[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis is mostly caused by gallstones or sludge. Early decompression of the biliary tree by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) with sphincterotomy may improve outcome in these patients. Whereas current guidelines recommend early ERC in patients with concomitant cholangitis, early ERC is not recommended in patients with mild biliary pancreatitis. Evidence on the role of routine early ERC with endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients without cholangitis but with biliary pancreatitis at high risk for complications is lacking. We hypothesize that early ERC with sphincterotomy improves outcome in these patients.
The APEC trial is a randomized controlled, parallel group, superiority multicenter trial. Within 24 hours after presentation to the emergency department, patients with biliary pancreatitis without cholangitis and at high risk for complications, based on an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE-II) score of 8 or greater, Modified Glasgow score of 3 or greater, or serum C-reactive protein above 150 mg/L, will be randomized. In 27 hospitals of the Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group, 232 patients will be allocated to early ERC with sphincterotomy or to conservative treatment. The primary endpoint is a composite of major complications (that is, organ failure, pancreatic necrosis, pneumonia, bacteremia, cholangitis, pancreatic endocrine, or exocrine insufficiency) or death within 180 days after randomization. Secondary endpoints include ERC-related complications, infected necrotizing pancreatitis, length of hospital stay and an economical evaluation.
The APEC trial investigates whether an early ERC with sphincterotomy reduces the composite endpoint of major complications or death compared with conservative treatment in patients with biliary pancreatitis at high risk of complications.
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN97372133 (date registration: 17-12-2012)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe acute pancreatitis poses unique nutritional challenges. The optimal nutritional support in patients with severe acute pancreatitis has been a subject of debate for decades. This review provides a critical review of the available literature. According to current literature, enteral nutrition is superior to parenteral nutrition, although several limitations should be taken into account. The optimal route of enteral nutrition remains unclear, but normal or nasogastric tube feeding seems safe when tolerated. In patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis an on-demand feeding strategy is advised and when patients do not tolerate an oral diet after 72 hours, enteral nutrition can be started. The use of supplements, both parenteral as enteral, are not recommended. Optimal nutritional support in severe cases often requires a tailor-made approach with day-to-day evaluation of its effectiveness.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Robotic surgery has been introduced to overcome the limitations of conventional laparoscopy. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to assess the safety and feasibility for three subgroups of robot-assisted laparoscopic liver resection: (i) minor resections of easily accessible segments: 2/3, 4B, 5, 6, (ii) minor resections of difficult located segments: 1, 4A, 7, 8 and (iii) major resections: ≥ 4 segments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Predicting severe acute pancreatitis (AP) remains a challenge. The present study compares admission blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hematocrit, and creatinine, as well as changes in their levels over 24 h, aiming to determine the most accurate laboratory test for predicting persistent organ failure and pancreatic necrosis.
Clinical data of 1,612 AP patients, enrolled prospectively in three independent cohorts (University of Pittsburgh, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group), were abstracted. The predictive accuracy of the studied laboratories was measured using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis. A pooled analysis was conducted to determine their impact on the risk for persistent organ failure and pancreatic necrosis. Finally, a classification tree was developed on the basis of the most accurate laboratory parameters.
Admission hematocrit ≥44% and rise in BUN at 24 h were the most accurate in predicting persistent organ failure (AUC: 0.67 and 0.71, respectively) and pancreatic necrosis (0.66 and 0.67, respectively), outperforming the other laboratory parameters and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation-II score. In a pooled analysis, admission hematocrit ≥44% and rise in BUN at 24 h were associated with an odds ratio of 3.54 and 5.84 for persistent organ failure, and 3.11 and 4.07, respectively, for pancreatic necrosis. In addition, the classification tree illustrated that when both admission hematocrit was ≥44% and BUN levels increased at 24 h, the rates of persistent organ failure and pancreatic necrosis reached 53.6% and 60.3%, respectively.
Admission hematocrit ≥44% and rise in BUN at 24 h may be the optimal predictive tools in clinical practice among existing laboratory parameters and scoring systems.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 10 November 2015; doi:10.1038/ajg.2015.370.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Health-related quality of life (QoL) is of major importance in pancreatic cancer, owing to the limited life expectation. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to describe QoL in patients undergoing resection for pancreatic or periampullary malignancy. Methods: QoL was measured on a scale of 0-100 in patients who underwent pancreatic resection for malignancy or premalignancy at the University Medical Centre Utrecht before resection, and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Measures consisted of the RAND-36, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) core questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and the EORTC pancreatic cancer-specific module (QLQ-PAN26). Results: Between March 2012 and November 2013, 68 consecutive patients with a malignancy (59 patients) or premalignancy (9) were included. Physical role restriction, social and emotional domains showed a significant and clinically relevant deterioration directly after operation in 53 per cent (RAND-36, P < 0·001), 63 and 78 per cent (QLQ-C30 and RAND-36 respectively, P < 0·001) and 37 per cent (RAND-36, P < 0·001) of patients respectively. Most domains demonstrated recovery to preoperative values or better at 3 months, except for physical functioning. Emotional functioning at 3, 6 and 12 months was better than at baseline (P < 0·001). Symptom scores revealed a deterioration in vitality, pain (P = 0·002), fatigue (P < 0·001), appetite loss (P < 0·001), altered bowel habit (P = 0·001) and side-effects (P < 0·001) after 1 month. After 3 months, only side-effects were worse than preoperative values (P < 0·001). Conclusion: QoL after pancreatic resection for malignant and premalignant tumours decreased considerably in the early postoperative phase. Full recovery of QoL took up to 6 months after the operation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Large multicenter series on outcomes and predictors of survival after distal pancreatectomy (DP) for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are scarce.
