Andrey Kazakov

Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saarland, Germany

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Publications (25)186.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of resident cardiac stem cells (RCSC) on myocardial remodeling, c-kit+ RCSC were isolated from hearts of C57Bl/6-Tg (ACTb-EGFP)1Osb/J mice expressing green fluorescent protein and expanded in vitro. C57/Bl6N wildtype mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC, 360μm) or sham-operation. 5x105 c-kit+ RCSC or c-kit− cardiac cells or cell buffer were infused intravenously 24h post surgery (n=11–24 per group). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-mRNA in left ventricles of TAC mice was enhanced 24h after transplantation. 35days post TAC, the density of c-kit+ RCSC in the myocardium was increased by two-fold. Infusion of c-kit+ resident cardiac stem cells post TAC markedly reduced myocardial fibrosis and the expression of collagen Iα2 and connective tissue growth factor. Infusion of c-kit− cardiac cells did not ameliorate cardiac fibrosis. In parallel, expression of pro-angiogenic mediators (FGFb, IL-4, IL-6, TGFß, leptin) and the density of CD31+ and CD31+GFP+ endothelial cells were increased. Transplantation reduced brain- and atrial natriuretic peptides and the cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area. Infusion of c-kit+ resident cardiac stem reduced the rate of apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes and in non-cardiomyocyte cells.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Stem Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: Adenosine has been proposed to exert anti-hypertrophic effects. However, the precise regulation and the role of the different adenosine receptor subtypes in the heart and their effects on hypertrophic signalling are largely unknown. We aimed to characterize expression and function of the A1 receptor in response to hypertrophic stimulation in vitro and in vivo. Pro-hypertrophic/A1 receptor stimulation of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and male C57/Bl6 mice, subcutaneous drug administration, RT-PCR, 3[H]-leucine-incorporation assay, immunostaining, tissue staining, western-blot, gravimetric analyses and echocardiography were applied in this study. In isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, phenylephrine up-regulated the A1 receptor in a concentration-dependent manner, while angiotensinII and insulin-like growth factor I had no such effect. The selective A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine counteracted the phenylephrine (10 μM), but not the angiotensinII (1 μM) or insulin-like growth factor I (20 ng ml−1) mediated hypertrophic phenotype (cardiomyocyte size, sarcomeric organization, total protein synthesis, c-fos expression; p<0.01). In C57/BL6 mice, continuous N6-cyclopentyladenosine infusion (2 mg kg−1 day−1; 21 days) blunted phenylephrine (120 mg kg−1 day−1; 21 days) induced hypertrophy (heart weight, cardiomyocyte size, foetal genes), fibrosis, matrix metalloproteinase 2 up-regulation and generation of oxidative stress – all hallmarks of maladaptive remodelling. Concurrently, phenylephrine administration increased A1 receptor expression. Our data allude to a negative feedback mechanism attenuating pathological hypertrophy following α1-adrenoceptor stimulation and thereby suggest the A1 receptor as a potential target for therapeutic strategies to prevent transition from compensated myocardial hypertrophy to decompensated heart failure due to chronic cardiac pressure-overload. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · British Journal of Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a central role in most aging-related diseases. ROS are produced at the respiratory chain that demands NADH for electron transport and are eliminated by enzymes that require NADPH. The nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt) is considered a key antioxidative enzyme based on its ability to regenerate NADPH from NADH. Here, we show that pathological metabolic demand reverses the direction of the Nnt, consuming NADPH to support NADH and ATP production, but at the cost of NADPH-linked antioxidative capacity. In heart, reverse-mode Nnt is the dominant source for ROS during pressure overload. Due to a mutation of the Nnt gene, the inbred mouse strain C57BL/6J is protected from oxidative stress, heart failure, and death, making its use in cardiovascular research problematic. Targeting Nnt-mediated ROS with the tetrapeptide SS-31 rescued mortality in pressure overload-induced heart failure and could therefore have therapeutic potential in patients with this syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Cell metabolism
  • RA Hall · A Kazakov · U Laufs · M Böhm · F Lammert

    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • RA Hall · A Kazakov · U Laufs · M Böhm · F Lammert

    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
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    ABSTRACT: The progression of liver fibrosis in response to chronic injury varies considerably among individual patients. The underlying genetics is highly complex due to large numbers of potential genes, environmental factors and cell types involved. Here, we provide the first toxicogenomic analysis of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in the murine 'genetic reference panel' of recombinant inbred BXD lines. Our aim was to define the core of risk genes and gene interaction networks that control fibrosis progression. Liver fibrosis phenotypes and gene expression profiles were determined in 35 BXD lines. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified seven genomic loci influencing fibrosis phenotypes (pQTLs) with genome-wide significance on chromosomes 4, 5, 7, 12, and 17. Stepwise refinement was based on expression QTL mapping with stringent selection criteria, reducing the number of 1,351 candidate genes located in the pQTLs to a final list of 11 cis-regulated genes. Our findings demonstrate that the BXD reference population represents a powerful experimental resource for shortlisting the genes within a regulatory network that determine the liver's vulnerability to chronic injury.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) contributes to cardiac remodelling. We studied the role of eNOS in the development of myocardial fibrosis during cardiac overload.Methods & ResultsTen-week-old male C57/Bl6 wildtype (WT) and eNOS mice (eNOS(-/-)) were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC, 360&emsp14;µm) and WT were treated with L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100&emsp14;mg/kg/day) for 35 days. Inhibition of eNOS by L-NAME induced interstitial fibrosis, augmented replacement fibrosis and induced apoptosis of cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes. L-NAME and eNOS(-/-) markedly increased the fibrosis induced by TAC and enhanced the myocardial prevalence of CXCR4(pos) fibroblasts. Myocardial SDF-1 expression was up-regulated by L-NAME and down-regulated after TAC. Blood pressure lowering by co-treatment with hydralazine (250&emsp14;mg/L/day) did not reverse the L-NAME effects.In mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein (GFP)(pos) bone marrow, L-NAME increased the percentage of GFP(pos)fibroblasts in the myocardium to 45-70%. Strain-mismatched BMT of eNOS(-/-)-BM increased and of WT-BM decreased the percentage of CXCR4(pos) fibroblasts in all groups. The number of fibrocytes (CD45(pos)collagen I(pos) cells) in the peripheral blood and in the bone marrow was increased both by TAC and L-NAME. L-NAME but not the inhibitor of iNOS 1400W and of nNOS 7-nitroindazole increased hydroxyproline and collagen Iα1. L-NAME up-regulated SDF-1 mRNA in cultured neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts as well as their migratory capacity. eNOS inhibition induces and enhances cardiac fibrosis independently of blood pressure by activating SDF-1/CXCR4, extracellular matrix production in cardiac fibroblasts and by increasing recruitment of fibrocytes from the bone marrow.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Cardiovascular Research

  • No preview · Article · May 2013 · European Journal of Heart Failure
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · Aug 2012
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    ABSTRACT: AimsIn diabetes mellitus, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is a significant comorbidity. No therapy is available that improves cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to characterize myocardial function and ventricular-arterial coupling in a mouse model of diabetes and to analyse the effect of selective heart rate (HR) reduction by I(f)-inhibition in this HFPEF-model.Methods and resultsControl mice, diabetic mice (db/db), and db/db mice treated for 4 weeks with the I(f)-inhibitor ivabradine (db/db-Iva) were compared. Aortic distensibility was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume analysis was performed in isolated working hearts, with biochemical and histological characterization of the cardiac and aortic phenotype. In db/db aortic stiffness and fibrosis were significantly enhanced compared with controls and were prevented by HR reduction in db/db-Iva. Left ventricular end-systolic elastance (E(es)) was increased in db/db compared with controls (6.0 ± 1.3 vs. 3.4 ± 1.2 mmHg/µL, P < 0.01), whereas other contractility markers were reduced. Heart rate reduction in db/db-Iva lowered E(es) (4.0 ± 1.1 mmHg/µL, P < 0.01), and improved the other contractility parameters. In db/db active relaxation was prolonged and end-diastolic capacitance was lower compared with controls (28 ± 3 vs. 48 ± 8 μL, P < 0.01). These parameters were ameliorated by HR reduction. Neither myocardial fibrosis nor hypertrophy were detected in db/db, whereas titin N2B expression was increased and phosphorylation of phospholamban was reduced both being prevented by HR reduction in db/db-Iva.Conclusion In db/db, a model of HFPEF, selective HR reduction by I(f)-inhibition improved vascular stiffness, LV contractility, and diastolic function. Therefore, I(f)-inhibition might be a therapeutic concept for HFPEF, if confirmed in humans.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · European Heart Journal
  • R. Hall · A. Kazakov · U. Laufs · M. Böhm · F. Lammert

