K Nishizawa

National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Tiba, Chiba, Japan

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Publications (49)43.84 Total impact

  • K Fujii · S Ko · Y Nako · A Tonari · K Nishizawa · K Akahane · M Takayama
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    ABSTRACT: Photoluminescence glass dosemeters (PLDs) and thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) are commonly used as a personal monitoring dosemeter. PLDs and TLDs were used for surface dose monitoring of medical staff involved in 125I brachytherapy for prostate cancer because these dosemeters have a wide dose–response linearity and high sensitivity for low photon energy. Surface doses measured with PLDs agreed with those with TLDs within ∼20 % except for a few cases. Surface doses at a surgeon's left hand and arm were higher than those at the other measuring points. A surgeon received a maximum dose of 650 μGy at the back of left hand. Surface doses to an assistant were <100 μGy. Surface doses to a nurse, a radiologist, an anaesthesiologist and a radiological technologist were <10 μGy. The occupational exposure to a surgeon could be reduced by the adjustment of fluoroscopic parameters and the use of lead gloves.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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    K Iwai · K Hashimoto · K Nishizawa · K Sawada · K Honda
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    ABSTRACT: Videofluorography (VF) is useful for diagnosing dysphagia; however, few reports have investigated appropriate effective doses for VF. The present study aimed to estimate the effective radiation dose in VF for diagnosis of dysphagia. Radiation doses to tissues and organs were measured using the anthropomorphic RANDO woman phantom as an equivalent to the human body. Effective doses were estimated according to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 60 in 1990 and IRCP 103 in 2007. The tissues measured were those recommended by ICRP 60 and ICRP 103 including gonads (ovaries and testes), red bone marrow and tissues in which excessive radiation commonly causes malignant tumours including lung, thyroid gland, stomach, large intestine, liver, oesophagus, bladder, breast, bone marrow, skin, brain and salivary gland. Skin dose was also measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. Using ICRP 103, the effective dose was estimated as 118.1 μSv at a tube voltage of 50 kV and 82.4 μSv at 45 kV. However, using ICRP 60 the effective dose for 1 min of VF was estimated at 62.4 μSv and 47.2 μSv under the same exposure conditions. Using ICRP 103, the effective dose for VF per examination at a total estimation time of 1 min was estimated as approximately 2.5-8.3 times that observed for digital panoramic radiography and 1/12 to 3 times depending on the measurement device for cone beam CT (CBCT). This value can be decreased in the future using a smaller irradiation field and decreased time for examination in VF in the future.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Dentomaxillofacial Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the organ dose and effective dose to patients undergoing routine adult and paediatric CT examinations with 64-slice CT scanners and to compare the doses with those from 4-, 8- and 16-multislice CT scanners. Patient doses were measured with small (<7 mm wide) silicon photodiode dosemeters (34 in total), which were implanted at various tissue and organ positions within adult and 6-year-old child anthropomorphic phantoms. Output signals from photodiode dosemeters were read on a personal computer, from which organ and effective doses were computed. For the adult phantom, organ doses (for organs within the scan range) and effective doses were 8-35 mGy and 7-18 mSv, respectively, for chest CT, and 12-33 mGy and 10-21 mSv, respectively, for abdominopelvic CT. For the paediatric phantom, organ and effective doses were 4-17 mGy and 3-7 mSv, respectively, for chest CT, and 5-14 mGy and 3-9 mSv, respectively, for abdominopelvic CT. Doses to organs at the boundaries of the scan length were higher for 64-slice CT scanners using large beam widths and/or a large pitch because of the larger extent of over-ranging. The CT dose index (CTDI(vol)), dose-length product (DLP) and the effective dose values using 64-slice CT for the adult and paediatric phantoms were the same as those obtained using 4-, 8- and 16-slice CT. Conversion factors of DLP to the effective dose by International Commission on Radiological Protection 103 were 0.024 mSvmGy(-1)cm(-1) and 0.019 mSvmGy(-1)cm(-1) for adult chest and abdominopelvic CT scans, respectively.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2009 · The British journal of radiology
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    ABSTRACT: The features of relativistic carbon-ion beams are attractive from the viewpoint of radiotherapy. They exhibit not only a superior physical dose distribution but also an increase in biological efficiency with depth, because energy loss of the beams increases as they penetrate the body. This paper reviews clinical aspects of carbon-beam radiotherapy using the experience at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The paper also outlines the dosimetry related to carbon-beam radiotherapy, including absolute dosimetry of the carbon beam, neutron measurements and radiation protection measurements.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Radiation Protection Dosimetry
