[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CCR5 and CXCR4, the respective cell surface coreceptors of R5 and X4 HIV-1 strains, both form heterodimers with CD4, the principal HIV-1 receptor. Using several resonance energy transfer techniques, we determined that CD4, CXCR4, and CCR5 formed heterotrimers, and that CCR5 coexpression altered the conformation of both CXCR4/CXCR4 homodimers and CD4/CXCR4 heterodimers. As a result, binding of the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120IIIB to the CD4/CXCR4/CCR5 heterooligomer was negligible, and the gp120-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements necessary for HIV-1 entry were prevented. CCR5 reduced HIV-1 envelope-induced CD4/CXCR4-mediated cell-cell fusion. In nucleofected Jurkat CD4 cells and primary human CD4(+) T cells, CCR5 expression led to a reduction in X4 HIV-1 infectivity. These findings can help to understand why X4 HIV-1 strains infection affect T-cell types differently during AIDS development and indicate that receptor oligomerization might be a target for previously unidentified therapeutic approaches for AIDS intervention.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Janus kinases (JAKs) are central signaling molecules in cytokine receptor cascades. Although they have also been implicated in chemokine receptor signaling, this function continues to be debated. To address this issue, we established a nucleofection model in primary, non-activated mouse T lymphocytes to silence JAK expression and to evaluate the ability of these cells to home to lymph nodes. Reduced JAK1 and JAK2 expression impaired naïve T-cell migration in response to gradients of the chemokines CXCL12 and CCL21. In vivo homing of JAK1/JAK2-deficient cells to lymph nodes decreased, whereas intranodal localization and motility were unaffected. JAK1 and JAK2 defects altered CXCL12- and CCL21-triggered ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) dephosphorylation and F-actin polymerization, as well as activation of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 and very late antigen-4 integrins. As a result, the cells did not adhere firmly to integrin substrates in response to these chemokines. The results demonstrate that JAK1/JAK2 participate in chemokine-induced integrin activation and might be considered a target for modulation of immune cell extravasation and therefore, control of inflammatory reactions.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is not known how naive B cells compute divergent chemoattractant signals of the T-cell area and B-cell follicles during in vivo migration. Here, we used two-photon microscopy of peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs) to analyze the prototype G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) CXCR4, CXCR5, and CCR7 during B-cell migration, as well as the integrin LFA-1 for stromal guidance. CXCR4 and CCR7 did not influence parenchymal B-cell motility and distribution, despite their role during B-cell arrest in venules. In contrast, CXCR5 played a nonredundant role in B-cell motility in follicles and in the T-cell area. B-cell migration in the T-cell area followed a random guided walk model, arguing against directed migration in vivo. LFA-1, but not α4 integrins, contributed to B-cell motility in PLNs. However, stromal network guidance was LFA-1 independent, uncoupling integrin-dependent migration from stromal attachment. Finally, we observed that despite a 20-fold reduction of chemokine expression in virus-challenged PLNs, CXCR5 remained essential for B-cell screening of antigen-presenting cells. Our data provide an overview of the contribution of prototype GPCRs and integrins during naive B-cell migration and shed light on the local chemokine availability that these cells compute.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Migrating lymphocytes acquire a polarized phenotype with a leading and a trailing edge, or uropod. Although in vitro experiments in cell lines or activated primary cell cultures have established that Rho-p160 coiled-coil kinase (ROCK)-myosin II-mediated uropod contractility is required for integrin de-adhesion on two-dimensional surfaces and nuclear propulsion through narrow pores in three-dimensional matrices, less is known about the role of these two events during the recirculation of primary, nonactivated lymphocytes. Using pharmacological antagonists of ROCK and myosin II, we report that inhibition of uropod contractility blocked integrin-independent mouse T cell migration through narrow, but not large, pores in vitro. T cell crawling on chemokine-coated endothelial cells under shear was severely impaired by ROCK inhibition, whereas transendothelial migration was only reduced through endothelial cells with high, but not low, barrier properties. Using three-dimensional thick-tissue imaging and dynamic two-photon microscopy of T cell motility in lymphoid tissue, we demonstrated a significant role for uropod contractility in intraluminal crawling and transendothelial migration through lymph node, but not bone marrow, endothelial cells. Finally, we demonstrated that ICAM-1, but not anatomical constraints or integrin-independent interactions, reduced parenchymal motility of inhibitor-treated T cells within the dense lymphoid microenvironment, thus assigning context-dependent roles for uropod contraction during lymphocyte recirculation.