[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A plausible explanation for many MHC-linked diseases is lacking. Sequencing of the MHC class I region (coding units or full contigs) in several human and nonhuman primate haplotypes allowed an analysis of single nucleotide variations (SNV) across this entire segment. This diversity was not evenly distributed. It was rather concentrated within two gene-rich clusters. These were each centered, but importantly not limited to, the antigen-presenting HLA-A and HLA-B/-C loci. Rapid evolution of MHC-I alleles, as evidenced by an unusually high number of haplotype-specific (hs) and hypervariable (hv) (which could not be traced to a single species or haplotype) SNVs within the classical MHC-I, seems to have not only hitchhiked alleles within nearby genes, but also hitchhiked deleterious mutations in these same unrelated loci. The overrepresentation of a fraction of these hvSNV (hv1SNV) along with hsSNV, as compared to those that appear to have been maintained throughout primate evolution (trans-species diversity; tsSNV; included within hv2SNV) tends to establish that the majority of the MHC polymorphism is de novo (species specific). This is most likely reminiscent of the fact that these hsSNV and hv1SNV have been selected in adaptation to the constantly evolving microbial antigenic repertoire.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Mafa), alias the crab-eating monkeys or long-tailed macaques, live across a vast range of South-East Asia. These non-human primates have emerged as important animal models in infectious and chronic diseases and transplantation studies, necessitating a more extensive characterization of their major histocompatibility complex polymorphic regions. The current information on the polymorphic variation or diversity of the Mafa-DPB1 locus is largely limited in comparison with the more commonly studied rhesus macaque DPB1 locus. In this article, to better elucidate the degree and types of polymorphisms and genetic differences of Mafa-DPB1 locus among three South-East Asian populations and to investigate how the allele differences between macaques and humans might affect their respective immune responses, we identified 40 alleles within exon 2 of the Mafa-DPB1 locus by DNA sequencing using 217 individuals. We also performed evolutionary and population analyses using these sequences to reveal some population-specific alleles and trans-species allelic conservation between the cynomolgus macaques and the rhesus macaques. Of the 40 new alleles, eight belong to a newly identified lineage group not previously found in the rhesus macaque species. This allele information will be useful for medical researchers using the cynomolgus macaques in disease and immunological studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the origins of the MHC-B-MHC-C pair and the MHC class I chain-related molecule (MIC)A-MICB pair, we sequenced an MHC class I genomic region of humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus monkeys and analyzed the regions from an evolutionary stand-point, focusing first on LINE sequences that are paralogous within each of the first two species and orthologous between them. Because all the long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) sequences were fragmented and nonfunctional, they were suitable for conducting phylogenetic study and, in particular, for estimating evolutionary time. Our study has revealed that MHC-B and MHC-C duplicated 22.3 million years (Myr) ago, and the ape MICA and MICB duplicated 14.1 Myr ago. We then estimated the divergence time of the rhesus monkey by using other orthologous LINE sequences in the class I regions of the three primate species. The result indicates that rhesus monkeys, and possibly the Old World monkeys in general, diverged from humans 27-30 Myr ago. Interestingly, rhesus monkeys were found to have not the pair of MHC-B and MHC-C but many repeated genes similar to MHC-B. These results support our inference that MHC-B and MHC-C duplicated after the divergence between apes and Old World monkeys.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2005 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inbred miniature swine with defined novel SLA haplotypes will be useful in allo- and xeno-transplantation studies, which can be carried out representing variable combinations of SLA haplotypes.
In Clawn miniature swine, two haplotypes (c1 and c2) and one crossover haplotype (c3) have been assigned by nucleotide sequence determination of RT-PCR products of the three SLA classical class I genes and two SLA class II genes. To select SLA class I and II homozygotes in Clawn miniature swine individuals, we developed a rapid and simple SLA-class I- and II-DNA typing method by a combination of polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques.
Seven allele specific primer pairs were designed for amplification of the second exons of three SLA class I genes, SLA-1, SLA-2, and SLA-3, and one SLA class II gene, DRB1. Furthermore, based on PCR-RFLP patterns in the SLA-DQB1 gene, two allelic variants were recognized in the second exon in the Clawn miniature swine. Three haplotypes, c1, c2 and c3, were simply identified by the combination of PCR-SSP and PCR-RFLP methods in 22 samples from five families. A single allele at each of the class I and II genes was also observed in seven samples as SLA class I and II homozygotes with either the c1 or c2 haplotype.
The combination of PCR-SSP and PCR-RFLP methods facilitate the rapid identification of the three haplotypes and SLA class I and II homozygotes in individual Clawn miniature swine.