  • Shinichiro Mori · Susumu Ko · Takayoshi Ishii · Kanae Nishizawa
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    ABSTRACT: The recent broad adoption of 4-D computed tomography (4DCT) scanning in radiotherapy has allowed the accurate determination of the target volume of tumors by minimizing image degradation caused by respiratory motion. Although the radiation exposure of the treatment beam is significantly greater than that of CT scans used for treatment planning, it is important to recognize and optimize the radiation exposure in 4DCT from the radiological protection point of view. Here, radiation exposure in 4DCT was measured with a 16 multidetector CT. Organ doses were measured using thermoluminescence radiation dosimeter chips inserted at respective anatomical sites of an anthropomorphic phantom. Results were compared with those with the helical CT scan mode. The effective dose measured for 4DCT was 24.7 mSv, approximately four times higher than that for helical CT. However, the increase in treatment accuracy afforded by 4DCT means its use in radiotherapy is inevitable. The patient exposure in the 4DCT could be of value by clarifying the advantage of the treatment planning using 4DCT.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
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    ABSTRACT: Although radiation skin injuries associated with interventional radiology have been known as a critical issue, there are few reports mentioning direct measurement of the entrance skin dose (ESD). Thus, the purpose of this study was to clarify the regional distributions of ESDs in neurointervention. Using photoluminescence glass dosimeters (PLDs), we measured the ESDs in 32 patients with a median age of 61.5 years. Angiographic parameters, including exposure time, dose-area product (DAP), and the number of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) studies and frames, were recorded. The ESDs of operators were analyzed by the same method. The maximum ESD of 28 therapeutic procedures was 1.8 +/- 1.3 Gy. Although the averaged ESD on the right temporo-occipital region was higher than that in other regions, disease-specific patterns were not observed. Statistically positive correlations were found between the maximum ESD and exposure time (r = 0.5283, P = .005), DAP (r = 0.7917, P < .001), the number of DSA studies (r = 0.5636, P = .002), and the number of DSA frames (r = 0.8583, P < .001). As for operators, ESDs to the left upper extremity were significantly higher than those to other regions. However, most of the ESDs were <0.2 mGy. Lead protective garments reduced the exposure doses to approximately one half to one tenth. It was shown that the regional ESD could be measured by applying the PLD. This method should contribute to reducing the dose accumulation in patients as well as in operators.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
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    ABSTRACT: The 256-multislice CT (256MSCT) obtains volumetric data with 128-mm coverage in a single rotation. This coverage allows satisfactory visualization of the whole heart, allowing the 256MSCT to visualize the cardiac chambers and coronary arteries by cine scan without ECG gating. These characteristics provide a solution to the problems of MSCT. Although a wider beam width provides more efficient imaging over a wider coverage area, patient doses with the 256MSCT are of considerable concern. We assessed potential radiation exposure with the 256MSCT in a cardiac CT protocol and compared the results to those with 16- and 64MSCT (collimated 64x0.5mm using 256MSCT). Organ or tissue doses were measured in an anthropomorphic phantom under a coronary artery imaging protocol with the 256MSCT in cine scan mode without ECG gating, and with the 16- and 64MSCT in helical scan mode with ECG gating. Average effective doses were 22.8mSv for the 16MSCT, 27.8mSv for the 64MSCT and 14.1mSv for the 256MSCT. The 16- and 64MSCT doses were thus approximately 1.6- and 2.0-fold higher than those of the 256MSCT. Use of the 256MSCT in cardiac volumetric cine imaging offers lower radiation exposure than 16- and 64MSCT, and suggests the potential of this equipment in single-beat cardiac imaging without ECG gating. This effective dose is acceptable for routine cardiac imaging.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · European Journal of Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: The characteristics of a glass dosimeter were investigated for its potential use as a tool for postal dose audits. Reproducibility, energy dependence, field size and depth dependence were compared to those of a thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), which has been the major tool for postal dose audits worldwide. A glass dosimeter, GD-302M (Asahi Techno Glass Co.) and a TLD, TLD-100 chip (Harshaw Co.) were irradiated with gamma-rays from a (60)Co unit and X-rays from a medical linear accelerator (4, 6, 10 and 20 MV). The dosimetric characteristics of the glass dosimeter were almost equivalent to those of the TLD, in terms of utility for dosimetry under the reference condition, which is a 10 x 10 cm(2) field and 10 cm depth. Because of its reduced fading, compared to the TLD, and easy quality control with the ID number, the glass dosimeter proved to be a suitable tool for postal dose audits. Then, we conducted postal dose surveys of over 100 facilities and got good agreement, with a standard deviation of about 1.3%. Based on this study, postal dose audits throughout Japan will be carried out using a glass dosimeter.