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although it is well established that stromal intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), ICAM-2, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) mediate lymphocyte recruitment into peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs), their precise contributions to the individual steps of the lymphocyte homing cascade are not known. Here, we provide in vivo evidence for a selective function for ICAM-1 > ICAM-2 > VCAM-1 in lymphocyte arrest within noninflamed PLN microvessels. Blocking all 3 CAMs completely inhibited lymphocyte adhesion within PLN high endothelial venules (HEVs). Post-arrest extravasation of T cells was a 3-step process, with optional ICAM-1-dependent intraluminal crawling followed by rapid ICAM-1- or ICAM-2-independent diapedesis and perivascular trapping. Parenchymal motility of lymphocytes was modestly reduced in the absence of ICAM-1, while ICAM-2 and alpha4-integrin ligands were not required for B-cell motility within follicles. Our findings highlight nonredundant functions for stromal Ig family CAMs in shear-resistant lymphocyte adhesion in steady-state HEVs, a unique role for ICAM-1 in intraluminal lymphocyte crawling but redundant roles for ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 in lymphocyte diapedesis and interstitial motility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T lymphocytes lacking the lymph node–homing receptors L-selectin and CCR7 do not migrate to lymph nodes in the steady state. Instead, we found here that lymph nodes draining sites of mature dendritic cells or adjuvant inoculation recruited L-selectin-negative CCR7- effector and memory CD8+ T cells. This recruitment required CXCR3 expression on T cells and occurred through high endothelial venules in concert with lumenal expression of the CXCR3 ligand CXCL9. In reactive lymph nodes, recruited T cells established stable interactions with and killed antigen-bearing dendritic cells, limiting the ability of these dendritic cells to activate naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The inducible recruitment of blood-borne effector and memory T cells to lymph nodes may represent a mechanism for terminating primary and limiting secondary immune responses.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · Nature Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent observations using multiphoton intravital microscopy (MP-IVM) have uncovered an unexpectedly high lymphocyte motility within peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs). Lymphocyte-expressed intracellular signaling molecules governing interstitial movement remain largely unknown. Here, we used MP-IVM of murine PLNs to examine interstitial motility of lymphocytes lacking the Rac guanine exchange factor DOCK2 and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)gamma, signaling molecules that act downstream of G protein-coupled receptors, including chemokine receptors (CKRs). T and B cells lacking DOCK2 alone or DOCK2 and PI3Kgamma displayed markedly reduced motility inside T cell area and B cell follicle, respectively. Lack of PI3Kgamma alone had no effect on migration velocity but resulted in increased turning angles of T cells. As lymphocyte egress from PLNs requires the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1, a G(alphai) protein-coupled receptor similar to CKR, we further analyzed whether DOCK2 and PI3Kgamma contributed to S1P-triggered signaling events. S1P-induced cell migration was significantly reduced in T and B cells lacking DOCK2, whereas T cell-expressed PI3Kgamma contributed to F-actin polymerization and protein kinase B phosphorylation but not migration. These findings correlated with delayed lymphocyte egress from PLNs in the absence of DOCK2 but not PI3Kgamma, and a markedly reduced cell motility of DOCK2-deficient T cells in close proximity to efferent lymphatic vessels. In summary, our data support a central role for DOCK2, and to a lesser extent T cell-expressed PI3Kgamma, for signal transduction during interstitial lymphocyte migration and S1P-mediated egress.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coordinated action between cytokines and chemokines is required for effective endocrine and immune responses. Proteins of
both families promote receptor oligomerization, activation of the Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT pathway, and transcription of many
genes, including the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family. In this study, we show that chemokine-mediated SOCS1
and SOCS3 up-regulation modulates the signaling and function associated to a cytokine receptor, both in vitro and in vivo. The effect is mediated by SOCS binding to JAK2 and to the cytokine receptor, which blocks subsequent signaling events. The
data reinforce the premise of cytokine-chemokine cross-talk, which helps contribute to modulating individual responses and
in defining the functional plasticity of the immune system.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2004 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemokines coordinate leukocyte trafficking by promoting oligomerization and signaling by G protein-coupled receptors; however, it is not known which amino acid residues of the receptors participate in this process. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that Ile52 in transmembrane region-1 (TM1) and Val150 in TM4 of the chemokine receptor CCR5 are key residues in the interaction surface between CCR5 molecules. Mutation of these residues generated nonfunctional receptors that could not dimerize or trigger signaling. In vitro and in vivo studies in human cell lines and primary T cells showed that synthetic peptides containing these residues blocked responses induced by the CCR5 ligand CCL5. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer showed the presence of preformed, ligand-stabilized chemokine receptor oligomers. This is the first description of the residues involved in chemokine receptor dimerization, and indicates a potential target for the modification of chemokine responses.