No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Xenotransplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genomic sequences within the alpha-block (approximately 288-310 kb) of the human and chimpanzee MHC class I region contains ten MHC class I genes and three MIC gene fragments grouped together within alternating duplicated genomic segments or duplicons. In this study, the chimpanzee and human genomic sequences were analyzed in order to determine whether the remnants of the ERVK9 and other retrotransposon sequences are useful genomic markers for reconstructing the evolutionary history of the duplicated MHC gene families within the alpha-block. A variety of genes, pseudogenes, autologous DNA transposons and retrotransposons such as Alu and ERVK9 were used to categorize the ten duplicons into four distinct structural groups. The phylogenetic relationship of the ten duplicons was examined by using the neighbour joining method to analyze transposon sequence topologies of selected Alu members, LTR16B and Charlie9. On the basis of these structural groups and the phylogeny of the duplicated transposon sequences, a duplication model was reconstructed involving four multipartite tandem duplication steps to explain the organization and evolution of the ten duplicons within the alpha-block of the chimpanzee and human. The phylogenetic analysis and inferred duplication history suggests that the Patr/HLA-F was the first MHC class I gene to have been fixed and not required as a precursor for further duplication within the alpha-block of the ancestral species.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Cytogenetic and Genome Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The alpha block of the human and chimpanzee major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genomic region contains 10 to 11 duplicated MHC class I genes, including the HLA/Patr-A, -G, and -F genes. In comparison, the alpha block of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta, Mamu) has an additional 20 MHC class I genes within this orthologous region. The present study describes the identification and analysis of the duplicated segmental genomic structures (duplicons) and genomic markers within the alpha block of the rhesus macaque and their use to reconstruct the duplication history of the genes within this region. A variety of MHC class I genes, pseudogenes, transposons, and retrotransposons, such as Alu and ERV16, were used to categorize the 28 duplicons into four distinct structural categories. The phylogenetic relationship of MHC class I genes, Alu, and LTR16B sequences within the duplicons was examined by use of the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) method. Two single-duplicon tandem duplications, two polyduplicon tandem duplications with an accompanying inversion product per duplication, eight polyduplicon tandem duplications steps, 12 deletions, and at least two recombinations were reconstructed to explain the highly complex organization and evolution of the 28 duplicons (nine inversions) within the Mamu alpha block. On the basis of the phylogenetic evidence and the reconstructed tandem duplication history of the 28 duplicons, the Mamu/Patr/HLA-F ortholog was the first MHC class I gene to have been fixed without further duplication within the alpha block of primates. Assuming that the rhesus macaque and the chimpanzee/human lineages had started with the same number of MHC class I duplicons at the time of their divergence approximately 24 to 31 MYA, then the number of genes within the alpha block have been duplicated at an approximately three times greater rate in the rhesus macaque than in either the human or chimpanzee.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · Molecular Biology and Evolution
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to identify and characterize genetic polymorphism of the swine major histocompatibility complex ( Mhc: SLA) class I genes, RT-PCR products of the second and third exons of the three SLA classical class I genes, SLA-1, SLA-2 and SLA-3 were subjected to nucleotide determination. These analyses allowed the identification of four, eight and seven alleles at the SLA-1, SLA-2 and SLA-3 loci, respectively, from three different breeds of miniature swine and one mixed breed. Among them, 12 alleles were novel. Construction of a phylogenetic tree using the nucleotide sequences of those 19 alleles indicated that the SLA-1 and -2 genes are more closely related to each other than to SLA-3. Selective forces operating at single amino acid sites of the SLA class I molecules were analyzed by the Adaptsite Package program. Ten positive selection sites were found at the putative antigen recognition sites (ARSs). Among the 14 positively selected sites observed in the human MHC ( HLA) classical class I molecules, eight corresponding positions in the SLA class I molecules were inferred as positively selected. On the other hand, four amino acids at the putative ARSs were identified as negatively selected in the SLA class I molecules. These results suggest that selective forces operating in the SLA class I molecules are almost similar to those of the HLA class I molecules, although several functional sites for antigen and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition by the SLA class I molecules may be different from those of the HLA class I molecules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite their high degree of genomic similarity, reminiscent of their relatively recent separation from each other ( approximately 6 million years ago), the molecular basis of traits unique to humans vs. their closest relative, the chimpanzee, is largely unknown. This report describes a large-scale single-contig comparison between human and chimpanzee genomes via the sequence analysis of almost one-half of the immunologically critical MHC. This 1,750,601-bp stretch of DNA, which encompasses the entire class I along with the telomeric part of the MHC class III regions, corresponds to an orthologous 1,870,955 bp of the human HLA region. Sequence analysis confirms the existence of a high degree of sequence similarity between the two species. However, and importantly, this 98.6% sequence identity drops to only 86.7% taking into account the multiple insertions/deletions (indels) dispersed throughout the region. This is functionally exemplified by a large deletion of 95 kb between the virtual locations of human MICA and MICB genes, which results in a single hybrid chimpanzee MIC gene, in a segment of the MHC genetically linked to species-specific handling of several viral infections (HIV/SIV, hepatitis B and C) as well as susceptibility to various autoimmune diseases. Finally, if generalized, these data suggest that evolution may have used the mechanistically more drastic indels instead of the more subtle single-nucleotide substitutions for shaping the recently emerged primate species.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2003 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genomic region is composed of a group of linked genes involved functionally with the adaptive and innate immune systems. The class I and class II genes are intrinsic features of the MHC and have been found in all the jawed vertebrates studied so far. The MHC genomic regions of the human and the chicken (B locus) have been fully sequenced and mapped, and the mouse MHC sequence is almost finished. Information on the MHC genomic structures (size, complexity, genic and intergenic composition and organization, gene order and number) of other vertebrates is largely limited or nonexistent. Therefore, we are mapping, sequencing and analyzing the MHC genomic regions of different human haplotypes and at least eight nonhuman species. Here, we review our progress with these sequences and compare the human MHC structure with that of the nonhuman primates (chimpanzee and rhesus macaque), other mammals (pigs, mice and rats) and nonmammalian vertebrates such as birds (chicken and quail), bony fish (medaka, pufferfish and zebrafish) and cartilaginous fish (nurse shark). This comparison reveals a complex MHC structure for mammals and a relatively simpler design for nonmammalian animals with a hypothetical prototypic structure for the shark. In the mammalian MHC, there are two to five different class I duplication blocks embedded within a framework of conserved nonclass I and/or nonclass II genes. With a few exceptions, the class I framework genes are absent from the MHC of birds, bony fish and sharks. Comparative genomics of the MHC reveal a highly plastic region with major structural differences between the mammalian and nonmammalian vertebrates. Additional genomic data are needed on animals of the reptilia, crocodilia and marsupial classes to find the origins of the class I framework genes and examples of structures that may be intermediate between the simple and complex MHC organizations of birds and mammals, respectively.
No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Immunological Reviews