    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products by its ligands promotes inflammatory processes and tissue injury. The available evidence suggests that soluble forms of receptor for advanced glycation end products circulating in the plasma may neutralize the ligand-mediated damage by acting as a decoy. Thus, it is hypothesized that receptor for advanced glycation end products expression might be deleterious, whereas soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products might be beneficial in cardiogenic shock. However, until now, no data exist regarding the role of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products and receptor for advanced glycation end products in humans with cardiogenic shock complicating myocardial infarction. Prospective observational cohort study. Intensive critical care unit of a university hospital. Forty patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction, 20 age-matched patients with acute uncomplicated myocardial infarction and, 20 age-matched healthy volunteers. None. Monocytic receptor for advanced glycation end products expression assessed by flow cytometry was significantly increased in cardiogenic shock nonsurvivors (137.02±7.48 mean fluorescence intensity; n=13) compared to survivors (67.80±8.33 mean fluorescence intensity; n=17; p<.001). Conversely, nonsurvivors had significantly decreased plasma soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products levels (79.87±10.62 arbitrary units; n=13; p=.004) compared to survivors (127.65±10.52 arbitrary units; n=17) as assessed by Western blotting. Receptor for advanced glycation end products expression and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products levels were determined as independent predictors for 28-day mortality in cardiogenic shock confirmed by receiver-operator characteristics and multivariate analysis (receptor for advanced glycation end products: area under the curve, 0.943±0.05; p<.001; soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products: area under the curve, 0.815±0.08; p<.01). Both receptor for advanced glycation end products>103.6 mean fluorescence intensity or soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products<76.88 arbitrary units independently predicted a 27.87-fold (p<.001) and a 3.97-fold (p=.019) increase in 28-day mortality in cardiogenic shock. Enhanced monocytic receptor for advanced glycation end products expression and decreased plasma soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products levels play a central role in patients with cardiogenic shock associated with proinflammatory and destroying pathways, resulting in an enhanced 28-day mortality-rate. Receptor for advanced glycation end products and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products may be prognostic biomarkers for survival in cardiogenic shock and might represent a novel therapeutic target in cardiogenic shock.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Critical care medicine
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize different cellular effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARBs) as mono- or combination therapy in cardiac pressure overload. Methods and RESULTS: C57B1/6 mice received either the ACEI ramipril (2.5 mg/kg body weight), the ARB telmisartan (20 mg/kg body weight), or the combination. In all groups, pressure overload was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Cardiac hypertrophy (heart weight/tibia length) induced by TAC was reduced in all 3 treatment groups, with the most pronounced effect in the telmisartan group. The cardiomyocyte short-axis diameter and cardiac fibrosis were increased by TAC and similarly reduced by ACEI, ARB, and the combination therapy. The TAC-induced increase in the number of proliferating Ki67(pos) cardiomyocytes and noncardiomyocytes was reduced more potently by ACEI than by ARB. Four days of drug treatment induced a significant increase in Scal(pos)/VEGFR1(pos) endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in all animals in the treated SHAM groups. After 1 day of aortic constriction, only ramipril increased EPC numbers; after 5 weeks, telmisartan monotherapy did not change the EPC levels compared to vehicle or the combination therapy but raised it compared to ramipril. Neither TAC nor one of the therapies changed the number of cardiac capillaries per cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSIONS: ACE inhibition and AT1 receptor blockade have beneficial effects in remodeling processes during cardiac pressure overload. There are small differences between the 2 therapeutical approaches, but the combination therapy has no additional benefit.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: The endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) regulates the mobilization and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). We hypothesized that eNOS of the bone marrow (BM) affects cardiac remodelling during myocardial hypertrophy via the regulation of BM-derived vascular progenitor cells. Ten-week-old male C57/Bl6 wild-type (WT) and eNOS mice (eNOS(-/-)) were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC, 360 μm, 35 days) or sham operation inducing cardiac hypertrophy and increasing the numbers of Ki67+ cardiomyocytes in both strains. Myocardial fibrosis was more pronounced in eNOS(-/-) TAC (3.4 ± 0.4 vs. 2.1 ± 0.2% in WT-TAC, P < 0.05). TAC up-regulated the number of EPCs in the peripheral blood and in the BM in WT but not in eNOS(-/-). Baseline migratory capacity of EPCs was lower in eNOS(-/-) and was not raised by TAC in either strain. To test the role of eNOS in the BM during pressure overload, strain-mismatched (WT/eNOS(-/-); eNOS(-/-)/WT) and strain-matched (WT/WT; eNOS(-/-)/eNOS(-/-)) BM transplantations (BMTs) were performed. Cardiac hypertrophy was most pronounced in WT/eNOS(-/-) TAC. Strain-mismatched BMT of eNOS(-/-) BM deteriorated and of WT BM ameliorated cardiac fibrosis, capillary density, the numbers of EPCs in the peripheral blood and in the BM, and their migratory capacity in pressure overload. Following transplantation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive BM, TAC increased the number of BM-derived podocalyxin(pos)GFP(pos) endothelial cells in both strains. eNOS of the BM plays a key role for amelioration of cardiac hypertrophy, capillary density, and fibrosis during increased afterload.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Cardiovascular Research
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and in cardiogenic shock (CS). In patients with uncomplicated AMI (n = 20), CS (n = 30) and in age-matched healthy controls (HC; n = 20), TLR2 expression on monocytes was assessed by flow cytometry. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL6) expression in monocytes was analysed by intracellular cytokine staining. TLR2 expression was increased in patients with AMI compared with HC [mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) 111.1 ± 8.2 vs. 66.9 ± 1.5, P < 0.001]. In patients with CS, TLR2 expression was further increased (132.8 ± 5.6 MFI, P = 0.009 vs. AMI). This was accompanied by an increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNFα (4.3 ± 1.6% in AMI vs. 20.5 ± 5.9% in CS, P = 0.004) and IL6 (6.3 ± 1.6% in AMI vs. 20.6 ± 6.2% in CS, P = 0.032). Furthermore, in all patients with myocardial infarction (AMI + CS; n = 50), a strong correlation between the monocytic TLR2 expression and the symptom to reperfusion time (r(2)= 0.706, P < 0.001) was found, implying tissue hypoxia dependency. Symptom to reperfusion time is a main factor to influence TLR2 expression but not the presence of CS. TLR2 expression of mononuclear cells exposed in vitro to hypoxia was assessed by flow cytometry and western blot. In vitro measurements showed a hypoxia-mediated monocytic TLR2 expression up-regulation. We demonstrate TLR2 up-regulation and increased proinflammatory cytokine expression in circulating monocytes in AMI/CS depending on disease severity, implying an important role of TLR2 expression in ischaemic injury.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2011 · European Heart Journal
  • M Lenski · A Kazakov · N Marx · M Böhm · U Laufs
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiac complications. Inhibitors of dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPP-4) are novel drugs for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. The effect of DPP-4 inhibitors on myocardial metabolism has not been studied in detail. In wild-type C57Bl6-mice, 3weeks of treatment with sitagliptin had no effect on body weight and glucose tolerance nor on phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoAcarboxylase (ACC), phosphofructokinase-2 (PFK2) or tuberin-2 (TSC2) in the left ventricular myocardium. However, in 10week old db/db-/- mice, a model of diabetes and obesity, sitagliptin potently reduced plasma glucose rise in peritoneal glucose tolerance tests and reduced weight increase. The myocardium of untreated db/db-/- mice exhibited a marked increase of the phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC, TSC2, expression of p53 and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) membrane expression. These changes were reduced by DPP-4 inhibition. Sitagliptin showed no effect on cardiomyocyte size but prevented myocardial fibrosis in the 10week old db/db-/- mice and reduced expression of TGF-β1, markers of oxidative stress and the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in cardiomyocytes. Working heart analyses did not show an effect of sitagliptin on parameters of systolic cardiac function. In animals with diabetes and obesity, sitagliptin improved glucose tolerance, reduced weight gain, myocardial fibrosis and oxidative stress. Furthermore the study provides evidence that treatment with sitagliptin decreases elevated myocardial fatty acid uptake and oxidation in the diabetic heart. These observations show beneficial myocardial metabolic effect of DPP-4 inhibition in this mouse model of diabetes and obesity.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
  • R Hall · P Müller · U Laufs · M Böhm · F Lammert · A Kazakov