No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Nature Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of chemokine receptors as HIV-1 coreceptors has focused research on developing strategies to prevent HIV-1 infection. We generated CCR2-01, a CCR2 receptor-specific monoclonal antibody that neither competes with the chemokine CCL2 for binding nor triggers signaling, but nonetheless blocks replication of monotropic (R5) and T-tropic (X4) HIV-1 strains. This effect is explained by the ability of CCR2-01 to induce oligomerization of CCR2 with the CCR5 or CXCR4 viral coreceptors. HIV-1 infection through CCR5 and CXCR4 receptors can thus be prevented in the absence of steric hindrance or receptor downregulation by acting in trans on a receptor that is rarely used by the virus to infect cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The JAK/STAT (Janus kinase / signaling transducer and activator of transcription) signaling pathway is implicated in converting stationary epithelial cells to migratory cells. In mammals, migratory responses are activated by chemoattractant proteins, including chemokines. We found that by binding to seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors, chemokines activate the JAK/STAT pathwayto trigger chemotactic responses. We show that chemokine-mediated JAK/STAT activation is critical for G-protein induction and for phospholipase C-β dependent Ca2+ flux; in addition, pharmacological inhibition of JAK or mutation of the JAK kinase domain causes defects in both responses. Furthermore, Gi association with the receptor is dependent on JAK activation, andthe chemokine-mediated Ca2+ flux that requires phospholipase C-β activity takes place downstream of JAK kinases. The chemokines thus employ a mechanism that links heterologous signaling pathways — G proteins and tyrosine kinases — in a network that may be essential for mediating their pleiotropic responses.
No preview · Article · Apr 2003 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homing of blood-borne lymphocytes to peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs) is a multistep process dependent on the sequential engagement of L-selectin, which mediates lymphocyte rolling along the luminal surface of high endothelial venules (HEVs), followed by activation of lymphocyte integrins and transmigration through HEVs. Within lymphoid tissue, B and T lymphocytes then migrate toward specific microenvironments such as B-cell follicles and the paracortex, respectively. The lymphocyte-expressed chemokine receptor CCR7 is playing an important role during this process, as its HEV-presented ligands CCL19 and CCL21 can trigger rapid integrin activation under flow in addition to inducing a chemotactic response, which may participate in transmigration and/or interstitial migration. Here, we report that Tyrphostin (Tyr) AG490, a pharmacological inhibitor of Janus family tyrosine kinases (Jaks), blocked the chemotactic response of primary mouse lymphocytes to CCL19 and CCL21 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Tyr AG490 inhibited rapid CCL21-mediated up-regulation of alpha4 and beta2 integrin adhesiveness in static adhesion assays and under physiological flow, whereas adhesion induced by phorbol myristate acetate remained unaltered. Using intravital microscopy of subiliac PLNs in mice, we found that adoptively transferred Tyr AG490-treated lymphocytes adhered significantly less in HEVs compared with control cells, although L-selectin-mediated rolling was similar in both samples. Finally, we observed rapid Jak2 phosphorylation in CCL21-stimulated primary mouse lymphocytes. Thus, our study suggests a role for Jak tyrosine kinases during CCR7-mediated lymphocyte recirculation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic cell growth, differentiation, and chemotactic responses require coordinated action between cytokines and chemokines. Cytokines promote receptor oligomerization, followed by Janus kinase (JAK) kinase activation, signal transducers and transactivators of transcription (STAT) nuclear translocation, and transcription of cytokine-responsive genes. These include genes that encode a family of negative regulators of cytokine signaling, the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. After binding their specific receptors, chemokines trigger receptor dimerization and activate the JAK/STAT pathway. We show that SOCS3 overexpression or up-regulation, stimulated by a cytokine such as growth hormone, impairs the response to CXCL12, measured by Ca(2+) flux and chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo. This effect is mediated by SOCS3 binding to the CXC chemokine receptor 4 receptor, blocking JAK/STAT and Galpha(i) pathways, without interfering with cell surface chemokine receptor expression. The data provide clear evidence for signaling cross-talk between cytokine and chemokine responses in building a functional immune system.