H J Simonsz

Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands

Are you H J Simonsz?

Claim your profile

Publications (115)171.88 Total impact

  • Sjoukje E Loudon · Angela M Tjiam · Huibert J Simonsz

    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Vision research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine the diversity in paediatric vision and hearing screening programmes in Europe. Themes for comparison of screening programmes derived from literature were used to compile three questionnaires on vision, hearing, and public health screening. Tests used, professions involved, age, and frequency of testing seem to influence sensitivity, specificity, and costs most. Questionnaires were sent to ophthalmologists, orthoptists, otolaryngologists, and audiologists involved in paediatric screening in all EU full-member, candidate, and associate states. Answers were cross-checked. Thirty-nine countries participated; 35 have a vision screening programme, 33 a nation-wide neonatal hearing screening programme. Visual acuity (VA) is measured in 35 countries, in 71% of these more than once. First measurement of VA varies from three to seven years of age, but is usually before age five. At age three and four, picture charts, including Lea Hyvarinen, are used most; in children over four, Tumbling-E and Snellen. As first hearing screening test, otoacoustic emission is used most in healthy neonates, and auditory brainstem response in premature newborns. The majority of hearing testing programmes are staged; children are referred after 1-4 abnormal tests. Vision screening is performed mostly by paediatricians, ophthalmologists, or nurses. Funding is mostly by health insurance or state. Coverage was reported as >95% in half of countries, but reporting was often not first-hand. Largest differences were found in VA charts used (12), professions involved in vision screening (10), number of hearing screening tests before referral (1-4), and funding sources (8). © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Medical Screening
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose To compare optotypes of the Amsterdam Picture Chart (APK) with those of Landolt-C (LC), Tumbling-E (TE), ETDRS and LEA symbols (LEA), to assess their reliability in measuring visual acuity (VA). Methods We recruited healthy controls with equal VA and amblyopes with ≥2 LogMAR lines interocular difference. New logarithmic charts were developed with LC, TE, ETDRS, LEA, and APK with identical size and spacing (four optotypes) between optotypes. Charts were randomly presented at 5 m under DIN EN ISO 8596 and 8597 conditions. VA was measured with LC (LC-VA), TE, ETDRS, LEA, and APK, using six out of ten optotypes answered correctly as threshold. Results In 100 controls aged 17–31, LC-VA was −0.207 ± SD 0.089 LogMAR. Visual acuity measured with TE differed from LC-VA by 0.021 (positive value meaning less recognizable), with ETDRS 0.012, with Lea 0.054, and with APK 0.117. In 46 amblyopic eyes with LC-VA
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PurposeTo investigate omission of population-based eye screening at age 6–9 months in the Netherlands.Methods Prospective population-based consecutive birth cohort study was used. In two consecutive birth cohorts, children were eye screened at 1–2 and 3–4 months, but at general-health screening at 6–9 months, the second cohort was not eye screened, unless anything conspicuous was noted or in case of positive family history. Data were collected from screening records and anonymous questionnaires. Semi-structured daylong observations were made of physicians examining children aged 0–4 years, including children from the cohorts, by two orthoptic students.Results58 of 6059 children (0.96%), in the screened, and 48 of 5482 children (0.88%) in the unscreened group were referred to orthoptist or ophthalmologist, mostly for observed strabismus. Amblyopia, all combined with strabismus, was diagnosed in ten screened (0.17%) versus six unscreened children (0.11%). Most physicians found preverbal examinations and decisions to refer difficult. The observations by orthoptic students revealed that cover test, pupillary reflexes, pursuit movements and eye motility were frequently performed inadequately, contrary to the Hirschberg test, at this age.Conclusion The screened and unscreened group differed little regarding the number of children referred and found to have amblyopia. Referral was mostly based on observed strabismus.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Acta ophthalmologica
  • Source

