[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite advancement in stent-graft technology, access-related problems continue to occur during endovascular repair of aortic aneurysms. Various techniques have been adopted to overcome difficult access situations, however. To survey these developments in arterial access, we performed a systematic literature review from 1994 through 2005 to identify relevant articles pertaining to endovascular access techniques and complications. Excessive iliac tortuosity, circumferential vessel wall calcification, significant occlusive disease, and small caliber vessels account for the majority of access problems, most of which are readily apparent with adequate baseline imaging. Even with careful preoperative assessment, however, some access problems may not be foreseen; nonetheless, the majority can be overcome using today's array of ancillary procedures, such as an iliac conduit, a brachiofemoral wire, or arterial reconstruction. Alternatively, other approach routes, such as the common carotid artery or direct aortic access, may be used to facilitate endovascular aneurysm repair.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · Journal of Endovascular Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Being able to communicate effectively with patients is essential not only from a medicolegal standpoint but more importantly from clinical governance perspectives. Issues such as informed consent and patient choice within the NHS are currently being highlighted; for these to be available to patients, their language requirements are paramount.
An audit was performed by the Linkworkers office at the Central Manchester & Manchester Children's Hospital NHS (CMMC) Trust on the total number of attendances and refusals per language in the period 1998-2003.
In the CMMC Trust, Urdu/Punjabi, Bengali, Cantonese, Somali, Arabic and French represent the majority of the workload, comprising almost 80% of cases in 2003. In the same year, an increase in demand for languages of Eastern European countries became evident. Finding interpreters for these languages even via agencies can be extremely difficult.
If the current trend continues, requirement for these services will increase exponentially. For this demand to be met adequately these issues must be kept at the forefront of NHS planning.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2006 · Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Facial blushing and hyperhidrosis, particularly in the facial, axillary or palmar distribution, are socially, professionally, and psychologically debilitating conditions. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy can be carried out through multiple ports or by using a single port and a modified thoracoscope with integrated electrocautery. We reviewed our own experience to compare outcomes between these methods.
One hundred and nine consecutive endoscopic thoracic sympathectomies performed on 96 patients (M:F, 30:66) were examined with respect to operative method, symptom control, and patient satisfaction. Complete follow-up was available on 144 treated sides in 77 patients (80.2%), 38 treated with two ports, 39 performed by a one-port procedure. Mean age was 32.6 years (range 18-63) with a median follow-up of 25 months (range 5-85). Pooled data showed that the mean duration hospital stay was 1.6 nights with no deaths, conversions, or neurological injuries.
The one-port group showed superior outcomes in terms of hospital stay, rate of postoperative pneumothorax, and the need for chest drain insertion; however, there was no correlation between number of ports and patient satisfaction. The mean overall satisfaction rating out of 5 was 3.3 with 76.6% of patients rating the outcome as 3 or more. 90.9% had an initial improvement in symptoms, although 21 patients (27.3%) described a late return of symptoms.
Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy can be safely and effectively carried out using a single port with similar results to the traditional two-port procedure. The one-port procedure may allow for a shorter duration of stay and lower complication rate.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2006 · European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterise the histological and cytokinetic characteristics of purely ischaemic ulcers and the processes that underpin healing following successful revascularisation.
Prospective observational study.
Biopsies were taken immediately pre- and 6 weeks following successful revascularisation of solely ischaemic ulceration. They were evaluated for morphological differences using H&E staining for the platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), TGFbeta receptorIII (TGFbetaRIII), transforming growth factor beta 1 and 3 (TGFbeta1 and TGFbeta3) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) expression using immunohistochemistry. Localisation and quantification of these growth factors and receptors was assessed systematically by three independent investigators who were blinded to the timing of biopsy.
Pre-operatively, small vessel vasculitis, necrosis and infection with a profuse neutrophil and macrophage infiltrate was observed in all samples. Post-operative biopsies revealed a proliferation of new capillaries in and around the ulcer edge and base. vWF staining confirmed an endothelial layer within these new vessels. Following successful revascularisation there was less infection and inflammation with minimal vasculitis. These newly formed capillaries had increased staining for TGFbeta3, PDGFR and TGFbetaRIII with staining for PDGFR also localised to dermal fibroblasts which were larger and more numerous. Accelerated epithelial cell proliferation was observed with detachment from the underlying dermis.
Healing of purely ischaemic ulcers is characterised by vasculogenesis associated with increased presence of the proangiogenic cytokines PDGF and TGFbeta3. These findings show promise for the use of growth factor manipulation to aid healing in ischaemic ulcers.
Full-text · Article · May 2006 · European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a 52-year-old male who developed late stent graft infection resulting in infective aneurysm formation with systemic septic embolization and aortoduodenal fistulation 9 months following endoluminal repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Although endoluminal stent graft infection and erosion into surrounding viscera is rare, we highlight the need for awareness of this potentially catastrophic complication.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2006 · Annals of Vascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family of cytokines exerts pleiotropic actions on vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype, proliferation, and extracellular matrix synthesis. This in vivo study assessed the use of TGF-beta3 in attenuating the development of postanastomotic smooth muscle cell proliferation.
Under general anesthesia, 10 adult goats underwent transection and reanastomosis of both common carotid arteries. After reanastomosis, one artery was infiltrated with 50 ng of TGF-beta3 in 100 microL of pH buffer around the anastomosis, and the other side was infiltrated with buffer only. After surgery, each animal received 150 mg of aspirin daily. The arteries were explanted after 3 months for histologic examination.
Vessel wall thickness surrounding the anastomosis was reduced by 30% after TGF-beta3 treatment compared with placebo (P = .003), with a 20% (P = .002) reduction in cellular content. Although total collagen content was not significantly different between TGF-beta3 and placebo, collagen type VIII content was reduced around the TGF-beta3 anastomoses (P = .011). A reduction in the total elastin content (P = .003) and number of elastic fiber lamellae (P = .042) was found surrounding TGF-beta3-treated anastomoses, but not placebo-treated anastomosis. A 29% increase in vasa vasorum (P = .044) was present around TGF-beta3-treated anastomoses. No differences in inflammatory cell infiltration were seen between sides.
Direct subadventitial infiltration of TGF-beta3 immediately after creation of an arterial anastomosis attenuates cell proliferation, with a reduction in elastin and collagen type VIII content and vessel wall thickness.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Vascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study characterized the initial modes of colonic mucosal injury during aneurysm surgery and correlated these with proinflammatory cytokine release into the colonic and systemic circulations.
Twenty-four patients undergoing conventional open aortic aneurysm repair and ten who had endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) were recruited. Mucosal biopsies were taken from the sigmoid colon immediately before and after surgery, for histological examination. Inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) and peripheral blood from patients who had conventional surgery was assayed for interleukin (IL) 1 beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha. Only peripheral blood from patients who had EVAR was assayed.
Conventional aneurysm repair resulted in a threefold increase in columnar epithelial apoptosis. There was a 26-fold increase in IL-6 in IMV blood within 5 min of reperfusion, with an equivalent rise in peripheral blood after 30 min. A 20-fold rise in peripheral blood TNF-alpha was observed after surgery. Splanchnic IL-6 correlated positively with cross-clamp time and increased apoptosis. No histological changes were seen after EVAR. There were no intraoperative cytokine changes during EVAR, although a postoperative increase in IL-6 and TNF-alpha was observed.
The lack of columnar epithelial apoptosis following EVAR reflects the relatively minor ischaemic injury incurred during this procedure.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2005 · British Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In humans, the greater omentum is a fatty peritoneal fold that extends from the greater curvature of the stomach to cover most abdominal organs. It performs many functions, which include acting as a reservoir of resident peritoneal inflammatory cells, a storage site for lipid, and a regulator of fluid exchange in and out of the peritoneal cavity. Most importantly, the omentum readily adheres to areas of inflammation and peritoneal damage, often leading to adhesion formation. Despite its clinical importance, the omentum remains an understudied organ, and discrepancies exist as to its exact morphology. This study uses a combination of phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to elucidate the structure of the greater omentum of both human and mouse and determine whether it possesses a typical surface mesothelial cell lining similar to other serosa. Results indicated that both human and murine omenta were of similar structure and composed of two distinct types of tissue, one adipose-rich and the other translucent and membranous. The adipose-rich regions were well-vascularised and covered by a continuous mesothelial cell layer except at the sites of milky spots. In contrast, translucent areas were poorly vascularised and contained numerous fenestrations of varying size. The possible function and developmental origin of these gaps is unclear; however, their role in promoting omental adhesion formation and in the successful use of omental graft material is discussed.
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Anatomy and Embryology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) family of cytokines exert pleiotropic effects upon a wide variety of cell types. TGFbeta1 has been demonstrated to be of fundamental importance in the development, physiology and pathology of the vascular system. As the role of TGFbeta1 in these processes becomes clearer, influencing its activity for therapeutic benefit is now beginning to be investigated. This review presents an overview of the role of TGFbeta1 in the vasculature. The cellular and extracellular biology of the TGFbeta family is first addressed, followed by an overview of the function of TGFbeta1 during vascular development, atherogenesis, hypertension, and vessel injury.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Cardiovascular Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Controversy exists regarding the optimal management of patients with coexisting coronary and extracranial carotid artery disease. This study investigates the incidence of death, cerebrovascular events and myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with asymptomatic significant carotid artery disease undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
Fifty patients with asymptomatic carotid stenoses > or =70% associated with cervical bruits undergoing CABG without prophylactic carotid endarterectomy (CEA) were followed up over a median period of 68 months following surgery cerebrovascular events, MI and mortality were recorded. All patients received optimal secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease unless contraindicated.
No cerebrovascular events occurred within 30 days of surgery. One patient suffered an ipsilateral transient ischaemic attack (TIA) 14 months after CABG. Two patients died within 30 days; one from an MI, the other from pancreatitis. Three deaths occurred after 30 days; one from MI, one from primary lung cancer and one following rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. No non-fatal MIs occurred.
In this patient group the overall risk of death, cerebrovascular events and MI was 4% during the first 30 days postoperatively and 8% thereafter. This compares favourably with published series for staged or combined CEA-CABG procedures. For asymptomatic significant carotid disease, prophylactic CEA prior to CABG does not appear to confer any advantage over CABG alone.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of staged open and endoluminal repair of complex thoracoabdominal aneurysms. We report the management of two patients with a staged, open abdominal and endoluminal thoracic repair of Crawford extent II aneurysms, where iliofemoral access was impossible and thoracic repair effected by endograft deployment via a common carotid artery. From this experience we conclude that staged open and endovascular repair for both ruptured and elective Crawford extent II thoracoabdominal aneurysms can be performed using the common carotid artery, when anatomy is favorable.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Annals of Vascular Surgery