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Radiotherapy and Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: The spread of Multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) has been remarkable. Here, various organ and tissue doses were evaluated with six types of MDCT scanners in common use in Japan; using thermoluminescence dosimeters and anthropomorphic phantoms under condition of routine clinical examinations of the chest in adult and child, of the head in child and of the abdomen-pelvis in adult. Estimated lung doses and averaged effective dose in chest examinations were 19.2 ± 2.03 mGy and 9.54 ± 0.90 mSv for the adult and 15.7 ± 1.88 mGy and 7.42 ± 0.82 mSv for the child phantom, respectively. The numerical difference between effective dose and organ or tissue doses was about 2–2.5 times. For the adult abdomen-pelvis examinations, averaged effective dose was 13.0 ± 3.72 mSv. Averaged effective dose for the child head examinations was 2.6 ± 1.32 mSv. In one case, the dose approached 80 mGy for the brain in the head examination, giving a difference from the effective dose of 10 times or more.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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    ABSTRACT: Surface dose monitoring in patients and physicians during 29 uterine artery embolisation (UAE) procedures was performed using photoluminescence dosemeters and thermo-luminescence dosemeters. Organ or tissue doses were measured with an anthropomorphic phantom using UAE exposure conditions averaged from the 29 cases, and effective doses were estimated for the patient. Entrance surface dose of the patients at the maximum dose position ranged from 121.5 to 1650 mGy. Estimated doses ranged from 3.16 to 43 mGy for the ovary and from 3.8 to 51.8 mGy for the uterus. The effective dose was 1.09–14.8 mSv. Monitored doses on the body surface of physicians were relatively high in the upper arm (5.41 ± 1.52 to 163 ± 17.25 µGy) and the hand and fingers (0.85 ± 1.18 to 222 ± 16.4 µGy).
    No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Radiation Protection Dosimetry
  • Keiichi Akahane · Kanae Nishizawa · Kazuo Iwai · Kimiaki Saito
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    ABSTRACT: The internal exposures of the patients in nuclear medicine can be calculated based on the equations and data in ICRP Publications 53 and 80. Physical and biological parameters are used for the calculation, and both include uncertainties. Physical parameters can be considered as more precise than biological parameters, so that uncertainties originated from biological parameters are more important. Absorbed fractions (AFs) have been calculated by Monte-Carlo method using medical internal radiation dose (MIRD)-type mathematical phantoms. They depend on the shapes and sizes of the phantoms used in simulations. For estimating shape- and size-related uncertainties, AFs of pairs of source regions and target tissues of the patient-injected 99mTc-MDP were calculated by using EGS4 codes and a voxel phantom of Japanese male. By simply resizing the voxels of the phantom, the dependencies of size for AFs were calculated, and the uncertainties caused by the cumulated activities in source regions were also estimated by assuming these parameters distributions as Gaussian.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Radiation Protection Dosimetry
  • S Mori · K Nishizawa · M Ohno · M Endo
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    ABSTRACT: Recent rapid progress in CT technology has yielded equipment with large numbers of detector rows and standard computed tomography dose index (CTDI) is therefore no longer an adequate integration range. An integration range of 300 mm is necessary to accurately measure dose under a nominal beam width of 128 mm due to scattered radiation. However, such a long phantom is inconvenient to use routinely in cone-beam CT patient dose checking. To assess patient dose accurately with standard dosimetry methods, we determined a conversion factor (CF) which was calculated from the weighted dose profile integral (DPI(w)) for the 300 mm integration range with a 300 mm long CTDI phantom using a 300 mm long ionization chamber divided by that for the 100 mm integration range with a standard CTDI phantom (140 mm long) with a 100 mm long chamber. CF values increase with increasing nominal beam width and effective energy in the range from 1.5 to 2.0. CF values can also be adapted for use with other CT systems as their dose profiles are thought to be analogous to those for the 300 mm phantom and are useful in any hospital situation to assess accurate patient doses using standard dosimetry methods.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · The British journal of radiology
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    S Mori · M Endo · K Nishizawa · K Murase · H Fujiwara · S Tanada