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2002 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interaction between the integrin alpha(4)beta(7) and its ligand, mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1, on high endothelial venules represents a key adhesion event during lymphocyte homing to secondary lymphoid tissue. Stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) is a chemokine that attracts T and B lymphocytes and has been hypothesized to be involved in lymphocyte homing. In this work we show that alpha(4)beta(7)-mediated adhesion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes and the RPMI 8866 cell line to mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 was up-regulated by SDF-1alpha in both static adhesion and cell detachment under shear stress assays. Both naive and memory phenotype CD4(+) T cells were targets of SDF-1alpha-triggered increased adhesion. In addition, SDF-1alpha augmented alpha(4)beta(7)-dependent adhesion of RPMI 8866 cells to connecting segment-1 of fibronectin. While pertussis toxin totally blocked chemotaxis of CD4(+) and RPMI 8866 cells to SDF-1alpha, enhanced alpha(4)beta(7)-dependent adhesion triggered by this chemokine was partially inhibited, indicating the participation of Galpha(i)-dependent as well as Galpha(i)-independent signaling. Accordingly, we show that SDF-1alpha induced a rapid and transient association between its receptor CXCR4 and Galpha(i), whereas association of pertussis toxin-insensitive Galpha(13) with CXCR4 was slower and of a lesser extent. SDF-1alpha also activated the small GTPases RhoA and Rac1, and inhibition of RhoA activation reduced the up-regulation of alpha(4)beta(7)-mediated lymphocyte adhesion in response to SDF-1alpha, suggesting that activation of RhoA could play an important role in the enhanced adhesion. These data indicate that up-regulation by SDF-1alpha of lymphocyte adhesion mediated by alpha(4)beta(7) could contribute to lymphocyte homing to secondary lymphoid tissues.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2002 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interaction between the integrin α4β7 and its ligand, mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1, on high endothelial venules represents a key adhesion event during lymphocyte homing to secondary lymphoid tissue. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a chemokine that attracts T and B lymphocytes and has been hypothesized to be involved in lymphocyte homing. In this work we show that α4β7-mediated adhesion of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the RPMI 8866 cell line to mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 was up-regulated by SDF-1α in both static adhesion and cell detachment under shear stress assays. Both naive and memory phenotype CD4+ T cells were targets of SDF-1α-triggered increased adhesion. In addition, SDF-1α augmented α4β7-dependent adhesion of RPMI 8866 cells to connecting segment-1 of fibronectin. While pertussis toxin totally blocked chemotaxis of CD4+ and RPMI 8866 cells to SDF-1α, enhanced α4β7-dependent adhesion triggered by this chemokine was partially inhibited, indicating the participation of Gαi-dependent as well as Gαi-independent signaling. Accordingly, we show that SDF-1α induced a rapid and transient association between its receptor CXCR4 and Gαi, whereas association of pertussis toxin-insensitive Gα13 with CXCR4 was slower and of a lesser extent. SDF-1α also activated the small GTPases RhoA and Rac1, and inhibition of RhoA activation reduced the up-regulation of α4β7-mediated lymphocyte adhesion in response to SDF-1α, suggesting that activation of RhoA could play an important role in the enhanced adhesion. These data indicate that up-regulation by SDF-1α of lymphocyte adhesion mediated by α4β7 could contribute to lymphocyte homing to secondary lymphoid tissues.
Full-text · Article · May 2002 · The Journal of Immunology