    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Pediatrics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Provide insight in natural history, screening and treatment policy of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in The Netherlands. A multicentre, prospective, population-based study (NEDROP) included all preterm infants born in 2009 in The Netherlands fulfilling the inclusion criteria for ROP screening. Anonymised data from ophthalmologists, neonatologists and paediatricians were merged on identification number. Of 2033 reported infants, 1688 (83%) were screened for ROP. ROP stage was reported in 100%, zone in 94.4% and plus disease in 83%. ROP developed in 324 (19.2%), mild ROP (stage 1-2) in 294 (17.4%), severe ROP (stage 3 or more) in 30 (1.8%) and 17 (1%) were treated. The initial screening examination was not performed within the required 42 days in 641 (38%). Date for follow-up was recorded 1973 times and accomplished within 3 days from the planned date in 1957 (99.2%). The chance of not being screened increased from 12.9% without transfer to another hospital to 23.5, 18.5 and 25% after 1, 2, or 3 transfers, respectively. The incidence of severe ROP and infants treated was low. NEDROP emphasises that timing of initial examination and transfer to another hospital are issues of concern within the screening process.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To study the incidence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in the Netherlands. Prospective, approximating population-based study that included infants with gestational age (GA) <32 weeks and/or birth weight (BW) <1500 g born in 2009. Pediatricians and ophthalmologists of all hospitals involved in care for premature infants reported data that were matched with the national perinatal database for risk factor analysis. Of 1380 infants, median GA 29.8 weeks (IQR 28.1-31.1) and median BW 1260 g (IQR 1020-1500), ROP developed in 21.9%. Logistic regression identified GA and BW as risk factors for ROP (P < .001). After adjustment for GA and BW, additional risk factors were inhaled nitric oxide (iNO; OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.2, P = .03), stay at a neonatal intensive care unit >28 days (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.6, P = .03), and artificial ventilation >7 days (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.5, P = .02). Prenatal glucocorticoids (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.8, P < .001) and female sex (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.99, P = .04) showed a lesser incidence of ROP. iNO remained significant after correction for all significant factors (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.2, P = .03). In addition to established risk factors (GA, BW, stay at a neonatal intensive care unit >28 days, and artificial ventilation >7 days), treatment with iNO as risk factor for ROP is a novel finding.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · The Journal of pediatrics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To establish whether the current vision screening practice in the Netherlands is effective in preventing permanent visual loss and to estimate the sensitivity of the programme. In the Netherlands, all children are invited for preverbal (1, 3, 69 and 1424 months) and preschool (36, 45, and 6072 months) vision screening. Screening attendance is high, but the effectiveness in reducing amblyopia is unknown. In a 7-year cohort study, 4624 children born in the city of Rotterdam between 16 September 1996 and 15 May 1997 were followed through all routine vision screening examinations. At age seven, visual acuity (VA) of children still living in Rotterdam was assessed by study orthoptists. In case of VA > 0.1 logMAR in one or both eyes, two or more logMAR lines of interocular difference or eye disorders like strabismus, children underwent a more intensive eye examination. Attendance at the 9-month screening was 89, decreasing to about 75 at later examinations.Of preverbal tests, 2.5 were positive, and of preschool tests, 10. In total, 19 of children had a positive vision screening test at least once. Amblyopia prevalence was 3.4. Sensitivity of the vision screening programme was 73 and specificity 83. At age seven, 0.71.2 (confirmed vs final exam) of the children had a VA > 0.3 logMAR in the worse eye compared with 23.9 (in literature) reported prevalence in non-screening situations. Children who were less frequently screened had a higher chance of poor vision (>0.3 logMAR) at age seven. The Dutch child vision screening programme may reduce the risk of persistent amblyopia (VA > 0.3 logMAR) at age seven by more than half.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Medical Screening