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    ABSTRACT: The 256-slice CT-scanner has been developed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. Nominal beam width was 128 mm in the longitudinal direction. When scanning continuously at the same position to obtain four-dimensional (4D) images, the effective dose is increased in proportion to the scan time. Our purpose in this work was to measure the dose for the 256-slice CT, to compare it with that of the 16-slice CT-scanner, and to make a preliminary assessment of dose for dynamic 3D imaging (volumetric cine imaging). Our group reported previously that the phantom length and integration range for dosimetry needed to be at least 300 mm to represent more than 90% of the line integral dose with the beam width between 20 mm and 138 mm. In order to obtain good estimates of the dose, we measured the line-integral dose over a 300 mm range in PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) phantoms of 160 mm or 320 mm diameter and 300 mm length. Doses for both CT systems were compared for a clinical protocol. The results showed that the 256-slice CT generates a smaller dose than the 16-slice CT in all examinations. For volumetric cine imaging, we found an acceptable scan time would be 6 s to 11 s, depending on examinations, if dose must be limited to the same values as routine examinations with a conventional multidetector CT. Finally, we discussed the studies necessary to make full use of volumetric cine imaging.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · British Journal of Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: For the estimation of collective effective dose from radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine diagnosis, a national survey was carried out in Japan. The survey contents covered radiopharmaceutical use, sex, age, activity, and so on of each patient in October 1997 and the monthly number of examinations in 1997. The annual number of diagnostic examinations using radiopharmaceuticals was 0.82 million for males and 0.74 million for females. The frequency of examination was about 3% for patients less than 17 years old and about 60% for those more than 60 years old. Effective dose was calculated on the basis of such literature as ICRP publications. The dose used most frequently was 5-6mSv per examination. The collective effective doses from diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations were estimated to be 13100 man .Sv for males and 20200 man .Sv for females.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Igaku butsuri: Nihon Igaku Butsuri Gakkai kikanshi = Japanese journal of medical physics: an official journal of Japan Society of Medical Physics
  • Shinichiro Mori · Masahiro Endo · Kanae Nishizawa
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    ABSTRACT: Scitation is the online home of leading journals and conference proceedings from AIP Publishing and AIP Member Societies
    No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Medical Physics
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    ABSTRACT: The prototype cone-beam CT (CBCT) has a larger beam width than the conventional multi-detector row CT (MDCT). This causes a non-uniform angular distribution of the x-ray beam intensity known as the heel effect. Scan conditions for CBCT tube current are adjusted on the anode side to obtain an acceptable clinical image quality. However, as the dose is greater on the cathode side than on the anode side, the signal-to-noise ratio on the cathode side is excessively high, resulting in an unnecessary dose amount. To compensate for the heel effect, we developed a heel effect compensation (HEC) filter. The HEC filter rendered the dose distribution uniform and reduced the dose by an average of 25% for free air and by 20% for CTDI phantoms compared to doses with the conventional filter. In addition, its effect in rendering the effective energy uniform resulted in an improvement in image quality. This new HEC filter may be useful in cone-beam CT studies.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2005 · Physics in Medicine and Biology
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    ABSTRACT: In order to examine phantom length necessary to assess radiation dose delivered to patients in cone-beam CT with an enlarged beamwidth, we measured dose profiles in cylindrical phantoms of sufficient length using a prototype 256-slice CT-scanner developed at our institute. Dose profiles parallel to the rotation axis were measured at the central and peripheral positions in PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) phantoms of 160 or 320 mm diameter and 900 mm length. For practical application, we joined unit cylinders (150 mm long) together to provide phantoms of 900 mm length. Dose profiles were measured with a pin photodiode sensor having a sensitive region of approximately 2.8 x 2.8 mm2 and 2.7 mm thickness. Beamwidths of the scanner were varied from 20 to 138 mm. Dose profile integrals (DPI) were calculated using the measured dose profiles for various beamwidths and integration ranges. For the body phantom (320-mm-diam phantom), 76% of the DPI was represented for a 20 mm beamwidth and 60% was represented for a 138 mm beamwidth if dose profiles were integrated over a 100 mm range, while more than 90% of the DPI was represented for beamwidths between 20 and 138 mm if integration was carried out over a 300 mm range. The phantom length and integration range for dosimetry of cone-beam CT needed to be more than 300 mm to represent more than 90% of the DPI for the body phantom with the beamwidth of more than 20 mm. Although we reached this conclusion using the prototype 256-slice CT-scanner, it may be applied to other multislice CT-scanners as well.