Adults who underwent DP for PDAC in 17 Dutch pancreatic centers between January 2005 and September 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. The primary outcome was survival, and predictors of survival were identified using Cox regression analysis.
In total, 761 consecutive patients after DP were assessed, of whom 620 patients were excluded because of non-PDAC histopathology (n = 616) or a lack of data (n = 4), leaving a total of 141 patients included in the study [45 % (n = 63) male, mean age 64 years (SD = 10)]. Multivisceral resection was performed in 43 patients (30 %) and laparoscopic resection was performed in 7 patients (5 %). A major complication (Clavien-Dindo score of III or higher) occurred in 46 patients (33 %). Mean tumor size was 44 mm (SD 23), and histopathological examination showed 70 R0 resections (50 %), while 30-day and 90-day mortality was 3 and 6 %, respectively. Overall, 63 patients (45 %) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Median survival was 17 months [interquartile range (IQR) 13-21], with a median follow-up of 17 months (IQR 8-29). Cumulative survival at 1, 3 and 5 years was 64, 29, and 22 %, respectively. Independent predictors of worse postoperative survival were R1/R2 resection [hazard ratio (HR) 1.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.4], pT3/pT4 stage (HR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.3-2.9), a major complication (HR 1.7, 95 % CI 1.1-2.5), and not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (HR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.0-2.3).
Survival after DP for PDAC is poor and is related to resection margin, tumor stage, surgical complications, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Further studies should assess to what extent prevention of surgical complications and more extensive use of adjuvant chemotherapy can improve survival.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in patients with pancreatic or periampullary cancer, both before and after resection.
Systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines). We included studies reporting on pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in patients with pancreatic or periampullary cancer. Data on patient demographics, type of pancreatic resection, diagnostic test, and occurrence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency were extracted. Prevalence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency was calculated before and after pancreatic resections and in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer.
Nine observational cohort studies with 693 patients were included. Median preoperative prevalence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency was 44% (range, 42%-47%) before pancreatoduodenectomy, 20% (range, 16%-67%) before distal pancreatectomy, 63% before total pancreatectomy, and 25% to 50% in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. The median prevalence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency at least 6 months after pancreatoduodenectomy was 74% (range, 36%-100%) and 67% to 80% after distal pancreatectomy.
Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is diagnosed in approximately half of all patients scheduled to undergo resection for pancreatic or periampullary cancer. The prevalence increases markedly after resection. These data highlight the need of pancreatic enzyme suppletion in these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The optimal diagnostic strategy and timing of intervention in infected necrotizing pancreatitis are subject to debate. A survey was performed on these topics amongst a group of international expert pancreatologists.
An online survey including case vignettes was sent to 118 international pancreatologists. The use and timing of fine-needle aspiration (FNA), antibiotics, catheter drainage and (minimally invasive) necrosectomy were evaluated.
The response rate was 74% (N = 87). None of the respondents use FNA routinely, 85% selectively and 15% never. Most respondents (87%) use a step-up approach in patients with infected necrosis. Walled-off necrosis (WON) is considered a prerequisite for endoscopic drainage and percutaneous drainage by 66% and 12%, respectively. After diagnosing infected necrosis, 55% routinely postpone invasive interventions, whereas 45% proceed immediately to intervention. A lack of consensus about timing of intervention was apparent on day 14 with proven infected necrosis (58% intervention versus 42% non-invasive) as well as on day 20 with only clinically suspected infected necrosis (59% intervention versus 41% non-invasive).
The step-up approach is the preferred treatment strategy in infected necrotizing pancreatitis amongst expert pancreatologists. There is no uniformity regarding the use of FNA and timing of intervention in the first 2-3 weeks of infected necrotizing pancreatitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with mild gallstone pancreatitis, cholecystectomy during the same hospital admission might reduce the risk of recurrent gallstone-related complications, compared with the more commonly used strategy of interval cholecystectomy. However, evidence to support same-admission cholecystectomy is poor, and concerns exist about an increased risk of cholecystectomy-related complications with this approach. In this study, we aimed to compare same-admission and interval cholecystectomy, with the hypothesis that same-admission cholecystectomy would reduce the risk of recurrent gallstone-related complications without increasing the difficulty of surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Pancreatic fistula is a potentially life-threatening complication after a pancreatic resection. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the role of matrix-bound sealants after a pancreatic resection in terms of preventing or ameliorating the course of a post-operative pancreatic fistula.MethodsA systematic search was performed in the literature from May 2005 to April 2015. Included were clinical studies using matrix-bound sealants after a pancreatic resection, reporting a post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) according to the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula classification, in which grade B and C fistulae were considered clinically relevant.ResultsTwo were studies on patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy (sealants n = 67, controls n = 27) and four studies on a distal pancreatectomy (sealants n = 258, controls n = 178). After a pancreatoduodenectomy, 13% of patients treated with sealants versus 11% of patients without sealants developed a POPF (P = 0.76), of which 4% versus 4% were clinically relevant (P = 0.87). After a distal pancreatectomy, 42% of patients treated with sealants versus 52% of patients without sealants developed a POPF (P = 0.03). Of these, 9% versus 12% were clinically relevant (P = 0.19).Conclusions
The present data do not support the routine use of matrix-bound sealants after a pancreatic resection, as there was no effect on clinically relevant POPF. Larger, well-designed studies are needed to determine the efficacy of sealants in preventing POPF after a pancreatoduodenectomy.