[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: In sub-Saharan Africa HIV infection remains largely epidemic, whereas HBV infection is highly endemic (>8%). In Cameroon, HIV prevalence is 4.3%. Concerning HBV and chlamydia infections, their prevalence are both ≥10%. Young adults, including university students, are the population groups mostly affected. Epidemiological data on these infections, among university students could be helpful to implement specific prevention strategies.
Methods: A descriptive study was performed in May 2013 among 624 students from the University of Dschang, Cameroon. Participants were screened for HIV, HBV and Chlamydia infections. Data was collected by a standard questionnaire and analyzed by Epi Info.
Results: Average age of participants was 23.3 years (σ = 3.2) with female predominance (58.7%). Prevalence of HIV, HBV and Chlamydia infection was 1.1% (7/624), 2.8% (5/176) and 2.0% (2/100) respectively. 83.2% of participants were sexually active. Concerning sexual risk behaviors, participants reported having multi partners (14.8%), using condom occasionally (58.6%) or never (5.0%). 100%, 62.6% and 52.2% reported to be aware on HIV, HBV and Chlamydia infections respectively. In addition, only 5.5% and 21.3% of the participants were aware of their HBV and Chlamydia status respectively, versus 64.4% for HIV. The excessive cost of HBV and Chlamydia tests has been identified as the major barrier to testing (87.6%).
Conclusion: Among college Cameroonian students the prevalence of HIV, HBV and Chlamydia infections seems to be relatively low if compared to general population. However, having multiple sexual partners in addition to non-systematic use of condoms during sexual intercourse represents risk behaviors among students. Awareness campaigns and screening facilitation on HBV and chlamydia infections need to be strengthened.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
HLA polymorphisms within the peptide binding pocket have been associated with rapid and slow-
progression to AIDS, suggesting that the capability to present efficiently HIV-1 epitopes is crucial for the infection
control. To minimize the effects of genetic background due to population coming from different geographic area and
viral strain variability in the cohort, an analysis of all the polymorphisms associated with the HLA-A, -B and -DR alleles
has been performed in a cohort of children with a monophyletic HIV-1 infection (CRF02_AG) during an outbreak in
High-resolution HLA-typing has been performed in 58 children infected with a monophyletic strain of
HIV-1: 26 Long-Term Non-Progressors (LTNP), 9 Slow-Progressors (SP) and 23 Fast-Progressors (FP). HLA amino
acid polymorphism frequency has been compared in the in FP respect to LTNP.
HLA-B resulted the most interesting locus of the study; 10 positions located in B- and F-pocket for peptide-
binding have been found significant after Bonferroni’s correction: 11S (LTNP=7.69% FP=34.78% OR=0.156 P<0.05),
74D (LTNP=15.38%, FP=52.17%, OR=0.167; p<0.015) and 94T (LTNP=15.38%, FP=52.17%, OR=0.045; p<0.001),
resulted associated with AIDS progression; 66N (LTNP=42.31% FP=8.7% OR=7.7; p<0.02), 80I (LTNP=80.77%,
FP=34.78%, OR=7.86; p<0.036), 81A (LTNP=84.61%, FP=47.83%, OR=6; p<0.015), 82L (LTNP=88.46%,
FP=47.83%, OR=7.86; p<0.006) and 83R (LTNP=88.46%, FP=47.83%, OR=7.86; p<0.006), has been associated with
non-progression. Further, carrying Bw4-epitope resulted associated with LTNP (phenotype-frequency: LTNP=88.46%,
FP=47.83%, OR=8.36; p<0.006), with homozygosis for Bw4 (LTNP=30.8%, FP=8.7%, p<0.05) associated with delayed
progression and homozygosis for Bw6 (LTNP=11.5%, FP=52.1%, p<0.05) associated with fast progression to AIDS.