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To develop a new national screening guideline for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Included were infants of the 2009 prospective ROP inventory in The Netherlands with gestational age (GA) <32 weeks and/or birth weight (BW) <1500 g. Five models were studied, based on GA and BW in combination with no, one or a set of five risk factors for ROP. Risk factors were determined by logistic regression. In MEDLINE and EMBASE, additional risk factors were searched. A precondition was that no infants with severe ROP would be missed. Receiver operating characteristic curves or classical measures were used to determine diagnostic accuracy. The model including all infants with severe ROP comprised screening of infants with GA <30 weeks and/or BW <1250 g and a selection of infants with GA 30-32 weeks and/or BW 1250-1500 g, with at least one of the following risk factors: artificial ventilation (AV), sepsis, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), postnatal glucocorticoids or cardiotonica. This model would not detect 4.8% (95% CI 2.5% to 8.0%) of infants with mild ROP and would reduce infants eligible for screening by 29%. In The Netherlands, screening may be safely reduced using a new guideline based on GA, BW, AV, sepsis, NEC, postnatal glucocorticoids and cardiotonica.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the Delft Assessment Instrument for Strabismus in Young children (DAISY) a device designed to measure angles of strabismus in young children fast and accurately. Daisy allows for unrestrained head movements by the mean of a triple camera vision system that simultaneously estimates the head rotation and the eye pose. The device combines two different methods to record bilateral eye position: corneal reflections (Purkinje images) and pupillary images. Detailed results are provided on three orthotropic subjects (age 25-27). Three different conditions were tested: (i) gaze ahead, (ii) gaze ahead with different head rotations and (iii) fixed head with different eye positions. Systematic errors occurred between subjects that need further study. The system reached sufficient accuracy to be applied for the measurement of angles of strabismus, almost independent from the head pose.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering
  • Jennifer A S L Tan · Huibert J Simonsz · Maarten J Koudstaal
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The consequences of orbital floor fractures are different in children than in adults. Children have more elastic bones and increased chance of a trapdoor fracture, a fracture in which muscle tissue may be trapped. A 12-year-old girl presented to the general practitioner after she had been hit in her left eye by a swing. The patient had a painful eye and double vision. She was sent home with the advice to wake her every hour during the night. The next morning she went back to the general practitioner because she had been vomiting through the night and this time she was sent to the hospital. She was diagnosed with an orbital floor fracture with an entrapment of the inferior rectus muscle and underwent immediate surgery. Unfortunately, the release of the muscle had been too late and resulted in an uncorrectable diplopia. Warning signs of entrapment of the inferior rectus muscle are a painful eye with a mobility disorder in combination with nausea and vomiting. Immediate surgical intervention offers the best outcome in terms of recovery of the eye motility.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We showed previously that an educational cartoon that explains without words why amblyopic children should wear their eye patch improves compliance, especially in children of immigrant parents who speak Dutch poorly. We now implemented this cartoon in clinics in low socioeconomic status (SES) areas with a large proportion of immigrants and clinics elsewhere in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Clinical, prospective, nonrandomized, preimplementation, and postimplementation study. PARTICIPANTS: Amblyopic children aged 3 to 6 years who started occlusion therapy. METHODS: Preimplementation, children received standard orthoptic care. Postimplementation, children starting occlusion therapy received the cartoon in addition. At implementation, treating orthoptists followed a course on compliance. In low SES areas, compliance was measured electronically during 1 week. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The clinical effects of the cartoon-electronically measured compliance, outpatient attendance rate, and speed of reduction in interocular-acuity difference (SRIAD)-averaged over 15 months of observation. RESULTS: In low SES areas, 114 children were included preimplementation versus 65 children postimplementation; elsewhere in the Netherlands, 335 versus 249 children were included. In low SES areas, mean electronically measured compliance was 52.0% preimplementation versus 62.3% postimplementation (P=0.146); 41.8% versus 21.6% (P=0.043) of children occluded less than 30% of prescribed occlusion time. Attendance rates in low SES areas were 60.3% preimplementation versus 76.0% postimplementation (P=0.141), and 82.7% versus 84.5%, respectively, elsewhere in the Netherlands. In low SES areas, the SRIAD was 0.215 log/year preimplementation versus 0.316 log/year postimplementation (P=0.025), whereas elsewhere in the Netherlands, these were 0.244 versus 0.292 log/year, respectively (P=0.005; the SRIAD's improvement was significantly better in low SES areas than elsewhere, P=0.0203). This advantage remained after adjustment for confounding factors. Overall, 25.1% versus 30.1% (P=0.038) had completed occlusion therapy after 15 months. CONCLUSIONS: After implementation of the cartoon, electronically measured compliance improved, attendance improved, acuity increased more rapidly, and treatment was shorter. This may be due, in part, to additional measures such as the course on compliance. However, that these advantages were especially pronounced in children in low SES areas with a large proportion of immigrants who spoke Dutch poorly supports its use in such areas. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Ophthalmology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: We previously demonstrated that compliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia was improved by the use of an educational programme, especially in children of parents of foreign origin and who spoke Dutch poorly. The programme consisted of: (i) a cartoon story for amblyopic children that explained without words why they should patch, (ii) a calendar with reward stickers, and (iii) an information leaflet for parents. In the current study, we assessed the individual effect of each component on compliance. Methods: We recruited 120 3- to 6-year-old children who lived in a low socio-economic status (SES) area in The Hague and were starting occlusion therapy for the first time. They were randomised to receive one of the components (three intervention groups), or a picture to colour (control group). The randomisation was blinded for treating orthoptist and researcher. Compliance was measured electronically using the Occlusion Dose Monitor (ODM). Primary outcome was percentage of compliance (actual/prescribed occlusion time). Secondary outcome was absolute occlusion hours per day. Parental fluency in Dutch was rated on a five-point scale. Results: Compliance could be measured electronically in 88 of the 120 children; in 32 others, it failed for various reasons. Parental fluency in Dutch was moderate or worse in 36.4 % (p = 0.327). Average compliance was 55 % standard deviation (SD) 40 (n = 18) in the control group, 89 % SD 25 in the group receiving the educational cartoon (n = 25, P = 0.002 compared with control group), 67 % SD 33 (n = 24, P = 0.301) in the reward-calendar group and 73 % SD 40 (n = 21, P = 0.119) in the parent-information-leaflet group. On average, children in the control group occluded 1:46 SD1:19 hours/day, 2:33 SD 1:18 hours/day in the group receiving the educational cartoon, 1:59 SD 1:13 hours/day in the reward-calendar group and 2:18 SD 1:13 hours/day in the parent-information-leaflet group. No child who received the cartoon story occluded less than 1 hour per day, against seven in the reward-calendar group, five in the parent-information-leaflet group and five in the control group. Conclusions: Although all three components of the programme improved compliance with occlusion therapy in children in low-SES areas, the educational cartoon had the strongest effect, as it explained without words to a 4- to 5-year-old child why it should wear the eye patch.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Occlusion therapy for amblyopia has been the mainstay of treatment for centuries, however, acceptance of the patch is often lacking. This study evaluated comfort of wear of the eye patch and assessed the mechanical properties in order to achieve a more individualized prescription. For 8 consecutive days, parents used each of the four main brands of patches for 2 consecutive days in a randomized fashion. After 2 days a 21-item questionnaire was completed to evaluate comfort of wear for each patch. Compliance was measured electronically using the Occlusion Dose Monitor (ODM). In addition, breathing capacity at 23°C and 33°C, resistance to water penetration, opacity, and strength of adhesion to the skin were measured. Twenty-four children participated. Overall, satisfaction was moderate: large differences in discomfort when removing the patch, skin reaction, and cosmetic appearance were found. In the material measurements large differences were found in opacity and strength of adhesion to the skin. In all brands breathing capability was minimal. Answers given by the parents matched the physical properties of the eye patch. There was no difference in electronically measured compliance between patches. We found large differences in comfort of wear and mechanical properties. Therefore, when prescribing a certain brand of patch, the wide variety needs to be taken into account. Further study into these properties seems warranted; especially breathing capability requires improvement since children often wear the patch for a longer period of time. This could contribute to increasing satisfaction and consequently may improve compliance.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Strabismus
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To quantify manual fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO(2)) adjustments performed by caregivers in extremely low birth weight (ELBW; ≤1000 g) infants, in relation to oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) and bedside care. In a single-centre study, FiO(2) , SpO(2) and alarm limits of ELBW infants were collected for 3 days continuously, while caregivers were filmed. A descriptive analysis, focused on manual FiO(2) adjustments, was performed. Twelve ELWB infants were included. Total recording time was 726 h. FiO(2) was increased 851 times and decreased 1309 times; median (range) step size was 5% (1% to 65%) and -3% (-1% to -65%), respectively. Wide variation of FiO(2) adjustments for equal levels of SpO(2) was observed in all included infants. One hundred and twenty-six of 136 FiO(2) adjustments with a step size ≥15% and 111 of 171 desaturations <70% were associated with medical or nursing procedures. When FiO(2) was >21%, alarm limits for SpO(2) were set according to protocol (88-94%) in 64% of the time. Within these periods, SpO(2) was >94% for 30% and <88% for 16% of the time. Manual FiO(2) adjustments varied widely in frequency and step size. Deep desaturations and large FiO(2) adjustments were associated with medical or nursing procedures. When large adjustments are really necessary, it will be challenging to implement them in an automatic adjustment device.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Acta Paediatrica
  • H J Simonsz

    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Strabismus
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of retinal disorders characterized by nonprogressive impairment of night vision, absence of the electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave, and variable degrees of involvement of other visual functions. We report here that mutations in GPR179, encoding an orphan G protein receptor, underlie a form of autosomal-recessive cCSNB. The Gpr179(nob5/nob5) mouse model was initially discovered by the absence of the ERG b-wave, a component that reflects depolarizing bipolar cell (DBC) function. We performed genetic mapping, followed by next-generation sequencing of the critical region and detected a large transposon-like DNA insertion in Gpr179. The involvement of GPR179 in DBC function was confirmed in zebrafish and humans. Functional knockdown of gpr179 in zebrafish led to a marked reduction in the amplitude of the ERG b-wave. Candidate gene analysis of GPR179 in DNA extracted from patients with cCSNB identified GPR179-inactivating mutations in two patients. We developed an antibody against mouse GPR179, which robustly labeled DBC dendritic terminals in wild-type mice. This labeling colocalized with the expression of GRM6 and was absent in Gpr179(nob5/nob5) mutant mice. Our results demonstrate that GPR179 plays a critical role in DBC signal transduction and expands our understanding of the mechanisms that mediate normal rod vision.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of population-based vision screening is hampered by unsuccessful referral after a positive screening test. We studied the nature and causes of unsuccessful referral in a 7-year birth cohort study of vision screening in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. All parents of children who had been unsuccessfully referred were asked whether they recalled the referral. Reasons for noncompliance, if any, were identified using semi-structured interviews. Screening records were checked for written evidence of the referral. The parents' fluency in Dutch and their socioeconomic status were also assessed. Of the 561 screen-positive children, 129 (23%) had not been referred successfully. For the current study, 97 parents were successfully contacted. Of these, 14 parents had been willingly noncompliant and 83 said they were unaware of the referral, with 47% having poor to moderate fluency in Dutch. In 53 cases, the screening charts contained no written evidence of any referral. Amblyopia was identified in 3 of the unsuccessful referrals. In this population-based screening program, 1 of 4 positively screened children was not successfully referred. Apart from parental noncompliance, the unsuccessful referrals can be explained by miscommunication, deficient documentation, and physician noncompliance with screening guidelines. An effective monitoring feedback system may improve the efficacy of child vision screening.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of AAPOS: the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
  • H.J. Simonsz · G.H. Kolling
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infantile esotropia (IE) is defined as an esotropia before the age of 6 months, with a large angle, latent nystagmus, dissociated vertical deviation, limitation of abduction, and reduced binocular vision, without neurological disorder. Prematurity, low birth weight, and low Apgar scores are significant risk factors for IE. US standard age of first surgery is 12-18 months, in Europe 2-3 years. The only study to date with prospectively assigned early- and late-surgery groups and evaluation according to intention-to-treat, was the European Early vs. Late Infantile Strabismus Surgery Study (ELISSS). In that study 13.5% of children operated around 20 months vs. 3.9% (P = 0.001) of those operated around 49 months had gross stereopsis (Titmus Housefly) at age 6. The reoperation rate was 28.7% in children operated early vs. 24.6% in those operated late. Unexpectedly, 8% in the early group vs. 20% in the late group had not been operated at age 6, although all had been eligible for surgery at baseline at 11 SD 3.7 months. In most of these children the angle of strabismus decreased spontaneously. In a meta-regression analysis of the ELISSS and 12 other studies we found that reoperation rates were 60-80% for children first operated around age 1 and 25% for children operated around age 4. Based on these findings, the endpoints to consider when contemplating best age for surgery in an individual child with IE should be: (1) degree of binocular vision restored or retained, (2) postoperative angle and long-term stability of the angle and (3) number of operations needed or chance of spontaneous regression. IE is characterized by lack of binocular connections in the visual cortex that cannot develop, e.g. because the eyes squint, or do not develop, e.g. after perinatal hypoxia. As the cause of IE, whether motor or sensory, is a determinant of surgical outcome, a subdivision of IE according to cause is needed. As similarities exist between IE and cerebral palsy we propose to adapt the working definition formulated by the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe and define IE as "a group of permanent, but not unchanging, disorders with strabismus and disability of fusional vergence and binocular vision, due to a nonprogressive interference, lesion, or maldevelopment of the immature brain, the orbit, the eyes, or its muscles, that can be differentiated according to location, extent, and timing of the period of development."
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · European journal of paediatric neurology: EJPN: official journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Compliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia in children is low when their parents have a low level of education, speak Dutch poorly, or originate from another country. We determined how sociocultural and psychological determinants affect compliance. Included were amblyopic children between the ages of 3 and 6, living in low socio-economic status (SES) areas. Compliance with occlusion therapy was measured electronically. Their parents completed an oral questionnaire, based on the "Social Position & Use of Social Services by Migrants and Natives" questionnaire that included demographics and questions on issues like education, employment, religion and social contacts. Parental fluency in Dutch was rated on a five-point scale. Regression analysis was used to describe the relationship between the level of compliance and sociocultural and psychological determinants. Data from 45 children and their parents were analyzed. Mean electronically measured compliance was 56 ± 44 percent. Children whose parents had close contact with their neighbors or who were highly dependent on their family demonstrated low levels of compliance. Children of parents who were members of a club and who had positive conceptualizations of Dutch society showed high levels of compliance. Poor compliance was also associated with low income, depression, and when patching interfered with the child's outdoor activity. Religion was not associated with compliance. Poor compliance with occlusion therapy seems correlated with indicators of social cohesion. High social cohesion at micro level, i.e., family, neighbors and friends, and low social cohesion on macro level, i.e., Dutch society, are associated with noncompliance. However, such parents tend to speak Dutch poorly, so it is difficult to determine its actual cause.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie

Publication Stats

1k Citations
171.88 Total Impact Points


  • 1997-2015
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      • • Department of Public Health (MGZ)
      • • Department of Urology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2003-2014
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1984-2001
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2000
    • Groene Hart Ziekenhuis
      Guda, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1991-1993
    • Kantonsspital St. Gallen
      San Gallo, Saint Gallen, Switzerland
  • 1989
    • University of Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1986-1988
    • Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
      Giessen, Hesse, Germany