    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular effects of mental stress are only partially understood. Therefore, we studied effects of chronic stress and heart rate (HR) on endothelial function and cerebral ischemia. 129S6/SvEv mice were randomized to the I(f)-channel inhibitor ivabradine (10 mg/kg per day) or vehicle and underwent a chronic stress protocol for 28 days. Stress increased HR from 514 ± 10 bpm to 570 ± 14 bpm, this was prevented by ivabradine (485 ± 7 bpm). Endothelium-dependent relaxation of aortic rings was impaired in mice exposed to stress. HR reduction restored endothelial function to the level of naive controls. Vascular lipid hydroperoxides were increased to 333% ± 24% and vascular NADPH oxidase activity was upregulated to 223 ± 38% in stressed mice, which was prevented by ivabradine. Stress reduced aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression to 84% ± 3% and increased AT1 receptor mRNA to 168% ± 18%. Both effects were attenuated by HR reduction. In brain tissue, stress resulted in an upregulation of lipid hydroperoxides to 140% ± 11%, which was attenuated by HR reduction. Ivabradine increased brain capillary density in naive and in stressed mice. Mice exposed to chronic stress before induction of ischemic stroke by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion exhibited increased lesion size (33.7 ± 2.3 mm3 versus 23.9 ± 2.4 mm3). HR reduction led to a marked reduction of the infarct volume to 12.9 ± 3.3 mm3. Chronic stress impairs endothelial function and aggravates ischemic brain injury. HR reduction protects from cerebral ischemia via improvement of endothelial function and reduction of oxidative stress. These results identify heart rate as a mediator of vascular effects induced by chronic stress.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Stroke
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    ABSTRACT: Inosculation of preformed microvessels with the host microvasculature represents a promising approach to accelerate vascularization of tissue constructs. Herein, we analyzed whether cultivation of prevascularized tissue constructs promotes inosculation by reducing the perivascular cell coverage of the preformed microvessels. Poly(ester-urethane) scaffolds were implanted into FVB/N-TgN (Tie2/green fluorescent protein [GFP]) 287 Sato mice to generate prevascularized tissue constructs with GFP-positive microvessels. These constructs were then cultivated for 3 or 10 days before implantation into dorsal skinfold chambers of FVB/N mice to analyze inosculation and vascularization by intravital fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Noncultivated tissue constructs served as controls. Cultivation reduced the number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive preformed microvessels within the constructs and increased the production of vascular endothelial growth factor. After 3 days of cultivation, tissue constructs still exhibited good cell viability, whereas apoptotic cell death was massively increased in the 10-day-cultivated group. After implantation, inosculation of preformed microvessels was accelerated in the 3-day-cultivated constructs. This resulted in an improved vascularization, as indicated by an increased functional microvessel density and blood perfusion. Immunohistochemical detection of GFP-positive microvessels revealed that internal and external inosculation occurs in parallel. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that inosculation of in situ prevascularized tissue constructs can be easily accelerated by destabilization of preformed microvessels and angiogenic activation during short-term cultivation.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Tissue Engineering Part A
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    ABSTRACT: The small GTPase Rac1 seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of Rac1 overexpression on atrial electrophysiology. In mice with cardiac overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 (RacET), statin-treated RacET, and wild-type controls (age 6 months), conduction in the right and left atrium (RA and LA) was mapped epicardially. The atrial effective refractory period (AERP) was determined and inducibility of atrial arrhythmias was tested. Action potentials were recorded in isolated cells. Left ventricular function was measured by pressure-volume analysis. Five of 11 RacET hearts showed spontaneous or inducible atrial tachyarrhythmias vs. 0 of 9 controls (P < 0.05). In RacET, the P-wave duration was significantly longer (26.8 +/- 2.1 vs. 16.7 +/- 1.1 ms, P = 0.001) as was total atrial activation time (RA: 13.6 +/- 4.4 vs. 3.2 +/- 0.5 ms; LA: 7.1 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3 ms, P < 0.01). Prolonged local conduction times occurred more often in RacET (RA: 24.4 +/- 3.8 vs. 2.7 +/- 2.1%; LA: 19.1 +/- 6.3 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.7%, P < 0.01). The AERP and action potential duration did not differ significantly between both groups. RacET demonstrated significant atrial fibrosis but only moderate systolic heart failure. RacET and statin-treated RacET were not significantly different regarding atrial electrophysiology. The substrate for atrial arrhythmias in mice with Rac1 overexpression is characterized by conduction disturbances and atrial fibrosis. Electrical remodelling (i.e. a shortening of AERP) does not play a role. Statin treatment cannot prevent the structural and electrophysiological effects of pronounced Rac1 overexpression in this model.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Cardiovascular Research

Publication Stats

455 Citations
186.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008-2015
    • Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes
      Homburg, Saarland, Germany
  • 2005-2014
    • Universität des Saarlandes
      • Klinik für Innere Medizin III - Kardiologie, Angiologie und internistische Intensivmedizin
      Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany