- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report is aimed to describe a life-threatening case of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis secondary to ovarian teratoma with rapid recovery in 1 day after the removal of the tumour. A 23-year-old woman presented with sudden headache, personality changes and seizure. After neurological assessment, limbic or herpes encephalitis was provisionally diagnosed and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, acyclovir and steroids. The patient had progressive severe neurological symptoms, requiring prolonged intubation and mechanical ventilation. An anti-NMDAR antibody test revealed positive in serum and cerebrospinal fluid at 3 weeks of admission. Pelvic ultrasound examination and CT scan revealed bilateral small ovarian teratomas. Bilateral ovarian cystectomy was performed by open surgery. The patient showed rapid improvement and no longer needed intubation 2 days after the operation. In conclusion, we described a catastrophic case of ovarian teratoma-associated encephalitis with delayed diagnosis but rapid recovery after ovarian cystectomy. This information can probably be helpful to neurologists and gynaecologists.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HPV DNA testing has been recently introduced as an adjunct test to cytology in the follow-up of patients after treatment for cervical lesions using the loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of HPV testing in the detection of persistent or recurrent disease after LEEP in patients with cervical epithelial lesions in northern Thailand. Patients who underwent LEEP as a treatment for histological low-grade (LSIL) or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse at Chiang Mai University Hospital between June 2010 and May 2012 were included. Follow-ups were scheduled at 6-month intervals and continued for 2 years using co-testing (liquid-based cytology and Hybrid Capture 2 [HC2]) at 6 months and 24 months and liquid-based cytology alone at 12 and 18 months. Of 98 patients included, the histological diagnoses for LEEP included LSIL in 16 patients, and HSIL or worse in 82 patients. The LEEP margin status was negative in 84 patients (85.7%). At follow-up, 10 patients (10.2%) had persistent/recurrent lesions; 4 among LSIL patients (25.0%) and 6 in the group with HSIL or worse (7.3%). Only 2 of 82 patients (2.4%) with HSIL or worse diagnoses had histological HSIL in the persistent/recurrent lesions. Using histologically confirmed LSIL as the threshold for the detection of persistent/recurrent disease, cytology had a higher sensitivity than HC2 (90.0% versus 70.0%). At the 6-month follow-up appointment, combined cytology and HC2 (co-testing) had a higher sensitivity in predicting persistent/recurrent disease (80.0%) compared with that of cytology alone (70.0%) and HC2 (50.0%). After LEEP with a negative surgical margin, the rate of persistent/recurrent lesions is low. The addition of HPV testing at the 6-month visit to the usual cytology schedule may be an effective approach in the follow-up after LEEP.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of IOTA simple rules in differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Materials and methods: A study of diagnostic performance was conducted on women scheduled for elective surgery due to ovarian masses between March 2007 and March 2012. All patients underwent ultrasound examination for IOTA simple rules within 24 hours of surgery. All examinations were performed by the authors, who had no any clinical information of the patients, to differentiate between benign and malignant adnexal masses using IOTA simple rules. Gold standard diagnosis was based on pathological or operative findings. Results: A total of 398 adnexal masses, in 376 women, were available for analysis. Of them, the IOTA simple rules could be applied in 319 (80.1%) including 212 (66.5%) benign tumors and 107 (33.6%) malignant tumors. The simple rules yielded inconclusive results in 79 (19.9%) masses. In the 319 masses for which the IOTA simple rules could be applied, sensitivity was 82.9% and specificity 95.3%. Conclusions: The IOTA simple rules have high diagnostic performance in differentiating between benign and malignant adnexal masses. Nevertheless, inconclusive results are relatively common.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The purpose of this report is to describe ovarian paragonimiasis, a rare form of lung fluke infestation, mimicking ovarian cancer. Case: A 47-year-old Thai woman presented with a pelvic mass. Imaging suggested ovarian cancer with pulmonary and hepatic metastases. She was scheduled for complete surgical staging. However, a frozen section revealed Paragonimus eggs in the enlarged ovarian mass. A total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed instead of complete staging. All other lesions were also proven later to be Paragonimus infestation. Postoperative treatment with antiparasitic drugs resulted in dramatic improvement, with nearly complete resolution of all lesions at 4 months of follow-up. Conclusion: This is an unusual case of ovarian paragonimiasis mimicking ovarian cancer, which is instructive and informative for differential diagnoses of pelvic masses.