The progression to AIDS might be in part determined by the binding capability of B-pocket and
F-pocket of HLA-B and in part by the interaction of NK’s inhibitory receptor with HLA-B Bw4-epitope which regulate
innate immune response and might have important implications for a better disease control
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As Cameroon scales up its national HIV/AIDS control program, evaluating the performance of commercially available tests for accurate and cost effective diagnostics becomes essential. A cross-sectional study assessed the performance of an HIV oral rapid test. A total of 1520 participants consented to participate in the study. After counselling, they were tested for HIV using the national algorithm followed by OraQuick. Results of the national algorithm were compared to those of OraQuick, for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values. 62% of participants were male, and 1% was reported HIV-positive following the national algorithm. The OraQuick test had 93% sensitivity, 99% specificity,99.93% NPV and 90% PPV (95% CI, Kappa 0.965). Though more expensive (2-6x) compared to the national algorithm tests, oral mucosal transudate-based test demonstrated good performance. Therefore, it could be implemented in resourceconstrained settings if subsidized and could increase participation since less invasive with no blood accident exposure.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · African Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most commercial HIV-1 genotyping assays are hampered by high cost in resource-limited settings. Moreover, their performance
might be influenced over time by HIV genetic heterogeneity and evolution. An in-house genotyping protocol was developed, and
its sequencing performance and reproducibility were compared to that of ViroSeq™. One hundred ninety plasma samples from HIV-1-infected
subjects in Cameroon, a resource-limited setting with a high HIV genetic variability, were processed for pol gene sequencing with an in-house protocol, ViroSeq™, or both. Only non-B subtypes were found. The in-house sequencing performance
was 98.7% against 92.1% with ViroSeq™. Among 36 sequence pairs obtained using both assays, the overall rate of discordant
amino acid positions was negligible (0.24%). With its high sensitivity and reproducibility, as well as its affordable cost
(about half of ViroSeq™: 92 € vs. 217 €), this in-house assay is a suitable alternative for HIV-1 genotyping in resource-limited
and/or in high-genetic-diversity settings.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Archives of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditional medicine refers to health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well-being. In the last decade traditional medicine has become very popular in Cameroon, partly due to the long unsustainable economic situation in the country. The high cost of drugs and increase in drug resistance to common diseases like malaria, bacteria infections and other sexually transmitted diseases has caused the therapeutic approach to alternative traditional medicine as an option for concerted search for new chemical entities (NCE). The World Health Organisation (WHO) in collaboration with the Cameroon Government has put in place a strategic platform for the practice and development of TM in Cameroon. This platform aims at harmonizing the traditional medicine practice in the country, create a synergy between TM and modern medicine and to institutionalize a more harmonized integrated TM practices by the year 2012 in Cameroon. An overview of the practice of TM past, present and future perspectives that underpins the role in sustainable poverty alleviation has been discussed. This study gives an insight into the strategic plan and road map set up by the Government of Cameroon for the organisational framework and research platform for the practice and development of TM, and the global partnership involving the management of TM in the country.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes have been shown to respond to a variety of non-peptide antigens including alkylamines and phosphoantigens. Recently, aminobisphosphonates have also been shown to stimulate this subset of γδ+ T cells. In this study we analyzed the proliferative responses of freshly isolated γδ T lymphocytes obtained from human cord blood when challenged with pyrophosphomonoesters or aminobisphosphonates. Nitrogen-containing aminobisphopsphonates, in contrast to phoshoantigens, readily stimulated expansion of Vδ2Vγ9 cells in human cord blood. Expanded cells displayed an activated mature phenotype, and were capable of producing TNFalpha and IFNgamma but not perforin following secondary stimulation, consistent with the development of a regulatory, as opposed to cytotoxic, phenotype. This approach may provide a useful strategy for a new approach to the treatment of neonatal pathologies.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cytotoxic and anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv activities of hydro-alcoholic extract of Lannea acida A. Rich (Anacardiaceae) were assessed. The cytoxicity evaluation was carried out on THP1 monocytoid cell line (after 24 h at 1; 5 and 10 μg mL<SUP>-1</SUP>) and showed only a slight modification of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. The rate of monocytes in different stages of mitosis had been amended in absence and presence of extract as follows: Go/ G1 58.83 - 59.83%; synthesis 21.95 - 18.64%; mitosis 16.67 - 15.77%; necrosis 2.65 - 5.64 %. The percentage of inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proliferation was respectively 77.6 and 36.8% at 1.2 and 0.6 mg mL<SUP>-1</SUP> of extract. This is an interesting experimental study on antimicrobial and immune-stimulating properties of Lannea acida ethanol-water (70%v/v) extract which may contain potential antibacterial and immune-stimulating agents for clinical use.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two sample panels: 1) 20 pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients and 10 healthy subjects from a country with a low incidence of TB (Italy); and 2) 47 PTB patients and 26 healthy subjects from a country with a high incidence of TB (Morocco).
To identify a combination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptides useful for the serodiagnosis of active PTB.
Fifty-seven B-cell epitope peptides of M. tuberculosis were evaluated by immunoenzymatic assay and the data were analysed using logistic regression analysis and the random forest method.
The best discriminating peptide between PTB patients and healthy subjects from the sample of the low TB incidence country was the 23 amino acid peptide of the Rv3878 protein. The sensitivity and specificity were respectively 65% and 100%. The same peptide had a sensitivity and specificity of respectively 47% and 100% for the sample from the high TB incidence country. The best combination of peptides was a pool of nine peptides which had a sensitivity of 70.2% and a specificity of 100% in the high TB incidence country.
The 9-peptide pool can be useful in identifying patients with active PTB.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease