[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date, cardiac resynchronization therapy remains the only treatment that enhances systolic function while improving long-term outcome and survival. Dyssynchronous heart failure is characterized by profound global as well as regional cellular and molecular changes, many of which are not observed in synchronous heart failure. The beneficial effects of CRT on myofilament function, G protein-coupled receptor signaling, and adrenergic response are important components for restoring cardiac reserve and reducing arrhythmia, both major limitations in heart failure. Here, we review the molecular alterations associated with dyssynchronous heart failure and their reversibility induced by cardiac resynchronization therapy.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies indicate that brain natriuretic peptide (BNP(1-32)) may be truncated into BNP(3-32) by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) and that BNP(3-32) has reduced biological activities compared with BNP(1-32). We investigated if DPP4 contributes to the cardiorenal alterations and to the attenuated response to BNP seen in heart failure.
Haemodynamic and renal assessment was performed in 12 pigs at baseline, 4 weeks after pacing-induced heart failure, and during BNP infusion. They were randomized to either placebo or treatment with a DPP4 inhibitor, sitagliptin. After 4 weeks of pacing, heart rate was reduced compared with baseline in the sitagliptin group (60 ± 2 vs. 95 ± 16 b.p.m., P < 0.01), and an increase in stroke volume was observed in the sitagliptin group compared with placebo (+24 ± 6% vs. -17 ± 7%, P < 0.01). Glomerular filtration rate declined at week 4 compared with baseline in the placebo group (1.3 ± 0.4 vs. 2.3 ± 0.3 mL/kg/min, P < 0.01) but remained preserved in the sitagliptin group [1.8 ± 0.2 vs. 2.0 ± 0.3 mL/kg/min, P = NS (non-significant)]. In the sitagliptin group, BNP infusion improved end-systolic elastance (68 ± 5 vs. 31 ± 4 mmHg/kg/mL, P < 0.05), ventricular-arterial coupling, and mechanical efficiency. Compared with controls (n = 6), myocardial gene expression of BNP, interleukin-6, Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger, and calmodulin was up-regulated in the placebo group, but not in the sitagliptin group.
In pacing-induced heart failure, DPP4 inhibition preserves the glomerular filtration rate, modulates stroke volume and heart rate, and potentiates the positive inotropic effect of exogenous BNP at no energy expense.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · European Journal of Heart Failure
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DES is superior to BMS in reducing restenosis and repeat revascularization. Available data are less convincing in small vessel disease. Aim of our study is to assess long-term clinical outcome of drug-eluting stents (DES) vs. bare-metal stents (BMS) in small coronary vessel disease.
Procedural and long-term clinical outcomes were assessed in consecutive patients (pts) treated with stenting of native small coronary arteries (reference vessel diameter and implanted stent < 3mm).
Pts enrolled were 645: DES group (n = 277) presented more frequently diabetes (173 [62%] vs. 32 [9%], P < .0001), higher body mass index (27 ± 5 vs. 26 ± 4, P = .01) and with previous PCI (115 [42%] vs. 118 [32%], P = .01) as compared to BMS group (n=368). DES group presented more frequently with unstable angina (46 [17%] vs. 38 [10%], P = .02); BMS group presented more frequently with myocardial infarction (103  vs. 43 , P = .0002). Reference vessel (2.27 ± 0.36 vs. 2.24 ± 0.36, P = .29), minimal lumen (0.81 ± 0.32 vs. 0.80 ± 0.31, P = .84) and stent diameter (2.59 ± 0.17 vs. 2.60 ± 0.15, P = .69) did not differ between the 2 groups. Lesion length was significantly higher in DES group (15.85 ± 6.81 vs. 13.66 ± 7.18, P = .01). At a median clinical follow-up of 3.0 years (IQR range 2.2-4.6), pts with DES showed significantly lower major adverse cardiac events (MACE, HR 0.51, 95%CI 0.33-0.78) and target vessel revascularization (TVR, HR 0.44, 95%CI 0.25-0.78). No differences were observed between the two groups as to death, myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis.
In small vessel disease, DES was more frequently implanted in pts at higher risk of restenosis, though it demonstrated to be more effective than BMS in reducing MACE and TVR at long-term follow-up.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · American heart journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to evaluate the long-term clinical outcome of patients with an angiographically intermediate left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) stenosis in whom the revascularization strategy was based on fractional flow reserve (FFR).
When revascularization is based mainly on angiographic guidance, a number of hemodynamically nonsignificant stenoses will be revascularized.
In 730 patients with a 30% to 70% isolated stenosis in the proximal LAD and no significant valvular disease, FFR measurements were obtained to guide treatment strategy. When FFR was ≥ 0.80, the patients (n = 564) were treated medically (medical group); when FFR was <0.80, the patients (n = 166) underwent a revascularization procedure (revascularization group; 13% coronary artery bypass graft surgery and 87% percutaneous coronary intervention). A 100% long-term clinical follow-up (median follow-up: 40 months) was obtained. The 5-year survival of the medical group was compared with that of a reference population. For each patient, 4 controls were selected from an age- and sex-matched control population.
The 5-year survival estimate was 92.9% in the medical group versus 89.6% in the controls (p = 0.74). The mean diameter stenosis was significantly smaller in the medical than in the revascularization group (39 ± 14% vs. 54 ± 13%, p < 0.0001), but there was a large overlap between both groups. The 5-year event-free survival estimates (death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization) were 89.7% and 68.5%, respectively (p < 0.0001).
Medical treatment of patients with a hemodynamically nonsignificant stenosis (FFR ≥ 0.80) in the proximal LAD is associated with an excellent long-term clinical outcome with survival at 5 years similar to an age- and sex-matched control population.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), in which both ventricles are paced to recoordinate contraction in hearts that are dyssynchronous from conduction delay, is the only heart failure (HF) therapy to date to clinically improve acute and chronic function while also lowering mortality. CRT acutely enhances chamber mechanical efficiency but chronically alters myocyte signaling, including improving β-adrenergic receptor reserve. We speculated that the latter would identify unique CRT effects that might themselves be effective for HF more generally. HF was induced in dogs by 6 weeks of atrial rapid pacing with (HFdys, left bundle ablated) or without (HFsyn) dyssynchrony. We used dyssynchronous followed by resynchronized tachypacing (each 3 weeks) for CRT. Both HFdys and HFsyn myocytes had similarly depressed rest and β-adrenergic receptor sarcomere and calcium responses, particularly the β2-adrenergic response, whereas cells subjected to CRT behaved similarly to those from healthy controls. CRT myocytes exhibited suppressed Gαi signaling linked to increased regulator of G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein) signaling (RGS2, RGS3), yielding Gαs-biased β2-adrenergic responses. This included increased adenosine cyclic AMP responsiveness and activation of sarcoplasmic reticulum-localized protein kinase A. Human CRT responders also showed up-regulated myocardial RGS2 and RGS3. Inhibition of Gαi (with pertussis toxin, RGS3, or RGS2 transfection), stimulation with a Gαs-biased β2 agonist (fenoterol), or transient (2-week) exposure to dyssynchrony restored β-adrenergic receptor responses in HFsyn to the values obtained after CRT. These results identify a key pathway that is triggered by restoring contractile synchrony and that may represent a new therapeutic approach for a broad population of HF patients.
Preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Science translational medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have undergone substantial technological advances, and revascularization is an established therapeutic option in the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). Here we focus on optimization of decision making in revascularization strategies, as is being addressed in recent large clinical trials and the guidelines issued by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS).
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcriptome patterns associated with acute myocardial infarction at the site of coronary occlusion are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to decipher the angiogenic, atherosclerotic, and inflammatory mRNA profiles in whole blood samples collected at the site of coronary occlusion in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
In five consecutive patients with STEMI, blood was sampled at the site of occlusion (local) and in the systemic circulation (peripheral) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention. RNA was extracted from whole blood samples. Among 221 genes involved in angiogenesis, inflammation and atherosclerosis, 24 were shown to be differentially modulated locally, by analysis with custom-designed DNA array technology. Validation in 28 distinct STEMI patients using real-time quantitative PCR identified seven out of these 24 genes to be consistently and significantly upregulated in local versus peripheral blood (p<0.05). Three genes were chemokine family members (CCL2, CCL18 and CXCL12), three genes belonged to the cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix family (FN1, CDH5 and SPP1), and one gene was representative of the lipoprotein family (APOE).
We identified a set of whole blood transcripts induced at the site of coronary occlusion in the acute phase of myocardial infarction. Resolved genes indicate a predominant role for chemokines, cell-extracellular matrix, and lipoprotein alterations in the pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction and the initial response to myocardial injury.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several methods are available for delivering stem cells to the heart. Recent studies have highlighted the advantages of injecting the cells directly into the myocardium in order to increase myocardial retention of cells. A particular focus has been on percutaneous transendocardial injection, facilitated by electromechanical mapping.The NOGA XP Cardiac Navigation System has a multicomponent catheter that is designed to guide and deliver transendocardial injections via a transfemoral approach, without a guidewire. However, this method may not be feasible in some patients who have peripheral vascular disease. Herein, we describe the case of a 68-year-old man whose tortuous, sharply angled iliac arteries precluded a femoral approach to transendocardial injection. To overcome the anatomic and mechanical challenges, we used a brachial approach. We believe that this is the 1st report of using the brachial route for transendocardial injection, and that it can be a viable alternative to the transfemoral approach in selected patients.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Texas Heart Institute journal / from the Texas Heart Institute of St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clopidogrel reduces long-term ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndrome or stable angina (SA) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Endothelial function improvement has been proposed, among other factors, for this beneficial effect of clopidogrel, but whether this might be associated to its anti-platelet action remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that clopidogrel improvement of peripheral vascular endothelial function might be associated with inhibition of platelet aggregation. Endothelial function was evaluated before and at least 12 h after 600 mg clopidogrel in 43 SA pts undergoing elective PCI by: (a) reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (measuring the Endoscore); (b) circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs). Response to clopidogrel was measured with point-of-care VerifyNow P2Y12 assay and expressed as platelet reaction unit (PRU) and percent platelet inhibition (%PI). High platelet reactivity after clopidogrel was defined as PRU ≥ 240. Endothelial function improved after clopidogrel in 20 pts. Changes in Endoscore (Δ Endoscore) were significantly correlated with both PRU (r = -0.61, P < 0.001) and %PI (r = 0.57, P < 0.001). Endoscore significantly increased after clopidogrel in pts with PRU < 240 (0.38 ± 0.26 to 0.57 ± 0.33, P < 0.001), but did not in pts with PRU ≥ 240 (0.53 ± 0.31 to 0.40 ± 0.37, P = 0.12). EMPs were also significantly reduced in pts with PRU < 240 (222 [140-593] to 142 [83-371]/μl, P = 0.001), while no changes were observed in pts with PRU ≥ 240 (256 [178-531] to 388 [238-499]/μl, P = 0.55). In patients with stable coronary artery disease, a single 600 mg clopidogrel loading dose improves vascular endothelial function. This improvement is associated with optimal platelet inhibition and it is not observed in patients with post-clopidogrel high platelet reactivity.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The SEISMIC study was an open-label, prospective, randomised study to assess the safety and feasibility of percutaneous myoblast implantation in heart failure patients with implanted cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD).
Patients were randomised 2:1 to autologous skeletal myoblast therapy vs. optimal medical treatment. The primary safety end-point was defined as the incidence of procedural and device related serious adverse events, whereas the efficacy endpoints were defined as the change in global LVEF by MUGA scan, change in NYHA classification of heart failure and in the distance achieved during a six-minute walk test (6MW) at 6-month follow-up. Forty subjects were randomised to the treatment arm (n=26), or to the control arm (n=14). There were 12 sustained arrhythmic events and one death after episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the treatment group and 14 events in the control group (P=ns). At 6-month follow-up, 6MW distance improved by 60.3±54.1?meters in the treated group as compared to no improvement in the control group (0.4±185.7?meters; P=ns). In the control group, 28.6% experienced worsening of heart failure status (4/14), while 14.3% experienced an improvement in NYHA classification (2/14). In the myoblast-treatment arm, one patient experienced a deterioration in NYHA classification (8.0%), whereas five patients improved one or two classes (20.0%; P=0.06). However, therapy did not improve global LVEF measured by MUGA at 6-month follow-up.
These data indicate that implantation of myoblasts in patients with HF is feasible, appears to be safe and may provide symptomatic relief, though no significant effect was detected on global LVEF.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem cell therapy has emerged as a novel therapeutic treatment alternative for early and end stage LV dysfunction. The rapid translation into clinical trials has left many questions unanswered. Moreover, results of randomized trials in the setting of acute myocardial infarction are controversial, emphasizing a need for further basic and translational research to improve understanding of cell functionality. This review attempts to summarize some of the functional issues related to cell therapy and also evaluate the current status of stem cell clinical trials. Although results to date have shown modest improvement in left ventricular function, the progress should follow a coordinated, multidisciplinary, and well designed path to address issues of cell homing, cell retention, and also look at outcomes beyond physiological parameters.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to compare 600- and 300-mg clopidogrel loading doses in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Two hundred fifty-five consecutive patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions who underwent primary PCI were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups on the basis of the loading dose of clopidogrel received before the procedure (600 vs 300 mg). Procedural angiographic end points and 1-year major adverse cardiac events were compared between the 2 groups. Major adverse cardiac events were defined as death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization. There were no significant differences in baseline clinical and angiographic features between the 2 groups: 157 (62%) in the clopidogrel 600 mg group and 98 (38%) in the 300 mg group. Patients receiving 600-mg loading dose of clopidogrel showed a significantly lower incidence of post-PCI myocardial blush grade 0 or 1 (odds ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.43 to 0.96, p = 0.03) and significantly less common no-reflow phenomenon (odds ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.98, p = 0.04) compared to those in the 300-mg group. Propensity-adjusted Cox analysis showed significantly higher survival free of major adverse cardiac events in patients receiving 600-mg loading dose of clopidogrel compared to those receiving the lower dose (hazard ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.98, p = 0.04). In conclusion, a 600-mg loading dose of clopidogrel is associated with improvements in procedural angiographic end points and 1-year clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who undergo primary PCI compared to a 300-mg dose.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · The American journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With favorable regenerative and immunotolerant profiles, patient-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are increasingly considered in cell therapy. Derived from bone marrow (BM) and standardized with culture in fetal bovine serum (FBS), translation of hMSC-based approaches is impeded by protracted expansion times, risk of xenogenic response, and exposure to zoonoses. Here, human platelet lysate adherent to good manufacturing practices (GMP-hPL) provided a nonzoonotic adjuvant that enhanced the capacity of BM-hMSC to proliferate. The nurturing benefit of GMP-hPL was generalized to hMSC from adipose tissue evaluated as an alternative to bone marrow. Long-term culture in GMP-hPL maintained the multipotency of hMSC, while protecting against clonal chromosomal instability detected in the FBS milieu. Proteomic dissection identified TGF-β, VEGF, PDGF, FGF, and EGF as highly ranked effectors of hPL activity, revealing a paradigm of healing that underlies platelet lysate adjuvancy. Thus, GMP-adherent human platelet lysate accelerates hMSC proliferation with no chromosomal aberrancy, through an innate repair paradigm.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Cell Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date, cardiac resynchronization therapy remains the only treatment that enhances systolic function while improving long-term outcome and survival. Here, we review the molecular alterations associated with dyssynchronous heart failure and their reversibility induced by cardiac resynchronization therapy. We focus upon the molecular portrait of dyssynchronous heart failure and how cardiac resynchronization therapy influences electrophysiologic, metabolic and adrenergic pathways.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Heart Failure Reviews