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to compare surgical outcomes and survival rates of patients with the 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIA1 versus IIA2 cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy (RHPL). Patients with stage IIA cervical cancer undergoing primary RHPL between January 2003 and December 2012 at Chiang Mai University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The analysis included clinicopathologic variables, i.e. nodal metastasis, parametrial involvement, positive surgical margins, deep stromal invasion (DSI)), lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI), adjuvant treatment, and 5-year survival. The chi square test, Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used for statistical analysis. During the study period, 133 women with stage IIA cervical cancer, 101 (75.9 %) stage IIA1, and 32 (24.1 %) stage IIA2 underwent RHPL. The clinicopathologic variables of stage IIA1 compared with stage IIA2 were as follows: nodal metastasis (38.6% vs 40.6%, p=0.84), parametrial involvement (10.9% vs 15.6%, p=0.47), positive surgical margins (31.7% vs 31.3%, p=1.0), DSI (39.6% vs 53.1%, p=0.18), LVSI (52.5% vs 71.9%, p=0.05) and adjuvant radiation (72.3% vs 84.4%, p=0.33). With a median follow-up of 60 months, the 5-year disease-free survival (84.6% vs 88.7%, p=0.67) and the 5-year overall survival (83.4% vs 90.0%, P=0.49) did not significantly differ between stage IIA1 and stage IIA2 cervical cancer. In conclusion, patients with stage IIA1 and stage IIA2 cervical cancer have comparable rates of locoregional spread and survival. The need for receiving adjuvant radiation was very high in both substages. The revised 2009 FIGO system did not demonstrate significant survival differences in stage IIA cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy. Concurrent chemoradiation should be considered a more suitable treatment for patients with stage IIA cervical cancer.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To audit the treatment of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) at Chiang Mai University Hospital based on 12 standard requirements of the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme. Records were reviewed of all women with histologically proven HSIL undergoing treatment at Chiang Mai University Hospital between January 2005 and May 2009. Four of the standard requirements were not met: not all women underwent colposcopy before definitive treatment; the rate of specimen fragmentation was high; among women with ectocervical lesions, the rate of tissue removal to a depth of greater than 7 mm was low; and among women aged over 50 years with endocervical-margin involvement, the rate of repeat excision was low. This audit highlights four treatment practices that do not meet standard requirements and require detailed exploration. The development of guidelines for the treatment of cervical precancerous lesions in Thailand is challenging and merits further attention.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by mucocutaneous melanin deposition, and intestinal hamartomatous polyps, with an increased risk of breast, gastrointestinal, and female genital tract cancers. Multiple genital tract neoplasms in a 52-year-old northern Thai woman with PJS are described. The patient presented with abdominal distention. A pelvic ultrasound scan showed a left adnexal mass, diagnosed as mucinous cyst. An ovarian microscopic cystadenoma was diagnosed together with a minimal deviation mucinous adenocarcinoma (MDA) of the uterine cervix and mucinous metaplasia in tubal mucosa and endometrium. Pathological findings warranted a search for evidence of PJS Typical pigmentation at the hard palate and colonoscopic finding of hamartomatous polyps established the diagnosis of PJS. At four-year follow-up, the patient still showed no evidence of tumor recurrence. A case of PJS complicated by multiple and contemporaneous genital tract tumors with rare histological findings is presented. The presented case suggests MDA and mucinous metaplasia warrant a search for PJS.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study patterns of recurrence, to evaluate pathologic features correlating with recurrence, and to estimate the prognostic implications for each different pattern of recurrence in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages I and II squamous cell vulvar cancer. This was a retrospective study of 121 cases of vulvar cancer managed at our institution from 1987 to 2005. Time to recurrence, sites of local and distant recurrence, and the type of surgery were recorded. Relapse-free and overall survival were calculated. There was no difference in recurrence rates, time to recurrence, or survival between patients with FIGO stages I or II disease. The 5-year actuarial survival (corrected for competing risks) for stage I disease was 97% compared with 95% for stage II (P=.83). Progression-free survival at 5 years was 86% for stage I and 94% for stage II.In this study, 95.9% of patients were treated with vulvar-conserving surgery without detriment with respect to recurrence or survival. Vulvar-conserving surgery, even for large tumors, results in excellent outcomes. Vulvar recurrences have an excellent prognosis, but primary site and remote site vulvar recurrences are biologically different. There is no justification for the FIGO differentiation of node-negative cancers confined to the vulva on the basis of tumor size. III.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary choriocarcinoma of the uterine cervix is a rare disease. The accurate diagnosis of such a disease is difficult to achieve because of its rarity. Furthermore, the majority of cases presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding that could be caused by other more common conditions including, threatened abortion, cervical polyp, cervical pregnancy, or cervical cancer. In the present report, the authors present a case of large cervical choriocarcinoma with life-threatening vaginal bleeding, which was initially misdiagnosed as a cervical cancer The active cervical bleeding was successfully controlled with selective uterine arterial embolization. Remission of cervical choriocarcinoma was accomplished with combination chemotherapy without the need of hysterectomy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the histopathology of women who had "atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions" (ASC-H) on cervical cytology in a region with high incidence of cervical cancer. This study was conducted at Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand. All women with ASC-H, who had undergone colposcopic and histolopathologic evaluation between October 2004 and January 2007, were recruited. Similar cohorts with other squamous cell abnormalities on a Pap-smear, who had undergone colposcopy during the same period, were included as comparative groups. During the study period, 85 women who had ASC-H smears underwent colposcopic and histopathologic evaluation. The mean age was 45.3 years (range, 20-64 years). The histopathologic results of these 85 women were as follows: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II-III, 52 (61.2%); invasive cancer, 7 (8.2%); CIN I, 6 (7.1%); and no lesions, 20 (23.5%). The incidence of underlying CIN II or higher in an ASC-H smear (69.4%) was intermediate between atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (22.7%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (44.7%) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (90.5%) smears. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of CIN II or higher between women who were 40 years old or more and those who were younger (68.7% and 71.4%, respectively, P=0.81), or between pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women (71.4% and 63.6%, respectively, P=0.49). Reporting ASC-H cytology in our population is strongly associated with significant cervical pathology, particularly invasive cancer that is possibly at a rate higher than previously reported. Women who have ASC-H smears should therefore be referred for immediate colposcopy regardless of age and menopausal status.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives were to describe our nerve-sparing class III radical hysterectomy technique and assess the feasibility and safety of the procedure as well as its impact on voiding function. From January to August 2005, 21 consecutive patients with FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical cancer and 1 patient with clinical stage II endometrial cancer underwent nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy with systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy. The transurethral catheter was removed on the seventh postoperative day. Then intermittent self-catheterization was performed and post-void residual urine volume (PVR) was recorded. The nerve-sparing procedure was completed successfully and safely in all of the patients. Eight (36%) and 6 (27%) patients had the PVR of < 100 ml and < 50 ml respectively at the initial removal of the catheter. On the fourteenth day, 82% and 77% of the patients had the PVR of < 100 ml and < 50 ml, respectively. The mean duration before the PVR became < 50 ml was 11.27 (5-26) days. In conclusion, the technique described in this preliminary study appears safe, adequate, and feasible in our population with satisfactory recovery of voiding function. A larger comparative study is needed on long-term urinary, bowel, and sexual function as well as recurrence and survival.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes and complications in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women undergoing loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) for cervical neoplasia. The medical record of 60 evaluable HIV-infected women who had abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear and underwent LEEP following colposcopy at Chiang Mai University Hospital between May 1998 and June 2004 was reviewed. Thirty-one (51.7%) had associated genital infection at screening. Twenty-five (41.7%) had opportunistic infection, but only 18 (30.0%) were treated with antiretroviral therapy. The most common abnormal Pap smear was high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (46.7%), followed by low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (40.0%). Forty (66.7%) women had clear surgical margins after LEEP. Only one (1.7%) woman had severe intraoperative hemorrhage. Early and late postoperative hemorrhage were noted in three (5%) women of each period. Localized infection of the cervix was detected in seven (11.7%) women. Two (3.3%) women developed cervical stenosis at 6 months after LEEP. There was no significant difference in overall complications between HIV-infected women and the control group (P= 0.24). Among 60 HIV-infected women, no statistical difference in the rate of margins involvement (P= 1.00) and complications (P= 0.85) could be demonstrated between HIV-infected women who received antiretroviral therapy and those who did not. Disease-free rate at 6 and 12 months were 97.1% and 88%, respectively. These data demonstrated that LEEP appears to be safe and effective in HIV-infected women.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate treatment results in patients with T1 and T2 vulvar carcinoma. The medical records of 46 patients with T1 and T2 SCC of the vulva undergoing radical excision of the tumor and groin node dissection at Chiang Mai University Hospital between January 1998 and December 2004 were reviewed. The tumor size, histologic grade, nodal status, lymph-vascular space invasion, lesion location, surgical marginal status, complications, recurrence and survival were analyzed. Mean age of the 46 patients (T1 = 15, T2 = 31) was 59 years with a range of 34-84 years. The incidence of lymph node metastases for T1 lesions was 13% compared to 35% for T2 lesions. Twenty nine patients (63%) experienced surgical complications, the most common one was lymphedema (16) while wound breakdown was noted in only 1 patient. With a median follow-up of 15 months, 14 patients (30%) developed recurrence, 3 (20%) and 11 (35%) in patients with T1 and T2 lesions respectively. The overall 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year survival were 37% and 40%, respectively. The 5-year survival of patients with T1 lesion was significantly higher than that of patients with T2 lesion (64% vs 31%, P = 0.04). Patients with negative nodes had significantly better survival than those with positive nodes (56% vs 18%, P = 0.02). In multivariable analysis, only the status of groin node remained as independent prognostic factors for survival. Radical excision and groin node dissection through separate incision for T1 and T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva in this study has a less favorable survival outcome compared with the literature.