    No preview · Article · May 2005 · Medical Physics
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a four-dimensional CT (4D CT) using continuous rotation of cone-beam x-ray. The maximum nominal beam width of the 4D CT is 128 mm at the center of rotation in the longitudinal direction. In order to obtain appropriate estimations of exposure dose, detailed single-slice dose profi les perpendicular to the rotation axis including scattered radiation were measured in PMMA cylindrical phantoms, which were cylindrical lucite phantoms of 160 mm and 320 mm diameter and 900 mm length. Dose profi les were measured with a pin photodiode detector at the center and a peripheral point of 10 mm depth. A pin silicon photodiode sensor with 3 × 3 × 3 mm sensitive region was used as an x-ray detector, which was scanned along longitudinal direction in the phantom for beam widths of 20, 42, 74, 106 and 138 mm. The dose profi les had long tails caused by scattered radiation more than 200 mm out of the beam width edge. The exposure dose covered 95 % was distributed along about 360 mm length at the center and about 310 mm at the periphery, which was independent of the beam width. Before the advent of multi-detector CT, CTDI100 was used to approximate integral dose for clinical scan conditions. However, for 4D CT employing a variable beam width, the standard CTDI was not a good estimation. This work was carried out to establish a method of the dose measurements including scattered radiation for cone-beam CT such as 4D CT. In order to perform the dose assessment including scattered radiation, dose measured length should be recommended to measure integral dose over beam widths plus at least 230 mm, which covered 95 % total exposure dose.
    No preview · Article · May 2004 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
  • Kanae Nishizawa · Masaki Matsumoto · Kazuo Iwai · Takashi Maruyama
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    ABSTRACT: Computed tomography(CT) has been established as an important diagnostic tool in clinical medicine and has become a major source of medical exposure. A nationwide survey regarding CT examinations was carried out in Japan in 2000. CT units per million people in Japan numbered 87.8. The annual number of examinations was 0.1 million in those 0-14 years old, 3.54 million for those 15 years old and above, and 3.65 million in total. Eighty percent of examinations for those 0-14 years old were examinations of the head, as were 40% for those 15 years old and above. The number of examinations per 1000 population was 290. The collective effective dose was 295 x 10(3) person.Sv, and the effective dose per caput was evaluated as 2.3 mSv.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Nihon Igaku Hoshasen Gakkai zasshi. Nippon acta radiologica
  • K Nishizawa · T Moritake · Y Matsumaru · K Tsuboi · K Iwai
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    ABSTRACT: It has been reported that exposure of patients and physicians to radiation from interventional radiological procedures cannot be disregarded. Direct measurement of patient exposure used to be difficult due to possible interference by the detector with the observation of X ray images. Recently, a dosemeter system consisting of small-sized glass chips and a reader which adopts pulsed UV laser stimulation has been developed. Owing to its small size, radiolucency and physical characteristics, direct monitoring of surface dose has become feasible. Dose measurement for patients and physicians during neurointervention was done using the photoluminescence glass dosemeter system. The dose response of the dosemeter was almost linear over a broad dose range, but its energy dependency was rather high without a filter, the use of which is recommended by the manufacturer to compensate for energy dependency. Variation of sensitivity of about 20% was observed for effective energies of 45-60 keV which are used in neurointervention. In spite of this shortcoming, the photoluminescence glass dosemeter system was judged to be a convenient means for monitoring dose during neurointervention.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Radiation Protection Dosimetry

Publication Stats

586 Citations
43.84 Total Impact Points


  • 1996-2011
    • National Institute of Radiological Sciences
      • Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy
      Tiba, Chiba, Japan
  • 2008
    • The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
      Миура, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 1999
    • Nihon University
      • School of Dentistry
      Edo, Tokyo, Japan
  • 1981-1995
    • Kyorin University
      • Department of Radiology