting from membranous nephropathy and carries a favorable long-term outcome with a low incidence of relapse. A decrease in proteinuria >50% from baseline during the first year predicts spontaneous remission.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to analyze the longitudinal changes in cardiac biomarker levels in hemodialysis patients with high comorbidity treated in our special hospital unit. We hypothesize that strict volume control strategy (salt-restricted diet, extended dialysis sessions and dry weight clinical assessment and reassessment in every session) could prevent progression of left-ventricular damage and, therefore, progressive increment in cardiac biomarker levels over time.
This is a longitudinal cohort study including 46 dialysis patients in which a strategy of strict volume control has been adopted. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), troponin T and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured at baseline and prospectively at 4, 8 and 12 months. The possible association between volume control and cardiac biomarker levels was analyzed.
Dry weight could be reduced (p < 0.01) over time. A reduction in systolic BP (p < 0.05) and in CRP levels (p < 0.05) was observed, whereas NT-proBNP and troponin T values remained stable. However, patients in the high quartile of NT-proBNP at baseline showed a reduction (p = 0.02) in troponin T over time with no significant trend (p = 0.08) to progressive reduction in NT-proBNP values.
Strict volume control in dialysis patients may prevent progressive increment in cardiac biomarker levels over time. The impact seems to be higher among patients with higher levels at baseline in whom strict volume control can even reduce cardiac biomarker levels on follow-up.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Nephron Clinical Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the use of telemedicine in the long-term control of stable patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis at home. From September 2003 to August 2005, patients were randomly selected from current cases and invited to join study group A, in which they had telemedicine support. Patients not selected for this group, or who refused the invitation, were placed in study group B, and used for comparison. There were 25 patients in group A and 32 patients in group B. Videoconferencing equipment was installed in each patient's home, connected to a videoconferencing unit at the hospital by three ISDN lines. Patients in group A were followed for a mean of 8 months (range 3-24) with alternate months of teleconsultations and hospital visits. A total of 172 teleconsultations were conducted. A mean of 22 min (SD 9) were spent on each teleconsultation, significantly less than in hospital consultations, which took a mean of 33 min (SD 8) (P<0.01). In 148 teleconsultations (89%) medical treatment was modified. In 4 cases (2%) patients needed a hospital visit. In all instances (100%) the condition of the catheter exit site and the presence of oedema could be evaluated. In group A, the estimated cost of telemedicine was euro198 and that of a hospital visit was euro177. The mean hospitalization rate was 2.2 days/patient/year in group A and 5.7 days/patient/year in group B (P<0.05). Home telemedicine appears to be clinically useful in the long-term follow-up of stable patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, and the costs and savings also seem to be encouraging.
No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis (SEP) is a rare but serious complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) with a high morbi-mortality. We describe our experience with patients was diagnostic of SEP, their characteristics in CAPD and their clinic evolution after diagnosis. 190 CAPD patients were follow-up during 17 years. Eight patients (4,2%) developed SEP. Average age 45 ± 14 years (range 29-64 years), four was male. Time in CAPD was 72 ± 29 months (range 24-120 months). All patients have peritonitis previously (mean 3 ± 1). We observe a change in peritoneum characteristics (D/P Cr 4), with an average of 0.6 ± 0.1 at one year of CAPD, versus 0.82 ± 0.08 at the end of CAPD, with statistic significance (p < 0.001). There are increases in use of hypertonic bags: 53% ± 28 at beginning versus 91% ± 27 at end, with statistic significance (p < 0.009). All patients show tendency to hyperphosphoremia (mean 6.7 ± 0.7 mg/dl), with product calcium-phosphorus 68.4 ± 8.3. Five patients (62.5%) have a previous renal transplant, one lost due to early graft thrombosis and two lost due to acute rejection. Six patients (75%) have a previous abdominal surgery, although was extra peritoneal in all cases. The diagnosis of SEP was clinic suspicion in all cases, suggestive radiological data (intestinal hand-le group) and laparoscopy showing SEP (cocoon) with histological confirmation (fi-brosis and peritoneal calcification) in four cases. The treatment was medical in six cases associated with surgery in four of them. The medical treatment was tamoxifen and/or corticosteroids, associated with total parenteral nutrition in two patients and enteral nutrition in one. Surgery in six patients: three as urgent surgery (all died) and three as programme surgery (two live still). Etiology of died was: three for sepsis, one for peritonitis after bowel perforation, one for severe problems of nutrition. The ave-rage survival of three patients alive was 38 ± 17 months, two of them had program-me surgery, and one with functioning transplant we opt for conservative treatment. The actuarial survival at 24 months was 51%. Conclusion: The SEP is a serious entity with high mortality. Although our short experience doesn't can indicate a concrete treatment, our personal impression is that early surgery associated with corticoste-roids treatment may improve the prognostic Key words: Sclerosing encapsulatin peritonitis. Peritoneal dialysis. Surgical treat-ment.