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether the extent of lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) is a risk factor for pelvic lymph node metastases in stage IBI cervical cancer. The clinicopathological data of 397 patients with stage IB1 cervical cancer undergoing radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy (RHPL) at Chiang Mai University Hospital between January 1998 and December 2002 were analyzed. The histology, tumor grade, depth of stromal invasion, uterine corpus involvement, parametrial invasion and LVSI were analyzed for their association with pelvic node metastases. The extent of LVSI was classified as negative, minimal (< 10 LVSI/cervical specimen), and extensive (> or = 10 LVSI/cervical specimen). Of the 397 patients, 146 (36.8%) had tumors containing LVSI, 82 (20.7%) and 64 (16.1%) had minimal and extensive LVSI, respectively. Fifty nine (14.9%) patients had pelvic node metastases. Using multivariable analysis, LVSI (p < 0.001), depth of stromal invasion (p < 0.001), tumor grade (p < 0.001), and parametrial invasion (p < 0.001) were significant predictors of pelvic node metastases. The extent of LVSI either minimal or extensive degree significantly influenced pelvic node metastases. The presence of LVSI especially extensive involvement was significantly associated with the risk of pelvic node metastases in stage IB1 cervical cancer.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of methotrexate and folinic acid (MTX-FA) chemotherapy in patients with nonmetastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (NMGTN). Between 1997 and 2003, a total of 67 patients with NMGTN received treatment at the Chiang Mai University Hospital. Of the 67 patients, 55 were initially treated with methotrexate 1.0 mg/kg intramuscularly (IM) on day 1, 3,5, and 7 and folinic acid 0.1 mg/kg IM on day 2, 4, 6 and 8. Treatment courses were repeated every 14 days. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were analyzed All 55 patients with NMGTN were cured. Of the 55 patients initially treated with MTX-FA, 49 (89%) achieved complete remission. Six (11%) patients developed methotrexate resistance, 3 were cured with actinomycin D, 1 were cured with 5-fluorouracil followed by etoposide, 2 required hystertectomy to attain remission. No serious toxicity was noted Methotrexate and folinic acid chemotherapy is highly effective and well-tolerated in treating patients with nonmetastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of osmotic fragility test (OFT) as a screening test in predicting the severe thalassemia trait (alpha-thalassemia-1 & beta-thalassemia). A descriptive analysis and diagnostic test of non-anemic pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic, Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai, during April, and July 2002 was made. Blood samples were collected from 446 singleton pregnancies with no obvious medical complication such as iron deficiency anemia. OFT was performed in the same day, using 0.45% glycerin saline solution and the cut-off value of less than 60% was used for an abnormal test. Quantitative HbA2 test and PCR (SEA type) were done as a gold standard to confirm the diagnosis of beta-thalassemia trait and alpha-thalassemia-1 trait, respectively. The main outcome measures were sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of OFT. If the OFT cut-off value of less than 60% was considered positive, the test had a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 97.6%, 72.9%, 33.6%, and 99.5%, respectively. OFT has high sensitivity in detection of alpha-thalassemia-1 trait or beta-thalassemia trait and due to its simplicity with very low cost it may, therefore, be considered as a screening test in a wide population.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the antiemetic efficacy of a single oral versus intravenous (i.v.) ramosetron, a new class of selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, in gynecologic cancer patients receiving high-dose cisplatin. Between February 2003 and July 2003, 109 patients with gynecologic cancer scheduled to receive single agent cisplatin chemotherapy at a dose of 75 mg/m2 were randomized to receive either 0.2 mg oral (51 cases) or 0.3 mg i.v. (58 cases) ramosetron 1 h and 30 min respectively before chemotherapy. Patients were evaluated for 24 h after chemotherapy. The number of nausea and vomiting including adverse events were recorded every 6 h. 51 and 58 patients received oral and i.v. ramosetron respectively. Both groups were similar regarding age, performance status, body mass index and diagnosis of gynecologic cancer. 95 per cent of cases were cervical cancer. Antiemetic effect was significantly higher in the oral group when compared with the i.v. group during the first 6 hours and during the period of 18 to 24 hours after administration of cisplatin chemotherapy. Overall in 24 h, patients receiving oral ramosetron experienced no emesis slightly higher than that of the i.v. group (55% and 36% respectively, p = 0.05). Adverse events were mild and transient and were not significantly different in both groups, except tiredness which was more frequent in the i.v. group. Oral ramosetron at a dosage of 0.2 mg is as effective as 0.3 mg of intravenous ramosetron in prevention of acute emesis in patients receiving 75 mg/m2 of cisplatin chemotherapy.
Chiang Mai University
Amphoe Muang Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai, Thailand
- Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology